PROF.MADYA DR. HAFIDZ HJ OMARPROF.MADYA DR. HAFIDZ HJ OMAR
An effort to understand one situation in its own
context. How individual take action, react, going
through life normally and show reaction towards to
meander of life. The Input is the end result of research
that give a deep understanding of the respondent real life
experiences. (Patton, 1985)
RESEARCHER AS AN
• Use opportunity fully.
• Have the opportunity to fix weaknesses and improve
• Be patient.
• Only the researcher knows the best method to be
• Sample is chosen according to the need.
• Guess and know when to listen and provoke.
• Understand one phenomena from the respondent’s
perspective and not from the researcher’s.
• Researcher as the instrument. (Human
Instrumentation vs. Inanimate Inventory)
• Involve fieldwork.
• Inductive research-Build concept, theory, model vs.
testing theory or answering research questions.
• Focus on process, meaning, comprehension.
• Flexible, ability to change according to time
depending on situation, research level and outcome.
• Long duration and always with be with the
RESEARCH AS AN
• Capable of avoiding biasness. Researchers are bond with
values, experiences, views, principles and own ego.
• Having the skill to communicate sincerely,good in building
rapport, w questioning and listening techniques must be
improved from time to time.
Research Process (Glaser
• Fully dependent on the researcher- skills, physical fitness,
maturity, motivation, interest and alert in recognizing
• Sometimes the researcher is faced with the phenomena
that is needed to be investigated and sometimes only need
to be listened.
• From time to time concept will be built, conformation will
emerge and wanting to deeply understand the burden until it
can be reality as a real phenomenon to be reported.
Research Tests a Theory
Researcher Test Hypotheses of Research
Questions Derived from the Theory
Researcher Operationalizes Concepts or
Variables Derived from the Theory
Researcher Use an Instrument to
Variables in the Theory
6.4 The Deductive mode of Research in a Quantitative Study
Researcher Develops a Theory or Compares
Pattern with Other Theories
Researcher From Patterns (Theories)
Researcher Forms Categories
Researcher Asks Questions
Researcher Gathers Information
6.5 The Inductive Mode of Research in a Qualitative Study
ETHICS IN RESEARCH
Relating to morals, treating of moral questions morally correct,
honorable…Set of principles of morals…Science of morals, moral
principles, rule of conduct, whole field of moral science (Oxford
In qualitative research, the researcher is the most important
instrument, they have to control their behavior (Cassel & Jacob,
ROLE OF THE
As an instrument, researcher should be
alert and responsible to sensitive issues.
Traits that are needed- honest, fair,
knowledgeable and experiences.
Relationship between researcher and respondent -
Follow research ethics guideline
THREE PARTIES THAT
SHOULD BE GIVEN
Information source – especially employer.
Community – researcher should be honest and
Causes of problem:
1) Different Principles
• Permission from respondent
• Do not used force
• If using questionnaire-write in front.
• Before interviews give explanation.
• Details should be kept secret- names,
• If personal identification have been
identified, it will give negative impacts in the
• Control Data should be kept from others.
• Identity and information should be
• Matters that can led to violence should be
FOR RESEARCH ETHICS
Ethics-prepare one research guide.
Alert with the institutional rules.
Sensitive with issues such as moral, values, religion
and community culture- have discussion with
experienced staff and elders in the community.
• Full explanation about the research.
• Risk and positive impact of the
• Volunteer participation.
• Rights to back out any time.
• Consent from : Employer, school and
• Parameters for the details can be
• Details that expose respondent should be
classified or change.
• To print classified information get
consent from respondent.
• Consent react as agreement or trust
between respondent and researcher.
• Risk to respondent should be avoid.
• Positive effect should be much greater than
• Effect to the community should be included.
• Report between researcher and sample should be
analyzed to what extend classified information
are being analyzed.
