Annex 4. Field Exercise on Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with farmers on water shortage/
This exercise was undertaken in the nearby NIA’s Sta Cruz River Irrigation System
(SCRIS) located in Pila, Laguna. A brief background information about the system is in
The 35 participants were grouped into four consisting of 8 to 9 members. They were
assigned in different parts of the system (Fig. 1)
The main objectives of the FGD exercise were to solicit feedback information from the
farmers on water shortage/delivery problems that they experience in their respectively areas.
Specifically, information on the following issues and concerns were collected/gathered:
• Water Supply (previous and present)
• Water delivery and distribution problems/needs
• Irrigation facilities
• Actual farming and on-farm water management practices
• Farmer organization
• Other matters
Integrated Water Management in Rice Production
Technology Transfer for Water Savings
4-8 October 2004
Group I Group II Group III Group IV
1. Martin Ringor 1. Benjamin Macapulay 1. Apolinario Ortega 1. Leonardo L.
2. Elsie dela Vega 2. Gaudencio P. de Vera 2. Fermin F. Flores Abesamis
3. Ceasar T. Lagmay 3. Homer Diokno 3. Ruth Cely M. Jamelo 2. Santiago Yalong
4. Leni S. Enriquez 4. Romulo M. Silvestre 4. Reynaldo Mendez 3. Conrado M. Samson
5. Adeline H. Manlunas 5. Noly Q. Sabado 5. Jose L. Lintao 4. Leonardo F. Ramos
6. Elsa B. Manango 6. Dolores Mae N. Gicana 6. Segundino H. Cebu 5. Miguel M. San
7. Rolando C. San Gabriel 7. Aurora M. Corales 7. Henry M. Cacayan Gabriel
8. Vilatiana U. Malamug 8. Khin Mar Htay 8. Evelyn F. Javier 6. Mario C. Pangan
9. Jaime Faronilo 9. Ruvicyn Bayot 9. Gon Van Laar 7. Victor T. Taylan
8. Joseph Acosta
Integrated Water Management in Rice Production
I. Water Supply
• Quantity of water supply
- At what particular part of the year do you experience …
• Other sources of water
- private pumps
II. Status/Condition of Water Facilities and Structure
III. Water Delivery
• What is the approved water delivery schedule?
• Who implements the water delivery schedule?
• How is water delivery schedule implemented?
IV. Farmer Practices
• Who prepares cropping calendar?
• Is cropping calendar agreed in the area?
• How do you irrigate your farm?
- method of application (continuous, intermittent, etc.)?
• Are you aware of the depth of water you applied in your farm?
• What is the water level that you are maintaining in your field?
- land preparation?
• How do you drain your farm? How often?
• At what part of the year do you experience water shortage problems?
V. Farmers’ Organization & Other Support Groups in the Area
• Role of farmers’ organization in the operation and maintenance of irrigation system?
- Maintenance activities
1) Do you clean your canal?
2) If yes, how often?
3) If no, who cleans the canal?
4) How do you maintain your canal?
- is it group work?
- by hired labor?
- Operation activities
1) Are you involved in the distribution of irrigation water?
2) If yes, at what particular level of the system are you involved in?
- lateral canal
3) How do you handle water crisis situations?
- through rotation interval?
VI. Policy Issues
• What do you think about NIA’s policy on collecting irrigation service fee?
Water Resource Development Project Urgent Repair at Sta. Cruz Dam
Sta. Cruz River Irrigation System
Sta. Cruz dam which is located at Calumpang, Liliw, Laguna is the major source of
irrigation for Sta. Cruz River Irrigation System (SCRIS) serving an area of 3,100 hectares
covering the municipalities of Pila, Victoria, Sta. Cruz, and part of Liliw and Nagcarlan, Laguna.
