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Gagné's Instructional Model
 

Gagné's Instructional Model

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Slide discuses Gagné's Instructional Model

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    Gagné's Instructional Model Gagné's Instructional Model Presentation Transcript

    • Gagné Instructional Model 9 conditions of Learning
    • Description “[Gagnés nine steps are] general considerations to be taken into account when designing instruction. Although some steps might need to be rearranged (or might be unnecessary) for certain types of lessons, the general set of considerations provide a good checklist of key design steps” (Good, Brophy, 1977). • Correlates specific events of instruction with cognitive learning process • Demonstrates a concern for the different levels of learning
    • Gaining Attention Provide a Learning Objective Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Present the material Provide guidance for learning Elicit performance Provide feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer
    • Instructional Event Relation to Learning Process 1. Gaining attention Reception of patterns of neural impulse 2. Informing leaner of the objective Activating a process of executive control 3. Stimulating recall of the prerequisite learning Retrieval of prior learning to working memory 4. Presenting the stimulus material Emphasizing features for selective perception 5. Providing learning guidance Semantic encoding; clues for retrieval 6. Eliciting the performance Activating response organization 7. Providing feedback about Establishing reinforcement performance correctness 8. Assessing the performance Activating retrieval; making reinforcement possible 9. Enhancing retention and transfer Providing cues and strategies for retrieval
    • Gain attention • Present a story, problem, or a new situation that will grab the learners' attention. • The ideal is to grab the learners' attention E.g. • Storytelling • Demonstrations • Presenting a problem to be solved • Stressing why it is important to them • discuss what they need to learn and achieving it at the end
    • Provide a Learning Objective • This allows the learners to organize their thoughts on what they will learn and to perform. • tell them what you're going to tell them (state the objectives), tell them (lesson proper), and finally telling them what you told them (conclusion).
    • Stimulate recall of prior knowledge take notes and drawing mind maps. Learning is enhanced by encouraging the use of graphic representations when taking notes (mind or concept maps), has a 39 points (Marzano, 1998).
    • Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Ways: Retrieval Practice Retrieval enhances learning by retrieval-specific mechanisms rather than by elaborative study processes and is an effective tool to promote conceptual • Scaffolding is building upon the learners' previous knowledge and skills. (1) slowly build on what the learners know, 2) add more details and information over a period of time, and then 3) allowing the learners to perform on their own. After this, the fading process begins
    • Stimulate recall of prior knowledge • semantic mapping or concept mapping. the learner represents the key ideas in a lesson by drawing nodes (circles) with spokes depicting key details emanating from the node.
    • Present the material Chunk the information to avoid cognitive overload. Blend the information to aid in information recall.
    • Provide guidance for learning Provide coaching on how to learn the skill.
    • Elicit performance • Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge. (In addition, demonstrate as required. Modeling has several affects on learners: • Acquisition - New responses are learned by observing the model. • Inhibition - A response that otherwise may be made is changed when the observer sees a model being punished. • Disinhibition - A reduction in fear by observing a model's behavior go unpunished in a feared activity. • Facilitation - A model elicits from an observer a response that has already been learned. • Creativity - Observing several models performing and then adapting a combination of characteristics or styles.
    • Provide feedback • This can be a test, quiz, or verbal comments. The feedback nee ds to be specific, not, “you are doing a good job.” Tell them why they are doing a good job and/or provide specific guidance.
    • Assess performance Test to determine if the lesson has been learned and provide general progress information.
    • Enhance retention and transfer Inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, review the lesson.
    • Reference • Clark, D.C. (2004). Robert Gagné's Nine Steps of Instruction. Retrieved from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id /nine_step_id.html on: Dec. 6, 2013