• Definition :
‘investigates a contemporary phenomenon within it’s real-life
context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and
context are not clearly evident”
The case as a phenomenon of some sort occurring in a bounded
context. They graphically present it as a circle with a heart in the
center. The heart is the focus of the study, while the circle
defines the edge of the case (Miles and Huberman, 1994)
• Insight into the ‘real life’ of the respondents
• Focus on discovery, insight and understanding
from the perspective of those being studied and
offer greatest potential in contributing
knowledge base on the area investigated
• Humans are best suited for the tasks since they
can use human sensibilities during interviews and
observations, sensitively to non verbal context
• Aims to capture individual difference or unique
variations from one program setting to another or
one program experience to another (Patton,1990)
• Using multiple method, major
strength and able to trace a chain of
• Case study is more concern with the
‘process’ rather than ‘outcomes’
• Stress that process relates to
‘monitoring’ the context, discovering
the treatment and providing
To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the group
To develop general theoretical statements about regularities
in social structure and process
Focus on a particular situation, events, program and
Asking questions, situations or puzzling occurrences arising
from everyday practice
The end product is rich, ‘thick’ descriptive of the
Reader understanding about the phenomenon
STEPS TO BE TAKEN
What should be done and not.
Look for differences.
Why need to change.
• Understand outcome from the method used
(fieldwork) not estimating.
• Definition through understanding.
• Much more concrete-understanding through real
• Close relationship between respondent and
• Description of research population.
• When expose with a lot of real problems – more
• Always make full evaluation.
• As an instrument – researcher weaknesses
• Expose to “biasness”
• Small amount of respondents always being
TYPES CASE STUDY
• MERRIAM (1998)
“a structure, the scaffolding, the frame of your study”
• Ways to develop
Disciplinary orientation-concept, vocabulary and theory (lens
which you view your world)
Lead to your curiosity, puzzles, question that will arise.
Through past research-relevant with area of interests.
The framework in turn generate ‘problem’ of the study,
specific research questions, data collection, analysis
techniques and how you would interpret your findings.
The technique and literature help to establish parameters
for the research study. It determines how the problem and
purpose are reshaped.
Traits to be researched.
First described by Glaser and Strauss in 1976
Later developed by Glaser in 1978 and expounded in detail by Strauss
The discovery and conceptualization of the processes under study were
derived, and they closely linked the data with the theory (Strauss and
“…inductively derived from the study of the phenomenon it represents.
That is, discovered, developed, and provisionally verified through
systematic data collection and analysis of data pertaining to that
phenomenon. Therefore, data collection, analysis, and theory should
stand in reciprocal relationship with each other. One does not begin
with theory, then prove it. Rather, one begins with an area of study
and what is relevant to that area is allowed to emerge” (Strauss and
• A general strategy for designing,
conducting, analyzing and theorizing.
• Actors viewpoints for understanding
interaction, process and social change
(Hummersley & Atkinson)
Ways for Grounded Theory To
Contribute For a Research
• Theory to reality
• Relationship between situation, meaning and
• Need for research area and understand what
• Different experience background and constantly
• Individual role in determining the path for their
• Need for change in complex life.
• Knowing the categories, collect similarity,
differences produced new categories.
• Compurgation between human group,
situation and time.
Process In Building Grounded
• Research Methodology
• Data gathering
• Data arrangement
• Analysis data
• Differences in past research
Connection with 4 Main Points :
Internal validity-establishing causal relationship
External validity-truth value/findings can be generalized
Reliability-procedures can be repeated
Interrelated Process To Build
• Step 1
Plan Design Research
Research Main Question
Choose a Case
STEP 2 : Data Gathering
• Used ‘multiple data sources’
• Qualitative and quantitative
Spardley (1980) : Complex meaning to organize their
behavior, understand themselves and others and make sense
out of the world in which they live. These system constitute
Studying culture must deal with three fundamental aspects
of human experience : what people do, what people know and
the things people who have learned to see, hear speak, think
and act in ways that are different.
Hammersley & Akinson (1995) : rather than studying people,
ethnography involves learning from people.
Society-social and cultural diversity results in cultural differences.
Able to capture the social reality before formulating appropriate
Research is free to ‘muddle around’ and address the problem that is
interesting and worthy to sustain attention.
Able to understand society as it is, rather then what they think it is,
might, should must be.
Main contribution – his commitment to understand and convey how it
is ‘to walk in someone else’s shoes’ and ‘tell it like it is’.
Credibility depends heavily on the ability of the researcher to collect
information from the insider’s perspective (emic) and also external
scientific perspective (etic).
Able to take the larger context into account.
Fieldwork-flexible in it’s planning, sensitive to contextual clues and
comfortable to change.
Significant Aspect (Berg
Distinction made between micro and macro ethnography.
Macro ethnography : describe the entire way of life of s group.