Fig 1. Approximately 2,100 farmer benefits from the irrigation service it provides through NIA’s
field and office personnel headed by the Provincial Officer and Concurrent Irrigation
Superintendent. The irrigation system was constructed from 1955 to August 1, 1958. A major
rehabilitation of its facilities was undertaken by the Laguna Bay Development Program –
Irrigation Component (LBDP-IC) from 1976-1984 with fund assistance from Asian Development
Bank (ADB). Some major accomplishment of the project was the conversion of the low overflow
diversion dam with falling-shutter type to a concrete ogee type weir and laying of two concrete-
lined supply main canal to provide pumped irrigation water coming from Laguna lake. Service
roads were also constructed along existing irrigation canals to facilitate faster delivery of O & M
In 1995, super typhoon Rosing inflicted major damage to the Sta. Cruz dam that
jeopardized the systems operation. Hence, urgent need to repair and rehabilitate the dam
structures and the eroded service roads. The flashflood and the continuous quarrying activities
at Lapad or Sta. Cruz River was considered as the main cause of the damages inflicted on the
system. The request made by the Provincial Irrigation Officer for repair and rehabilitation of the
system was immediately considered. Design and working plans were laid out, reviewed and
approved for implementation the World Bank through the Water Resource Development
Project (WRDP) provided funds for the project.
WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-URGENT REPAIR
The dam project was started last April 1999 with an approved Program of Work (POW)
amounting to P 15.5 Million. The work consist of the repair of the diversion dam, conversion of
lifting mechanism of the sluice gate from manual to mechanical, and the construction of gabion
protection works upstream of the dam. Several contractors implemented the dam project thru
Local Minor Contract (LMC) while protection works was implemented thru Small-Package
On November 3, 1999, the newly constructed left inclined abutment, gabion protection
works and downstream cell wall were damaged as reported by Design and Specification
Department (DSD) of NIA-Central Office as caused by typhoon “Senang” that brought the
heavy concentration of flood water in the sluice way. A supplemental program of work with a
total amount of P 500,000.00 for filing of boulders and construction of a flow divider at the
existing apron was approved on January 2000. The work was undertaken to prevent further
scouring of the riverbed. However, heavy rains and floods damaged the on-going rehabilitation.
The supplemental works was undertaken and completed using the savings generated
from the original program. Only 67% of the proposed work was accomplished with a total
expense of P 325,386.00.
The second proposed rehabilitation was programmed to avoid further damage to the
structural stability of the said dam. Plans were reviewed and modified by the consultant on
March 2000 and subsequently, a program of work amounting to P 3.5 Million was submitted.
The project was bided last June 9, 2000 under the small package contract. The project was
implemented but before it was completed (that is when 20.33% of the work was accomplished)
with expenditure of P 581,024.30 the Sta. Cruz dam was again totally damaged by a typhoon.
The typhoon “Reming” last October 27, 2000 has brought severe damage to Sta. Cruz
dam. It was observed that the river channel downstream has widened from the previous 25
meters to 50 meters after that typhoon. The riverbed just after the apron lowered to 6 meters. It
was also noted that the maximum flood elevation had reached 1.20 meters below the platform
of the existing tower which has an approximately elevation of 45.80 meters.
Below are the damages caused by the typhoon:
1. The newly constructed ogee including 3.0 meters of existing apron and sheet piles was
totally washed out leaving the structure hanging.
2. The existing retaining wall at the left abutment was scoured and collapsed including the
entire downstream inclined wall was.
3. The right inclined wall and retaining wall were also damaged.
4. All concrete blocks placed inside the cell walls were washed out. The entire cell wall
structures were totally damaged and tilted.
5. Approximately 100 meters of existing Gabion protection collapsed leaving the service
roads impassable to large vehicles.
Sustaining Irrigation System’s O & M
With the Support of the Local Government: The Case of Sta. Cruz RIS
For most irrigation system, proper operation and maintenance (O & M) activities that is
to assure equitable, adequate and timely irrigation water has become rhetorical. This is
attributed to two basic reasons: the irrigation systems are already old and dilapidated; and, the
government does not have sufficient funds to sustain O & M and/ or implement repair works
for accumulated damages. Consequently, irrigation management transfer to Irrigators
Association (IA) has oftentimes been besetted by farmers’ reluctance to assume O & M
responsibilities. Limited manpower cannot keep abreast with the maintenance needs of
systems; low collection of the non-payment of irrigation fees is attributed to poor maintenance
and inadequate water distribution. Further, the government’s attrition law restricts new
appointments to replace retired or deceased ditch tenders.
