med term project


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med term project

  1. 1. PREGNANCY<br />AMANDA WINTERS<br />8/2/2011<br />
  2. 2. WHAT IS IT???<br />The carrying of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, inside the womb of a female. <br />Pregnancy occurs after fertilization, when a man's sperm penetrates a woman's egg. <br />
  3. 3. SYMPTOMS?<br />First off the symptoms for a pregnancy can differ between woman and between pregnancies. For example one woman might have one symptom while another doesn’t have that. Or in your first pregnancy you might have one symptom and the next you don’t experience that. <br />Implantation Bleeding<br />Delay/Difference in Menstruation<br />Swollen/Tender Breasts as well as Darkening of Areolas<br />Fatigue/Tiredness<br />Nausea/Morning Sickness<br />Backaches<br />Headaches<br />Frequent Urination<br />Food Cravings or Food Aversions<br />
  4. 4. Food Cravings or Food Aversions:<br />While you may not have a strong desire to eat pickles and ice cream, many women will feel cravings for certain foods when they are pregnant. This can last throughout your entire pregnancy. Some women develop adversions to certain types of food early in pregnancy and this too can last for the next 9 months.<br />
  5. 5. Swollen/Tender Breasts as well as Darkening of Areolas<br />If you are pregnant, the skin around your nipples may get darker. <br />Swollen or tender breasts is a pregnancy symptom which may begin as early as 1-2 weeks after conception. Women may notice changes in their breasts; they may be tender to the touch, sore, or swollen. <br />
  6. 6. Implantation Bleeding:<br />Implantation bleeding can be one of the earliest pregnancy symptoms. About 6-12 days after conception, the embryo implants itself into the uterine wall. Some women will experience spotting as well as some cramping. <br />
  7. 7. Delay/Difference in Menstruation:<br />A delayed or missed period is the most common pregnancy symptom leading a woman to test for pregnancy. When you become pregnant, your next period should be missed. Many women can bleed while they are pregnant, but typically the bleeding will be shorter or lighter than a normal period<br />
  8. 8. Fatigue/Tiredness:<br />Feeling fatigued or more tired is a pregnancy symptom which can also start as early as the first week after conception. <br />
  9. 9. Nausea/Morning Sickness:<br />This well known pregnancy symptom will often show up between 2-8 weeks after conception. Some women are fortunate to not deal with morning sickness at all, while others will feel nauseous throughout most of their pregnancy.<br />
  10. 10. Backaches:<br />Lower backaches may be a symptom that occurs early in pregnancy; however, it is common to experience a dull backache throughout pregnancy. <br />
  11. 11. Headaches:<br />The sudden rise of hormones in your body can cause you to have headaches early in pregnancy. <br />
  12. 12. Development of the egg<br />Five to seven days after ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), the fertilized egg implants itself into the wall of the womb and produces root-like outgrowths called villi. These help to anchor it to the lining of the womb and will eventually grow into the placenta (the organ that feeds and protects the baby until birth).<br />The placenta maintains and nourishes the baby by enabling the transfer of oxygen, amino acids, fats, vitamins and minerals from the mother's blood. It also allows the transfer of waste substances from the baby.<br />
  13. 13. What is An Abortion<br />Some woman may decide that having a baby isn’t the right thing to do or they may be too young to have a child. Some woman it isn’t the right time to start a family. Whatever the case maybe there is a procedure called “abortion” <br />There are several different methods used in performing abortions, depending upon how far along the pregnancy is. Some methods involve physically extracting the baby and others involve the use of chemicals injected into the womb or taken by the mother<br />Suction aspiration - first 12 weeks of pregnancy<br />Dilation and curettage (D&C) - first 12 weeks of pregnancy<br />RU486 and methotrexate - 5 to 7 weeks of pregnancy<br />Dilation and evacuation (D&E) - first 18 weeks of pregnancy<br />Salt poisoning (saline amniocentesis) - after four months of pregnancy<br />Prostaglandin abortion - four to six months of pregnancy<br />Hysterectomy - four to nine months of pregnancy<br />Partial birth (brain suction) abortion - four to nine months of pregnancy <br />
  14. 14. Stages of pregnancy<br /><ul><li>This is a picture of the different weeks in pregnancy and what each week looks like.