Micro ethnography : focuses on a particular individual in a larger
The contribution of both provide a complete picture of a case
Collecting data : starts with broad descriptive observations,
overview of social situation and what goes on there.
Making records : field notes, photograph.
Analyzing : do not wait for large amount of data.
Go to the field to discover question.
• Initial phase : broadly defined research interests.
• 2’nd phase : Reformulation, idea starts to come into
• 3 rd phase : progressive focusing
Main Elements to focus on :
• The setting
• The purpose
• The social behavior
• Frequency and Duration
Strategies In Field
Complete participation : secret observation and full
Complete observer : remove all interaction, one way
Observer as participants : identity known but remain as
Participant as observer : fieldworker closely involved and
identified as ‘actor’
Can the study be repeated
Can two or more people have similar interpretations by using the
categories and procedures used
How to achieve it ?
Outline the reasons and major question to address
Identify the bias statements and assumptions
Systematic data gathering procedures and record the details location
Question: Can it really measure?
Does it really represent other individuals?
Ways To Achieve It:
Long duration gives a real picture.
Interview gives a lot of information.
Observation strengthens data.
Self-monitoring is very important.
Writing a Report
Focus and purpose of the study
Research and model or design
Context and setting
Experience and role
Data collection strategies
Techniques used to analyze data
Findings, interpretation and applications
Step 3: Protocol
Used multiple data collection method
Document, Reports, Paper articles
Steps 4 : Data Analysis
Collect and analyze in the nearest time.
Maintain flexibility-open minded.
Step 5 : Data Ordering
Arranging events chronologically
Allows examination of processes
Step 6 : Phases of Data
CODING : DEFINITION… represents the operations by
which data are broken down, conception, ideas and put back
together in new ways. It is the central process by which
theories are built from data.
Open Coding : Labeling and categorizing of phenomena into
categories or themes (comparative method)
Axial Coding : Connections-develops the sub-categories
Selective Coding- Integration to develop initial theoretical
Writing memos : to keep tracks
3 types of memo
Code Memos : open coding – focus on
Theoretical Memo : axial and selective
coding-focus on paradigm features and
indications of process
Operational Memos : direction evolving
Step 7: Theoretical
Definition : ‘The process of data collection for generating
theory whereby the analyst jointly collects, codes and
analyses his data and decides what data to collect next
and where to find them, in order to develop his theory as
‘Accordingly, unlike the sampling done in quantitative
investigations, theoretical sampling cannot be planned
before embarking on a ground theory study. The specific
sampling decisions evolve during the research process
itself’ (Glaser and Strauss, 1967)
Choose a case and decide on the amount of sample
throughout the research in the process to build research
Literal and theoretical replication across cases
Step 8 : Reading Closure
Theoretical saturation when possible
Definition : “…no additional data are being found whereby
the (researcher) can develop properties of the categories.
As he sees similar instances over an over again, the
researcher becomes empirically confident that a category
is saturated…when one category is saturated, nothing
remains but to go to new groups for data on other
categories, and attempts to saturate these categories
also” (Strauss and Colbin, 1990)
Step 9 : Compare The
Definition (Elliot, 1991)
“Is about improving practice rather than producing knowledge”
“The study of a social situation with a view to improve the quality of action
(Kurt Lewin Model : Spiral of Cycles)
“The basic cycle of activities is identifying a general idea, reconnaissance,
general planning, developing the first action step, implementing the first action
step, evaluation, revising the general plan.
From this basic cycle the researcher then spiral into developing the second
action step, implementation, evaluation, revising general plan, developing the
third action step, implementation, evaluation and so on.
“Action researches are intent on describing, implementing
and explaining events (enquiry) while they seek to change
their (action) for the better (purpose)
Bring about improvement in practice
Improvement always associated with advancement of
Action is the key feature and is worthwhile
How can I improve the quality of my practice here?
What is happening here?
Action as an integral part of the research process.
Focused by the researcher professional value rather than
Necessarily insider research, in the sense of practitioners
researching their own professional actions.
A commitment to educational improvement
An intervention in personal practice to bring
A special kind of research question
How can I improve
my personal practice?
my understanding of this?
the wiser situation?
Putting the ‘I’ at the center of the research
How do ‘I’ fit into the research?
I am the subject and object of the research
I take the responsibility of my own actions.
