Teacher Notes:The purpose of the PowerPoint is to introduce students to the field of epidemiology. Time for lesson: 25 minutes, including class discussion time.The objectives are to:Explain epidemiology.Understand terminology associated with the investigation of disease outbreaks: surveillance, monitoring, prevalence, morbidity, mortality and risk.As students progress through their health science education, the understanding of basic terminology will help them make sense of what they read in the future. The terms in this unit will appear again and again as students read articles and study health science concepts.
Teacher Notes:This slide is designed to create a common definition for epidemiology, and to help students understand that epidemiologists study more than just communicable diseases, but also a number of conditions that affect the public health.
Teacher Notes:The purpose of this slide is to further describe what an epidemiologist does, and to help students understand the concept of PREVALENCE. We have included an example. Ask students to give you another example or two of PREVALENCE.
Teacher Notes:This slide is asking students to suggest things that a “disease detective” might do when investigating a disease. Student responses may include:Identify and keep track of who gets sick.Investigate the activities of the infected persons before they got sick. What do they have in common? Where did they go? What did they eat?The purpose is to find the cause of the illness and determine how to prevent it.
Teacher Notes:This slide explains the concept of surveillance. The key is for students to understand that epidemiologists don’t ONLY respond to outbreaks, they also go out looking for problems. In other words, they are not just reactive – they are proactive. (You may want to spend a few minutes helping students understand the difference. Most people would say that being proactive is a good characteristic for a healthcare professional.)
Teacher Notes:The textbook definition of MONITORING is – The regular review of disease data to determine changes in disease levels.It may be helpful to ask students to suggest examples of surveillance and monitoring. Their ability to generate examples will help them understand and remember the terminology.
Teacher Notes:Morbidity is the number of cases of illness, consequently, the 2nd bullet means that 300 out of 1000 children may get the flu during an epidemic, which is about 30%.
Teacher notes:This gives you a chance to review key terms with students.
Group discussion – Students should divided into groups of 3 – 5 to discuss what they think is the impact of epidemiology on healthcare delivery systems.There are no necessarily right or wrong answers, but students should be able to come up with a number of reasonable examples.
3 pp epidemiology
EpidemiologyFoundation Standard 33.14 Explain the impact of emerging issues such as technology, epidemiology, bioethics, andsocioeconomics on healthcare delivery systems.
What is epidemiology?• Epidemiology isthe study ofhealth anddisease inhumanpopulations.• It’s all aboutpublic health.Photo courtesy of CDC/ Dr. David M. Morens, Dr. Steve Thacker,from the Public Health Image Library.
Epidemiologists• Epidemiologists study– Communicable disease– Cardiovascular disease– Cancer– Mental illness– Accidents– And more….• Literally – they “count”!
Epidemiologists Count• For example, they count the number of times acondition (disease) occurs in relation to the totalnumber of people.• We call that PREVALENCE• So, if we counted the number of children withasthma in a community and determined that 5%had asthma, we could say that the PREVALENCEof asthma is 5% in this specific community.
Disease Detectives• Epidemiologists investigate disease outbreaks.• They determine where an outbreak came from, andhow to prevent it.• Think if them as “disease detectives.”• What if…a number of students at your schoolbecome sick with a strange illness. What questionswould you ask if you wanted to “investigate” thedisease outbreak?
Surveillance• Police watch a suspect or location todetermine what is taking place.• Epidemiologists also practice SURVEILLANCE,but they are searching for and documentingdisease.• SURVEILLANCE keeps track of a number of publichealth concerns, including abuse, violence,sexually transmitted diseases, and communicabledisease outbreaks.
Monitoring• MONITORING usessurveillance data to determinechanges in the number ofaffected (or infected) people.• MONITORING tells us if thereis more or less of a particulardisease/condition.• These measurements are usedto create a picture of how adisease is affecting society.Photo courtesy of CDC/ Edward Baker, M.D.,M.P.H. from the Public Health Image Library.
Incidence• INCIDENCE is thenumber of newcases of a diseaseor event in aspecificpopulation.• For example, epidemiologists might measure theincidence of influenza in children.• Is there anything you could measure theINCIDENCE of in your school?Photo courtesy of CDC/ Barbara Rice, from thePublic Health Image Library.
Morbidity• The number of cases of aspecific disease in a specificperiod of time per unit ofpopulation, usually describedas a number per 1000.• During an influenzaepidemic, influenzaMORBIDITY may reach300/1000 in children.Photo courtesy of CDC/ Dr. John Noble, Jr,from the Public Health Image Library.
Mortality• A measure of thenumber of deaths ina given population.• The Infant Mortalityrate in America is6.4 deaths per1,000 live births.• Is the data in thischart important?Why?Infant Mortality Rates2007Angola 184.4Austria 4.5Nigeria 95.5Spain 4.3Sweden 2.8Switzerland 4.3Syria 27.7United Kingdom 5.0United States 6.4Venezuela 20.9Zimbabwe 51.1Photo courtesy of CDC,from the Public HealthImage Library.
Risk• RISK is the likelihoodthat someone willbecome infected ordevelop a condition.• RELATIVE RISK may changerelevant to a specific factor.• A study reports that smokersface a relative risk of dyingfrom lung cancer 24 timeshigher than non-smokers. Photo courtesy of CDC, Perry, from thePublic Health Image Library.
In Review, What Is ??• Epidemiology• Prevalence• Surveillance• Monitoring• Incidence• Morbidity• Mortality• Risk• Relative Risk
Now You’re Talking Epidemiology!• What is the impact of epidemiology onthe healthcare delivery system?Photo courtesy of CDC/Hsi Liu, Ph.D., MBA,James Gathany, fromthe Public HealthImage Library.