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Diseases Diseases Presentation Transcript

  • Diseases
  • Otitis Media• Middle Ear infections/sx-Pain, vertigo, fever
  • Meniere’s DiseaseIncrease in inner ear causing: -hearing loss -vertigo -tinnitus -pain
  • Aphasia-Total or partial loss of theability to use/understand languageExpressive aphasia- can’t send out thoughts
  • • Receptive Aphasia- can’t understand
  • Apraxia• Can’t coordinate muscles for speaking
  • Glaucoma• Increase pressure in eye damaging optic nerve causing vision loss-blindness
  • Cataracts• Clouding of the lens- appears to be looking through dirty window
  • Macular degeneration• Blurs central vision
  • Diabetic retinopathy• Blood vessels in eye damaged causing blurred vision- blindness
  • Cancer• Abnormal growth of cells• Many types-primary• secondary-(Metastasis)Terms: Tumor• Benign• Malignant• Goals: Cure• Control• Palliation
  • Cancer treatment• Surgery• Chemotherapy• Radiation• Bone marrow transplant• Hormones• Immunotherapy• ** single or combination of therapies
  • Skin disorders• Shingles- Herpes zoster
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases• Osteoarthritis- overuse of joints,• Joints wear out• s/sx: stiffness, pain, swelling, tenderness• Tx: pain relief, exercise, rest, wgt control• joint replacement•
  • Rheumatoid Arthritiss/sx: painful, tender, swollen, red, poor ROM, fever, fatigue, deformities, herberden nodesTx: rest, splints, medication
  • Osteoporosis• s/sx: back pain, loss of hgt,• stooped posture,• spontaneous fractures• Treatment: prevention- exercise• calcium/medications
  • Fractures• Open-• Closed-
  • Fracture treatment
  • Fraction treatment con’t Traction
  • Cast care• Do not cover• Keep dry• Do not stick things in it• Elevate until swelling decreases• Report: pain, edema, pale/cool skin• cyanosis, numbness/tingling• drainage, temperatue
  • Hip fractures• Treatment:
  • Rules for hip replacement• No flexion > 90 degrees• No hip adduction- abductor pillow• No external rotation• Raised toilet seats• Get out on unaffected side• Do not cross legs
  • Amputations-loss of a limb
  • Nervous system changes with age• Slower doing tasks – impulses slower• Balance & coordination issues- deterioration of nerves• Awake at night• Lose brain cells• Decrease sensitivity
  • Stroke/CVA(Cerebral Vascular Attack)
  • What happens?• Tissue death of brain due to no oxygen
  • Warning signs of stroke• Headache, confusion, blurred vision, drooping eye/face, paralysis
  • TIA Transient Ischemic Attack• Warning sign stroke may be coming• s/sx comes and goes
  • CVA risk factors
  • Effects of a CVA
  • Types of aphasia• Expressive• Receptive• expressive-receptive
  • Treatment for stroke• Therapy:
  • Parkinsons disease• Slow progressive disease with no cure• Brain degenerates
  • Multiple Sclerosis• Chronic disease – myelin is destroyed- nerve impulses don’t travel correctly
  • s/sx& Tx. of MS• Begin @ age 20-40
  • Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Seizures
  • Respiratory changes with age• Lung capacity decreases d/t muscle stiffness• Decrease cough- increase mucous in lungs- increase pneumonia/infections• SOB with exertion• Size of airway decreases- increase risk of choking• Fatigue
  • NA roles
  • Respiratory Disorders COPD• Includes 3 disorders: – Chronic Bronchitis – Emphysema – Asthma
  • Chronic Bronchitis• Inflammation of bronchi
  • Emphysema• The alveoli enlarge & are less elastic• Oxygen and carbon dioxide can’t exchange
  • Asthma• Airway narrows when exposed to allergens,• emotional stress, respiratory infections• Physical activity• Cold air
  • Pneumonia• Inflammation of lung tissue-• lungs fill with fluid
  • TB- tuberculosis• Bacterial infection of lungs- highly contagious
  • Treatment of TB
  • Cardiovascular changes with age• Heart pumps less • May not tolerate efficiently exercise• Heart can’t meet • BP & fluid balance needs problems• Arteries lose elasticity • Dizziness with• BP increases position change• Blood flow to brain & organs decrease• Veins less efficient- legs change color
  • Cardiovascular Diseases Hypertension• Resting BP > 140/90• Pre-hypertension: BP 120-139/80-89• Risk factors
  • Treatment of HTN
  • Coronary artery Disease (CAD) atherosclerosis• Coronary arteries narrow decrease blood flow to the heart• Leads to angina & MI
  • Risk factors of CAD• Same as hypertension
  • Angina Pectoris chest pain• Pain from decrease blood flow to heart• Warning heart not getting enough oxygen
  • Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack• s/sx:
  • Heart Failure CHF• s/sx: edema, cough, SOB, fatigue
  • NA actions for cardiovascular changes
  • Changes in urinary system• Kidneys decrease in size• Urine production less efficient• Bladder size decrease• Increase urination @ night• Weak bladder muscles• Enlarged prostate• Incontinence-cause odor, bedsores• UTI-confusion 1st sign
  • NA roles• Increase fluids• Record output• Toilet frequently• Report to RN: color, odor of urine frequent urination in small amt. pain/burning with urination difficulty urinating incontinence
  • UTI-urinary tract infection• Infection somewhere in the urinary system• Cystitis• Nephritis• pyelonephritis• Urethritis• Ureteritis
  • UTI causes• Sexual intercourse• Wipe back to front
  • Urinary diversions• ureterostomy
  • Renal Calculi• Risk factors:
  • Renal calculi s/sx• Back/abdominal pain• N/V• Fever/chills• Urgency• Frequency• Hematuria• oliguria
  • Treatment of renal calculi
  • Renal Failure• Acute vs chronic:• s/sx: oliguria• Treatments: fluid restriction• treat cause•
  • Endocrine system changes with age• Prone to fluid and electrolyte imbalance• Vitamin deficiencies• Risk of malnutrition• Risk of type 2 diabetes• Risk of hypothermia increase 6 x• Risk of hyperthermia
  • Diabetes can’t produce insulin• Type I – pancreas produces little or no insulin- must take insulin• Type II- occurs in adult, body makes insulin but can’t utilize correctly• Gestational diabetes: caused by pregnancy
  • Risk factors of diabetes
  • Hypoglycemia• Weak, fast pulse, low BP, confusion• Vision changes. Clammy skin
  • Hyperglycemia• Weakness, flushed face, labored breathing, weak pulse, low BP
  • Treatment• hyperglycemia • hypoglycemia
  • Digestive Disorders Diverticulosis
  • GERD- gastroesophageal reflux
  • Gallstones• Pain in upper abd.• Pain back b/t shoulder blades• Pain lasts > 5 hours• N/V• Chills/fever
  • Hepatitis• Hepatitis A- fecal –oral• Hepatitis B/C-blood/body fluids