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  • 1. CANCERTHE BIG “C”OUR NATION’S SECONDLEADING CAUSE OF DEATH
  • 2. REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 365GROWTH STAGES OF CANCERPHOTOCREDIT:PAULANDREWS
  • 3. Normal Cell ReproductionOur bodies contain some 100trillion cells; cells reproduce toreplace & restore old/decrepittissuethe nucleus of each cell contains thegenetic materials, dna & rnaWHICH CONTROLS &REGULATES CELLREPRODUCTIONoncoGenes & suppressor genesare found inside dna and worktogether in cell reproductionDna molecules are replicatedexactly during cell divisionin THE few instances dna moleculeS ARE notreplicated exactly, specialized enzymes ACT swiftlyTO REPAIROncogenes initiate celldivision; Suppressorgenes deactivate theprocess of cell divisionREFERENCE:TEXTBOOK PAGE 365
  • 4. When the body isexposed to externalfactors like chemicals,radiation, & viruses; &internal factors likehormones, immuneconditions, and geneticmutationsOncogenes andsupporessor genesbecome defective& lose theirability tocontrol/regulatecell reproductionCelldivisionisdisruptedMutant, orcancerous,cells candevelopREFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 365
  • 5. REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 365 Photo credit: http://cv-mrsdabbs.wikispaces.com
  • 6. REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 365MA STRAND OFMOLECULES AT BOTHENDS OF ACHROMOSOME
  • 7. Abnormal Cell Division Tumors produce telomerase, an enzyme thatkeeps telomeres from completely deteriorating. This allows the damaged cell to reproduceindefinitely to produce a…..REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 366MalignantTumorA.K.A. CANCER
  • 8. A MALIGNANT TUMOR COVERED IN APROTECTED COATING PREVENTING THESPREAD OF CANCER. AT THIS STAGE, CANCER HAS MULTIPLIED INTOBILLIONS IF LEFT UNDETECTED, THE TUMOR WILL HAVEBEEN PROVIDED WITH THE OXYGEN ANDNUTRIENTS NEEDED TO SPREAD SOME CANCER CELLS WILL BEGIN PRODUCINGCHEMICALS TO ENHANCE ANGIOGENESIS INTOTHE TUMOR, OR THE FORMATION OF BLOODVESSELS.REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 366
  • 9.  Angiogenesis is the predecessor of metastasis At this point, cancerous cells can break away fromthe malignant tumor and spread throughout thebodyREFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 366Photo credit: http://beauchemin.wikispaces.com/Cell+Cycle
  • 10. REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 389 PHOTOCREDIT: Klaus D. Peter, Gummersbach, GermanyPHOTOCREDIT: CreativeCommons / bionerd
  • 11. REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 389
  • 12. 1. AVOIDALCOHOL,ORCONSUME IN MODERATION.HEAVY ALCOHOL ANDSMOKINGCOMBINEDCANINCREASEYOUR RISK FORMOUTH,THROAT, LARYNX,ESOPHAGUS, ANDLIVERCANCER 15 FOLD!AS LITTLE AS ONEDRINK PER DAY INCREASES AWOMEN’SRISK BY 13%REFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 373PHOTOCREDIT:https://sulli-plan-neuf.wikispaces.com/FiFi+-+AJ+-+Tanvir
  • 13. 2. COMPLETELYABSTAINFROMSMOKING!!!!OR STOP SMOKING IFYOU ARE!!!SMOKING IS RESPONSIBLE FOR 470,000UNNECESSARY DEATHS INTHE U.S. AND170,000 LUNG CANCER-RELATED DEATHSSMOKING CONTRIBUTESTO 15 ADDITIONALTYPES OF CANCER: ORAL, LIP, NASAL, PHARYNGEAL, LARYNGEAL,ESOPHAGEAL, UTERINE, STOMACH, AND PANCREATIC CANCERLIFE EXPECTANCY FOR A CHRONIC SMOKERIS ROUGHLY 15 YRS SHORTER THAN ANON-SMOKERREFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE
  • 14.  1/3 OF ALL CANCER IS RELATED TO POOR NUTRITION INCREASE CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES(BROCCOLI,CAULIFLOWER, CABBAGE, BRUSSEL SPROUTS, & KOHLRABI),GREEN & DARK YELLOW VEGETABLES, BEANS (LEGUMES) EAT MORE BRIGHTLY COLORED FRUITS & VEGGIES CONTAINCAROTENOIDS WHICH HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO LOWER THERISK OF CERTAIN CANCERS GET YOUR VITAMINS & MINERALS FROM WHOLE FOODSOURCES; AVOID NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTS SERIOUSLY LIMIT SUGAR & HIGH-SUGAR FOODS EXERCISE STRENGTHENS/IMPROVES THE BODY’SAUTOIMMUNE SYSTEM IN WHICH GROWING EVIDENCESUGGESTS PLAYS A ROLE IN THE PREVENTION OF CANCERREFERENCE: TEXTBOOK PAGE 370-376
  • 15. PHOTOCREDIT:ReedWeimer
  • 16. Reference: Hoeger & Hoeger(12th edition) LifetimePhysical Fitness & WellnessCHECK OUT THIS BOOK FOR MOREINFORMATION REGARDING YOUROVERALL HEALTH & WELLNESSWHICH CONTAINS PLENTY OFHEALTH/SELF ASSESSMENTS TOHELP IMPROVE YOUR LIFE ANDMINIMIZE RISK FACTORS
  • 17. YOU DESERVE ALIFETIME OFWELLNESS