How do ‘I’ fit into the action…by seeing my own practice as the
central focus of my research through critical reflection of self
study. By encouraging others to participate in a negotiated
definition of shared practices…respect humanity, open to
argument, willing to accept others, owing own mistake, standing
on ground when principles are at stake…
What kind of action ?
INFORMED ACTION… reduced personal biasness
COMMITED ACTION… stems from strong personality
INTENTION ACTION… implementing plans, monitoring the
action and evaluating it are necessary aspects of the process
Systematic monitoring to generate valid data
Important outcomes are the changes in the
researchers understanding of their professional
that lead to new insights
New data will lead to changes and act as
A concrete plan is needed
Providing authentic (asli) descriptions of
Factual accounts…based on transcripts of
conversations, interviews and meetings.
Subjective accounts…description from
observations, personal reflections or
Fictionalized (khayal) accounts… data
that preserve anonymity of participants.
Explaining the action ….
…identifying possible meanings
…linking with other work
…making the description ‘critical’
In order to get an unbiased picture
of your action research and its
outcomes you need to involved other
picture to cheek out your
interpretations (Lomax, 1991)
Representing the action research
…using dialogue and conversation
…using narrative and story
…using action research cycles and
…using experiential techniques
Validating action research claims…
…making claims : How can I improve
…my personal practice?
…my understanding of
…the wider situation?
…critically examining the claims against
…involving others in making judgments
Some common pitfalls shown up at validation :
Failure to separate description and explanation
Failure to distinguish the action
Confuse between data and evidence
Presentation of raw data rather than summarized data
Failure to record the meeting
Failure to treat the validation event
Making Public..best way of getting it
A group of people interact and have a common interest.
Limit only to certain issues.
• Get the general background .
• Build hypothesis.
• Create new ideas.
• Diagnose problems.
• Learn/ Know how respondent
• Debate on past outcome.
• Produce fast result.
• Direct communication with respondent.
• Open to reactions.
• Take action that promote relationship.
• Feel easy to communicate with illiterate.
• Easy to understand.
“The facilitator has unobtrusive chameleon-like
qualities, gently draws consumers into the process,
deftly encourages them to interact with one another for
optimum synergy, lets the intercourse flow naturally
with a minimum of intervention, listens openly and
deeply, uses silence well, plays back consumer
statements in a distilling way which brings out more
refined thoughts or explanation and remains completely
non-authoritarian and non-judgmental.
Care, easy to make friends, tolerant and fair.
Tell respondent things that need to be done, guidelinse and
Contact group, ask opinion, suggestion and give opportunity to
group members to make decision.
Set challenging goals, aim for development, uphold
‘excellence’, capability to achieve the best.
Personal Bias -
a) Follow own opinion.
b) Without knowing to please the respondent.
c) To get along.
‘experts’- clouded novice
Incorporate group members:
Ask to leave the group.
Not being entertained.
To overcome sensitive Issues- inform
Type of questions
1.Main - Focus on the issues being researched.
2.Leading question - Discussion towards research
3.Testing question - Use respondent to test.
4.Steering question - Steer ideas to develop much more
5.Obtuse question - Uncomfortable question towards
respondent. Ask other people.
6.Factual question - Accurate answer.
7.Feel question - Ask questions using individual feelings.
8.Anonymous question - Analyzing the situation again.
9.Shut up - Sometimes much better from asking.
Way to Carry Out Group
1. Group alignment
2. Style Interview
Directive – much more issues.
Non-Directive – findings and much better group relation.
3. Tools to help
4. Relationship– sensitive/alert
5. Observation – Should be told
6. Ways to begin – Create situation, trust, openess,and
feel of belonging. Build rapport.
7. Every one involvement-appreciate opinion and worth it
for success. Be alert for ‘non-verbal clues’: facial
expression & gestures.
8. Time management.
9. Debate Ideas.
Step 1 - Recognize problem factors clearly and
agenda that will be discussed.
Step 2 - Know your respondent. Explain who can
Step 3 - Which moderator for the topics are
going to be discussed.
Step 4 - Discussion guideline – list all the topics
that are going to be discussed.
Step 5 - Recruit extra sample-takers . The best
amount is 6-12 people. Small – narrow. Big-
Lack of control.
Step 6 - Manage group – relationship, time,
place, equipment, inform the title first in
general and give gratitude.
Step 7 - Analysis
Step 8 - Report writing
• Small group
• Difficult to make decision
• If guidelines are given, it will not be
affected with biasness.