The Sta. Cruz River Irrigation System (SCRIS), one of the irrigation systems under
jurisdiction of Region IV is not exempted from this vicious cycle of O & M problems.
Nevertheless, through the leadership of Regional Manager BALTAZAR H. USIS and Laguna
Provincial Irrigation Officer ROMEO R. AÑONUEVO, the benefits of linkage with Local
Government Units (LGU) and the organized Irrigators’ Association (IA) has been fully realized.
In a Memorandum of Agreement signed in October 1998, the local government, the Irrigators;
Association and the NIA field office, agreed to jointly undertake O & M plan for Sta. Cruz. The
agreement stipulates as a major responsibility of the local government to formulate and
implement municipal as well as barangay ordinance for the implementation of an effective and
efficient water management program. On the other hand, the IA is expected to get involved by
participating and complying in the agreed O & M plans and to judiciously pay irrigation service
fees. NIA through its field office personnel is responsible for supervision and coordination of
plan implementation, inspection of facilities and structures and technical.
The active involvement of the Sta. Cruz local government unit through its Municipal
Mayor – the Honorable DOMINGO PANGANIBAN who is a son of a farmer himself, created
employment for local residents and ensure continuing support for the O&M of Sta. Cruz RIS.
Since November 1998, the local government is paying for the wages of ten (10) personnel to act
as ditch tenders in the areas covered by the municipality. These people now replace the much
needed services if SCRIS who had already retired and/or deceased ditch tenders.
Fortunately also, SCRIS received congressional initiative through Honorable RODOLFO
SAN LUIS, Congressman – 4th District of Laguna an amount of P 10 million for the repair of
irrigation structure and canal facilities. Part of the fund was also allotted for the demolition of
an old office building and the subsequent construction of two new buildings to house of the
Office of the Municipal Agriculturist, NIA field personnel and the Sta. Cruz River Irrigation
System Irrigators Association, Inc. (SCRISIA). Completed in January 2001, the new field office
located at Barangay Gatid, Sta. Cruz in the province of Laguna is called Sentro ng Pagpapaunlad
ng Pagsasaka at Pagpapatubig, a center to cater to the needs of the more than 1,000 farmers in the
municipality. Adjacent to the office site is a 6,758 sq. m. area which will serve as a
demonstration farm as well as a location for the proposed post harvest facilities.
The case of Sta. Cruz RIS is a classic example of sustaining O & M of irrigation systems
through the strengthened relationship with the local government, the farmer-irrigators and the
field irrigation agency. The joint effort of government and non-government constituents
therefore is an effective strategy towards mobilizing farmers for their own benefit.
Sta. Cruz River Irrigation System Irrigators Association, Inc (SCRISIA)
Brgy. Munting Gatid, Sta. Cruz, Laguna
S. E. C. Reg. No. 186608
February 5, 1991
SERVICE EDUCATION FINANCE AUDIT &
COMMITTEE & COMMITTEE INVENTORY
TSA TSA TSA TSA
NO. NO. NO. TO NO.
1 2 3 27
SCRISIA INFORMATION IRRIGATION SYSTEM DATA DATA ON NEW BUILDING
Date Organized: December 1990 Irrigation Canal Length No. Date Inaugurated: Feb. 19,
Date Registered: February 5, 1991 Main Canal 2001
Service Area: 1,085 Hectares Laterals Total Est. Area:
No. of Farmer Beneficiaries: 1,100 Sub-laterals Building Area:
No. of Landowners: 848 Canal Structures Demo. Farm Area:
No. of Brgys. Covered: 22 Turn-outs Fund Source: Solon’s
Main Farm Ditch Initiative
Figure A3. Perched water table tube installed in the soil.