  15. 15. The 9 months are split into what is called trimesters. There are 3 of them. </li></li></ul><li>Trimester 1<br />The first pregnancy trimester is the stage of pregnancy from conception to 12 weeks. Hormonal changes cause frequent nausea, vomiting, increased fatigue and heightened emotional sensitivity. Food aversion and cravings, heartburn and indigestion, tender and swollen breasts, change in complexion, frequent urge to urinate, constipation, dizziness are all the 'gifts' of pregnancy. Changes in habits, like frequent but small meals, nutritive diet, no smoking or alcohol, light exercise, drinking plenty of water, and taking adequate rest will mitigate the problems of first trimester<br />Most women find this to be the hardest trimester. <br />
  16. 16. Trimester 2 <br />The second trimester starts from the 13th week to the 28th week. Initial nausea and fatigue starts to go away, and the baby grows rapidly and shows movements; the umbilical cord thickens to carry oxygen and nourishment to the fetus. Light exercise, good personal hygiene, nutritive diet adds to the healthy growth of the baby at this stage.<br />
  17. 17. Trimester 3<br />This is the last trimester from the 28th week till the birth of the baby. The fetus continues to grow in size, bringing in changes in physical appearance. Deep breathing helps in providing good oxygen supply to the baby. Get enough rest, diet and exercise, avoid carrying heavy weights and standing for long periods at a time. <br />Most woman find this stage to be very uncomfortable<br />
  18. 18. The trimesters<br />This is a picture of what the baby looks like at each trimester from fertilization to 9 months<br />
  19. 19. Pregnancy problems<br />Even though pregnancy is a beautiful thing it can also cause problems<br />miscarriage: loss of a pregnancy during the first 23 weeks <br />ectopic pregnancy: when a fertilized egg is implanted outside the womb <br />pre-eclampsia: a problem with the placenta that causes high blood pressure in the mother and growth problems in the baby <br />stillbirth: a baby born after the 24th week of pregnancy who does not show any signs of life <br />
  20. 20. True Labor vs. False Labor<br />If you are worried about getting confused between true labor and false labor, you are not alone. A lot of women are unsure about the early signs of labor. Most women experience signs of labor but don't know whether its the real thing or just something as simple as indigestion. If you are feeling contractions or seeing other symptoms of labor, then it is a good idea to get checked out by your health care provider. Don't be embarrassed if it turns out to be a false alarm - practitioners see this all the time and it is a part of the normal pregnancy process. One thing you don't want to do is stay at home alone and ignore the signs that your body is giving you. <br />
  21. 21. Contractions<br />Contractions are one of the first and most important signals that baby is on his/her way! If you are feeling labor contractions, you may be beginning labor, so it is important to keep track of them, including their length, intensity, and how many minutes apart they are. You might want to get your partner to help you with this, especially if the contractions become really intense.<br />True contractions tend to occur at regular and consistent intervals. They will also become stronger in intensity and last for longer periods of time if you are really going into labor. If your labor pain continues to come at five minute intervals, you should probably contact your health care provider and begin your plan for labor, whatever that may be.<br />False contractions, also called Braxton Hicks contractions, should feel quite different from real labor contractions. They are often less painful and should eventually decline in intensity. Unlike real labor pains, Braxton Hicks will not increase in frequency unless you are engaging in particularly heavy work or activity.<br />
