What is an infection? What causes infections?
An 82 year old nursing home resident has arthritis & dementia. She needs assistance with all activities of daily living. The pt. resists efforts of staff to help her, why must you look out for even minor changes in her condition or behavior?
Microbes- small living things /beings- germs Classifications: pathogen Non-pathogen normal flora Types: bacteria virus rickettsiae bacteria protozoa fungus
Reservoir (host) *people * plants * animals * soil * food/H20 Oxygen Warm, dark environment Moisture Light or dark environment
Micro-organisms that live and grow in certain areas Examples Staph- skin E-coli-colon
What Drug resistance Why Over prescribing of ATB (antibiotics) Types MRSA Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus VRE Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
Local: at the site Systemic: in entire body s/sx: s/sx: redness fever pain/tenderness achy warm to touch fatigue swelling loss of appetite unable to move area n/v diarrhea rash sores swelling/inflammation drainage/discharge
Decrease immune system c age May not recognize s/sx of infection -confused Can be life threatening prior to s/sx recognized
Source Pathogen (germ) Reservoir Place for m.o. (micro-organism) to live Carrier Place where infection/m.o. lives Does not cause disease If passed on, causes the disease (i.e. strept throat) Portal of Exit Opening for m.o. to get out of reservoir Reproductive tract, urethra Mouth, nose, cut sores
PORTAL OF ENTRY PORTAL OF EXIT Way for m.o. to get in pt. Way to get out of body
Fold paper in 1/2, then fold in 1/3 Label each section with the following modes of transmission & draw pictures representing each one.1. Direct2. Indirect3. Droplet4. Contact5. Vector6. Vehicle
Using your assigned disease draw infection chain
Infection in health care setting Caused by normal flora or indirect contact from 1 pt to another Examples Poor wiping Poor hand washing Equipment Prevention Hand washing Good techniques Standard precautions Isolation
MEDICAL ASEPSIS SURGICAL ASEPSIS Cleaning technique to Sterile technique/surgical reduce germs asepsis Examples—hand washing • m.o.—sterile and bathing procedures, surgery Contamination = unclean
Wash hands before and after care entering & leaving room after lunch breaks after bathroom after smoking after applying cosmetics Cover mouth when you cough & sneeze Dont go to work sick Clean equipment Dispose of linens & trash properly
Germs on everything Use hands all the time Hands carry germs to pt. #1 way to reduce spreading germs
Wash before and after pt. contact Use enough soap Hands lower than elbows Rinse hands with fingertips pointed down Dry hands clean with clean paper towel Turn faucet off with clean paper towel
Wash hands using glo-germ.- What did you find out about your hand- washing habits?
What is done in the hospital/dr. office/school to promote good medical asepsis, thus reducing spread of germs?
Prevent spread of disease PPE makes a barrier around the pathogen Required by CDC-Center for Disease Control
Gather all supplies before going in Floor = contaminated Double bag Use disposable items if possible Do not touch your face Don’t shake linens Meet basic needs – lonely Transporting Pt. gown Mask (if needed)
Gowns: protect contact with m.o on uniform Masks: protects from inhaling m.o Gloves: prevents transmission of pathogens by direct and indirect contact
Wear if contact with blood/body fluids Dont wear if tear/hole Put on with dry hands New pt./task = new gloves Wear with mucous membrane care Cover your wrists Wash hands after removing gloves
-Protect clothes-Must cover from neck to knees-Tight cuffs-Open in back-ties at neck &waist-use 1 x
Wear to protect: - from contact from infectious materials -during sterile procedures -when wet throw away -fits snuggly -when removing touch ties not front of mask
Protect eyes, mouth &nose from sprays/splashes
Order to Put On 1. Gown 2. Mask 3. Gloves Order to Take Off 1. Gloves 2. Mask 3. Gown
Hand washing (HW): p contaminated, p removing gloves, b/t residents Gloves: wear if exposure to body fluids, when inside mouth change b/t pt, tasks Masks/goggles: wear if likely to be splashed Gowns: wear if splashing likely contaminated if the arms & front are wet clean - neck & inside
Equipment: Blood borne pathogens: clean & disinfect no recapping needles Environment: use needless system clean per policy sharps in puncture Linens: resistant box roll away from you Resident placement: wet put in plastic bag private room if contaminates
Private room Door closed Wear mask TB respirator mask Diseases: TB, chicken pox, measles If pt. out of room they wear mask
Spread by cough, sneezing, laughing Diseases: meningitis, pneumonia, mumps, strept throat Private room Wear mask if in room Pt out of room wear mask
Direct contact touching skin to skin Indirect contact touching surface with secretions Private room Gloves & gown with contact of infected materials (drsg, sheets) Cover infected area if out of room Examples: impetigo, MRSA, herpes
Protects pt. with low immune system Examples: leukemia, HIV/AIDS Private room Wear mask, gown, gloves all the time Wear to protect pt. from staff
Divide paper into 5 sections & label with the following:1. Standard precautions2. Airborne precautions3. Droplet precautions4. Contact precautions5. Reserve IsolationIn each section draw what you should wear for each type of isolation:- gloves, gowns, masks
A male pt. at the nsg. Home has a wound infection in his right leg. The wound is draining and covered with a drsg. The dr. has written for contact precautions. What care is needed for this pt?
You need to wear a mask &gown when caring for your resident. What can you do to help meet the pt.’s love & belonging needs?
Double Bagging Done if outside of bag is contaminated with infectious material According to facility policy May be done with 2 people or alone Cleaning Surfaces Clean contaminated surface immediately Wear gloves Use disposable wipes as disinfectant Dispose of inappropriate container Never reuse if contaminated Bleach solution 1:100
Infection control staff Employee health Employee Exposure Plan In-services Hepatitis B vaccine