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Disorders of cardio system
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Disorders of cardio system

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  • 1. Disorders of theCardiovascular System
  • 2. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)Cause: Problems: – Atherosclerosis—fatty – Angina deposits in vessels – MIRisk factors: – ischemic sudden death – high BP – diabetes – obesity – hereditary – smoking – stress – no exercise – diet
  • 3. Risk FactorsNon-modifiable Modifiable – Hereditary – Hypertension – Race- African Americans – Diabetes – Sex- Males – Obesity – Age – Smoking – Stress – Lack of exercise – Diet – Drugs – Oral contraceptives
  • 4. MI• Heart doesnt get 0 2 muscle dies• Triggers of MI: – increase workload of heart – increase 02 need – increase 02 needs – environmental: • smoking, stress, cold – illness: • anemia, thyroid disease, High BP, irregular heart beat, infections – Medications: • antihistamines, decongestants, cocaine, amphetamines stop heart meds quickly
  • 5. S/SX of MI• Pain crushing, radiates to jaw, neck, arm• Indigestion• N/V• Anxiety• Perspiration• Cool skin• Cyanosis• Irregular heart beat• Weakness• Decrease BP
  • 6. TreatmentDiagnosis: Treatment – EKG – Medications – treadmill stress test • relax arteries – cardiac cath • stop clotting • dissolve clot – echocardiogram – Surgery • stents • angioplasty • bypass surgery
  • 7. PCT Roles for MI pt.• Recognize s/sx of MI• Vital signs• Pace activities• Diet instruction• Monitor s/sx of bleeding from meds• Stress relieve• Assist with tests
  • 8. Angina• Pain b/c decrease 02 to heart• May be slow or rapid onset• Stable angina – brought on by stress, emotion, activity – Goes away when activity stopped• Unstable angina – does not go away when activity stopped
  • 9. Thrombosis/Embolism• Thrombosis – clot that blocks blood flow• Embolism – clot that travels and lodges someplace else• Complications – CVA, MI, pulmonary embolism
  • 10. Risk factors for Thrombosis/Embolism• Dehydration • Hereditary• Bed rest/decrease • Smoking mobility • Diabetes• Birth control pills • Obesity• Obesity • IV needles inserted for• Pregnancy long periods of time
  • 11. s/sx of Blood Clots• Cold extremity• Tingling sensation• Decrease sensation• Pain in calf• Redness/edema
  • 12. Care of pt with Clots/PVDObserve: Teach: – color change – avoid cold/hot temp – temperature change – avoid sitting long time – change in pulse – no tight clothes – edema – no crossing legs – confusion – good diet – difficulty ambulating – decrease stress
  • 13. TED Hose• Promote circulation• Rules: – measure for correct size – do not wash in washer – air dry – do not roll down – no wrinkles• SCDS – electric pump to promote circulation – take off and clean legs

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