  22. 22. Water Breaking<br />On television or in the movies, women always seem to realize that they are in labor because their water suddenly breaks. Unfortunately, things are not this easy in real life. Many women going into labor and never have their water break. Often, your nurse or doctor will choose to break your water for you in order to speed labor along.<br />If you do notice your water breaking, that it is probably a sign that you are going into labor or are already in labor. You may feel a huge gush of liquid or perhaps you will only notice a tiny trickle. If your water breaks you should call your health care practitioner and tell her, so that you can decide on a plan of action together.<br />You may notice that your contractions become stronger once your water has broken. This is definitely a sign of impending labor.<br />
  23. 23. Dilation of the Cervix<br />Once you begin labor, your cervix will become softer and thinner than usual. This is referred to as effacement. Your cervix will also begin to dilate to accommodate the size of your baby.<br />You probably won't notice that your cervix is dilating or that you are becoming effaced. Your health care provider will notice this effacement during your pelvic exam.<br />
  24. 24. DeliveryStage 1<br />The first, the latent phase, is the longest and least intense. During this phase, contractions become more frequent, helping your cervix to dilate so your baby can pass through the birth canal; however, discomfort at this stage is still minimal. During this phase, your cervix will dilate approximately 3 or 4 centimeters and efface, or thin out. If your contractions are regular, you will probably be admitted to the hospital during this stage and have frequent pelvic exams to determine how much the cervix is dilated.<br />During the active phase, the cervix dilates from 4 to 7 centimeters. You may feel intense pain or pressure in your back or abdomen during each contraction. You may also feel the urge to push or bear down, but your doctor will ask you to wait until your cervix is completely open.<br />During transition, the cervix fully dilates to 10 centimeters. Contractions are very strong, painful, and frequent, coming every three to four minutes and lasting from 60 to 90 seconds.<br />
  25. 25. Delivery Stage 2<br />Stage 2 begins when the cervix is completely opened. At this point, your doctor will give you the OK to push. Your pushing, along with the force of your contractions, will propel your baby through the birth canal. The fontanels (soft spots) on your baby's head allow it to fit through the narrow canal.<br />Your baby's head crowns when the widest part of it reaches the vaginal opening. As soon as your baby's head comes out, your doctor will suction amniotic fluid, blood, and mucus from his or her nose and mouth. You will continue to push to help deliver the baby's shoulders and body.<br />Once your baby is delivered, your doctor -- or your partner, if he has requested to do so -- clamps and cuts the umbilical cord. <br />
  26. 26. DeliveryStage 3<br />After your baby is delivered, you enter the final stage of labor. In this stage, you deliver the placenta, the organ that nourished your baby inside the womb.<br />Each woman and each labor is different. The amount of time spent in each stage of delivery will vary. If this is your first pregnacny, labor and delivery usually lasts about 12 to 14 hours but can last longer. The process is usually shorter for subsequent pregnancies.<br />
  27. 27. Pain Treatments<br />Just as the amount of time in labor varies, the amount of pain women experience is different, too.<br />The position and size of your baby and strength of your contractions can influence pain as well. Although some women can manage their pain with breathing and relaxation techniques others will need other methods to control their pain.<br />
  28. 28. What to Expect After Delivery<br />Physically you may experience the following:<br />Pain at the episiotomy site. <br />Sore breasts. <br />Hot and cold flashes. <br />"After pains." <br />Vaginal discharge<br />
  29. 29. What baby will need<br /># Thermometer <br /># Lotions, baby oils, and powders<br /># Baby Monitors<br /># Crib or bassinet with mattress<br /># Swing<br /># Infant Car Seat<br /># Diaper Bag<br /># Light Weight Travel Stroller<br /># Nursing Pillow<br />Bottles<br /># Pacifier<br /># Bibs<br /># Hat and Bonnet<br /># Crib Sheet<br /># Baby Quilt or Crib Blanket<br /># Crib Pad<br /># Receiving Blankets<br /># Comforter or skirt<br /># Baby Bath<br /># Baby Shampoo<br /># Wipes<br /># Wash Cloths<br /># Towels<br /># Socks and Booties<br /># Footed Sleepers<br /># Onesies<br />
  30. 30. Enjoyeverymoment withthelittle lifeyou created and all thepain you wentthroughtogethim/her here!!!!<br />