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    Diseases Diseases Presentation Transcript

    • Diseases
    • Otitis Media• Middle Ear infections/sx-Pain, vertigo, fever
    • Meniere’s DiseaseIncrease in inner ear causing: -hearing loss -vertigo -tinnitus -pain
    • Aphasia-Total or partial loss of theability to use/understand languageExpressive aphasia- can’t send out thoughts
    • • Receptive Aphasia- can’t understand
    • Apraxia• Can’t coordinate muscles for speaking
    • Glaucoma• Increase pressure in eye damaging optic nerve causing vision loss-blindness
    • Cataracts• Clouding of the lens- appears to be looking through dirty window
    • Macular degeneration• Blurs central vision
    • Diabetic retinopathy• Blood vessels in eye damaged causing blurred vision- blindness
    • Cancer• Abnormal growth of cells• Many types-primary• secondary-(Metastasis)Terms: Tumor• Benign• Malignant• Goals: Cure• Control• Palliation
    • Cancer treatment• Surgery• Chemotherapy• Radiation• Bone marrow transplant• Hormones• Immunotherapy• ** single or combination of therapies
    • Skin disorders• Shingles- Herpes zoster
    • Musculoskeletal Diseases• Osteoarthritis- overuse of joints,• Joints wear out• s/sx: stiffness, pain, swelling, tenderness• Tx: pain relief, exercise, rest, wgt control• joint replacement•
    • Rheumatoid Arthritiss/sx: painful, tender, swollen, red, poor ROM, fever, fatigue, deformities, herberden nodesTx: rest, splints, medication
    • Osteoporosis• s/sx: back pain, loss of hgt,• stooped posture,• spontaneous fractures• Treatment: prevention- exercise• calcium/medications
    • Fractures• Open-• Closed-
    • Fracture treatment
    • Fraction treatment con’t Traction
    • Cast care• Do not cover• Keep dry• Do not stick things in it• Elevate until swelling decreases• Report: pain, edema, pale/cool skin• cyanosis, numbness/tingling• drainage, temperatue
    • Hip fractures• Treatment:
    • Rules for hip replacement• No flexion > 90 degrees• No hip adduction- abductor pillow• No external rotation• Raised toilet seats• Get out on unaffected side• Do not cross legs
    • Amputations-loss of a limb
    • Nervous system changes with age• Slower doing tasks – impulses slower• Balance & coordination issues- deterioration of nerves• Awake at night• Lose brain cells• Decrease sensitivity
    • Stroke/CVA(Cerebral Vascular Attack)
    • What happens?• Tissue death of brain due to no oxygen
    • Warning signs of stroke• Headache, confusion, blurred vision, drooping eye/face, paralysis
    • TIA Transient Ischemic Attack• Warning sign stroke may be coming• s/sx comes and goes
    • CVA risk factors
    • Effects of a CVA
    • Types of aphasia• Expressive• Receptive• expressive-receptive
    • Treatment for stroke• Therapy:
    • Parkinsons disease• Slow progressive disease with no cure• Brain degenerates
    • Multiple Sclerosis• Chronic disease – myelin is destroyed- nerve impulses don’t travel correctly
    • s/sx& Tx. of MS• Begin @ age 20-40
    • Spinal Cord Injuries
    • Seizures
    • Respiratory changes with age• Lung capacity decreases d/t muscle stiffness• Decrease cough- increase mucous in lungs- increase pneumonia/infections• SOB with exertion• Size of airway decreases- increase risk of choking• Fatigue
    • NA roles
    • Respiratory Disorders COPD• Includes 3 disorders: – Chronic Bronchitis – Emphysema – Asthma
    • Chronic Bronchitis• Inflammation of bronchi
    • Emphysema• The alveoli enlarge & are less elastic• Oxygen and carbon dioxide can’t exchange
    • Asthma• Airway narrows when exposed to allergens,• emotional stress, respiratory infections• Physical activity• Cold air
    • Pneumonia• Inflammation of lung tissue-• lungs fill with fluid
    • TB- tuberculosis• Bacterial infection of lungs- highly contagious
    • Treatment of TB
    • Cardiovascular changes with age• Heart pumps less • May not tolerate efficiently exercise• Heart can’t meet • BP & fluid balance needs problems• Arteries lose elasticity • Dizziness with• BP increases position change• Blood flow to brain & organs decrease• Veins less efficient- legs change color
    • Cardiovascular Diseases Hypertension• Resting BP > 140/90• Pre-hypertension: BP 120-139/80-89• Risk factors
    • Treatment of HTN
    • Coronary artery Disease (CAD) atherosclerosis• Coronary arteries narrow decrease blood flow to the heart• Leads to angina & MI
    • Risk factors of CAD• Same as hypertension
    • Angina Pectoris chest pain• Pain from decrease blood flow to heart• Warning heart not getting enough oxygen
    • Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack• s/sx:
    • Heart Failure CHF• s/sx: edema, cough, SOB, fatigue
    • NA actions for cardiovascular changes
    • Changes in urinary system• Kidneys decrease in size• Urine production less efficient• Bladder size decrease• Increase urination @ night• Weak bladder muscles• Enlarged prostate• Incontinence-cause odor, bedsores• UTI-confusion 1st sign
    • NA roles• Increase fluids• Record output• Toilet frequently• Report to RN: color, odor of urine frequent urination in small amt. pain/burning with urination difficulty urinating incontinence
    • UTI-urinary tract infection• Infection somewhere in the urinary system• Cystitis• Nephritis• pyelonephritis• Urethritis• Ureteritis
    • UTI causes• Sexual intercourse• Wipe back to front
    • Urinary diversions• ureterostomy
    • Renal Calculi• Risk factors:
    • Renal calculi s/sx• Back/abdominal pain• N/V• Fever/chills• Urgency• Frequency• Hematuria• oliguria
    • Treatment of renal calculi
    • Renal Failure• Acute vs chronic:• s/sx: oliguria• Treatments: fluid restriction• treat cause•
    • Endocrine system changes with age• Prone to fluid and electrolyte imbalance• Vitamin deficiencies• Risk of malnutrition• Risk of type 2 diabetes• Risk of hypothermia increase 6 x• Risk of hyperthermia
    • Diabetes can’t produce insulin• Type I – pancreas produces little or no insulin- must take insulin• Type II- occurs in adult, body makes insulin but can’t utilize correctly• Gestational diabetes: caused by pregnancy
    • Risk factors of diabetes
    • Hypoglycemia• Weak, fast pulse, low BP, confusion• Vision changes. Clammy skin
    • Hyperglycemia• Weakness, flushed face, labored breathing, weak pulse, low BP
    • Treatment• hyperglycemia • hypoglycemia
    • Digestive Disorders Diverticulosis
    • GERD- gastroesophageal reflux
    • Gallstones• Pain in upper abd.• Pain back b/t shoulder blades• Pain lasts > 5 hours• N/V• Chills/fever
    • Hepatitis• Hepatitis A- fecal –oral• Hepatitis B/C-blood/body fluids