Infection control
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Infection control



Learn infection control guidelines

Learn infection control guidelines



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Infection control Infection control Presentation Transcript

  •  What is an infection? What causes infections?
  • An 82 year old nursing home resident has arthritis & dementia. She needs assistance with all activities of daily living. The pt. resists efforts of staff to help her, why must you look out for even minor changes in her condition or behavior?
  •  Microbes-m/o  Sepsis Pathogens  Inflammation Non-pathogens  Asepsis Normal flora  Carrier Infection  Clean technique Noscomial infection/  Contamination HAI—health care  Clean associated infection Medical asepsis Sterile
  •  Microbes- small living things /beings- germs Classifications:  pathogen  Non-pathogen  normal flora Types:  bacteria  virus  rickettsiae  bacteria  protozoa  fungus
  •  Reservoir (host) *people * plants * animals * soil * food/H20 Oxygen Warm, dark environment Moisture Light or dark environment
  •  Micro-organisms that live and grow in certain areas Examples  Staph- skin  E-coli-colon
  •  What  Drug resistance Why  Over prescribing of ATB (antibiotics) Types  MRSA  Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus  VRE  Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
  •  Local: at the site  Systemic: in entire body s/sx:  s/sx:  redness  fever  pain/tenderness  achy  warm to touch  fatigue  swelling  loss of appetite  unable to move area  n/v  diarrhea  rash  sores  swelling/inflammation  drainage/discharge
  •  Decrease immune system c age May not recognize s/sx of infection -confused Can be life threatening prior to s/sx recognized
  •  Source  Pathogen (germ) Reservoir  Place for m.o. (micro-organism) to live Carrier  Place where infection/m.o. lives  Does not cause disease  If passed on, causes the disease (i.e. strept throat) Portal of Exit  Opening for m.o. to get out of reservoir  Reproductive tract, urethra  Mouth, nose, cut sores
  • PORTAL OF ENTRY PORTAL OF EXIT Way for m.o. to get in pt.  Way to get out of body
  •  Fold paper in 1/2, then fold in 1/3  Label each section with the following modes of transmission & draw pictures representing each one.1. Direct2. Indirect3. Droplet4. Contact5. Vector6. Vehicle
  •  Using your assigned disease draw infection chain
  •  Infection in health care setting Caused by normal flora or indirect contact from 1 pt to another Examples  Poor wiping  Poor hand washing  Equipment Prevention  Hand washing  Good techniques  Standard precautions  Isolation
  • MEDICAL ASEPSIS SURGICAL ASEPSIS Cleaning technique to  Sterile technique/surgical reduce germs asepsis  Examples—hand washing • m.o.—sterile and bathing procedures, surgery Contamination = unclean
  •  Wash hands  before and after care  entering & leaving room  after lunch breaks  after bathroom  after smoking  after applying cosmetics Cover mouth when you cough & sneeze Dont go to work sick Clean equipment Dispose of linens & trash properly
  •  Germs on everything Use hands all the time Hands carry germs to pt. #1 way to reduce spreading germs
  •  Wash before and after pt. contact Use enough soap Hands lower than elbows Rinse hands with fingertips pointed down Dry hands clean with clean paper towel Turn faucet off with clean paper towel
  • Wash hands using glo-germ.- What did you find out about your hand- washing habits?
  •  What is done in the hospital/dr. office/school to promote good medical asepsis, thus reducing spread of germs?
  • Isolation
  •  Prevent spread of disease PPE makes a barrier around the pathogen Required by CDC-Center for Disease Control
  •  Gather all supplies before going in Floor = contaminated Double bag Use disposable items if possible Do not touch your face Don’t shake linens Meet basic needs – lonely Transporting  Pt. gown  Mask (if needed)
  •  Gowns:  protect contact with m.o on uniform Masks:  protects from inhaling m.o Gloves:  prevents transmission of pathogens by direct and indirect contact
  •  Wear if contact with blood/body fluids Dont wear if tear/hole Put on with dry hands New pt./task = new gloves Wear with mucous membrane care Cover your wrists Wash hands after removing gloves
  • -Protect clothes-Must cover from neck to knees-Tight cuffs-Open in back-ties at neck &waist-use 1 x
  •  Wear to protect: - from contact from infectious materials -during sterile procedures -when wet throw away -fits snuggly -when removing touch ties not front of mask
  •  Protect eyes, mouth &nose from sprays/splashes
  •  Order to Put On 1. Gown 2. Mask 3. Gloves Order to Take Off 1. Gloves 2. Mask 3. Gown
  • Practice putting on & removing PPE
  •  Hand washing (HW):  p contaminated, p removing gloves, b/t residents Gloves:  wear if exposure to body fluids, when inside mouth  change b/t pt, tasks Masks/goggles:  wear if likely to be splashed Gowns:  wear if splashing likely  contaminated if the arms & front are wet  clean - neck & inside
  •  Equipment:  Blood borne pathogens:  clean & disinfect  no recapping needles Environment:  use needless system  clean per policy  sharps in puncture Linens: resistant box  roll away from you  Resident placement:  wet put in plastic bag  private room if contaminates
  •  Private room Door closed Wear mask TB respirator mask Diseases: TB, chicken pox, measles If pt. out of room they wear mask
  •  Spread by cough, sneezing, laughing Diseases: meningitis, pneumonia, mumps, strept throat Private room Wear mask if in room Pt out of room wear mask
  •  Direct contact touching skin to skin Indirect contact touching surface with secretions Private room Gloves & gown with contact of infected materials (drsg, sheets) Cover infected area if out of room Examples: impetigo, MRSA, herpes
  •  Protects pt. with low immune system Examples: leukemia, HIV/AIDS Private room Wear mask, gown, gloves all the time Wear to protect pt. from staff
  • Divide paper into 5 sections & label with the following:1. Standard precautions2. Airborne precautions3. Droplet precautions4. Contact precautions5. Reserve IsolationIn each section draw what you should wear for each type of isolation:- gloves, gowns, masks
  •  A male pt. at the nsg. Home has a wound infection in his right leg. The wound is draining and covered with a drsg. The dr. has written for contact precautions. What care is needed for this pt?
  • You need to wear a mask &gown when caring for your resident. What can you do to help meet the pt.’s love & belonging needs?
  •  Double Bagging  Done if outside of bag is contaminated with infectious material  According to facility policy  May be done with 2 people or alone Cleaning Surfaces  Clean contaminated surface immediately  Wear gloves  Use disposable wipes as disinfectant  Dispose of inappropriate container  Never reuse if contaminated  Bleach solution 1:100
  •  Infection control staff Employee health Employee Exposure Plan In-services Hepatitis B vaccine