The Beginnings of Life Nature	  and	  Nurture;	  Physical,	  Social,	  and	              Cogni7ve	  Development	   Source:...
The Beginnings of LifeCapacio, Krista Kae T. & Larrazabal, Ma. Amale Y.     Source:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilgard’s	  Introduc7...
Nature and NurtureHuman beings enter                                  Knowledge is acquired the world with an             ...
For short,HEREDITY                                               ENVIRONMENT Source:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilgard’s	  Introduc...
The mind of a newborn infant                                            is a tabula rasa (blank state).                   ...
19th              CenturyCHARLES DARWIN!
19th	                                   Century	  CHARLES DARWIN!  Theory	  of	  Evolu-on	  
19th                                 CenturyCHARLES DARWIN!  Theory	  of	  Evolu-on	           HEREDITY
BEHAVIORISM                                                                                           20th                ...
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, andmy own specified world to bring them up in, and I’llguarantee to take an...
Today, mostpsychologists agree not only that both nature        and nurture play  important roles butalso that they intera...
PHYSICAL  DevelopmentSource:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilgard’s	  Introduc7on	  to	  Psychology	  14th	  ed.	  	  
Newborn100 Billion Neurons                                                                  3 years but	  with	  few	  con...
Brain Development2-6 •  Left brain hemisphere develops moreyears          fully which may explain why children            ...
Brain Development                                   influenced	  by	  Geneticfactors                                       ...
Genes program us.maturation                A	  	  	  process	  that	  expresses	  gene7cally	                             ...
Fetal behavior                                                    Organ developmentkicking,	  turning,	  etc.	  	         ...
William James                                                     A	  newborn	  sees	  the	  world	  a	                   ...
Newborn             CapacitiesSource:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilgard’s	  Introduc7on	  to	  Psychology	  14th	  ed.	  	  
Vision                                                         limited focus                                              ...
Taste and Smell•  Babies prefer sweet-tasting liquids over others.•  Babies prefer breast milk over others.     Source:	  ...
Learning and Memory•  3-month-old babies already have good memories.       Source:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilgard’s	  Introduc7o...
Motor SkillsGross motor skillsInvolve	  the	  use	  of	  large	  bodily	  movements.	  	   Fine motor skillsInvolve	  the	...
Cognitive Development    in Childhood   Source:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilgard’s	  Introduc7on	  to	  Psychology	  14th	  ed.	  ...
Psychological	  thinking	                                                      about	  children’s	                        ...
Schemas	  Theories	  about	  how	  the	  physical	  and	  social	  worlds	  operates	        Source:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilg...
Piaget’s	  4	  Stages	  of	  Cogni-ve	  Development	  Sensorimotor	      stage	                                           ...
Sensorimotor Stage•  First 2 years!•  Relationship between actions   and consequences!•  Concept of themselves as   separa...
Preoperational Stage•  1 ½ - 2 years!•  Use symbols!•  Does not comprehend rules and   regulations or operations!•  Domina...
Operational Stages•    Ages between 7 & 12!•    Conservation concept!•    Logical manipulation!•    Form mental representa...
Alternatives to Piaget’s TheoryPiaget’s	  theory	  may	  be	  invalid	  because	  such	  factors	  may	  have	  affected	  ...
Theory of Mind•  Much of our behavior toward other   people is based on our understanding   of what they are thinking.! me...
1      At	  2,	  children	  have	  an	  understanding	  of	  simple	  desires,	         emo7ons,	  and	  perceptual	  expe...
Overall	  level	  of	  cogni7ve	  development	  determines	  ones	                         MORAL JUDGEMENT     Children’s	...
3    Children give weigh to subjective     consideration. !4     Youngsters show interest in generating      rules to deal...
Personality and Social   Development   Source:	  Atkinson	  &	  Hilgard’s	  Introduc7on	  to	  Psychology	  14th	  ed.	  	  
TEMPERAMENTMood-related personality characteristics.!     Research	  emphasizes	  that	  con7nuity	  or	    discon7nuity	 ...
EARLY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR                             Parent-­‐child	  bond:	  Child smiles!                                  ...
ATTACHMENT  An infant’s tendency to seek closeness  to particular people and to feel more  secure in their presence. !   A...
The	  mother’s	  behavior	  appears	  to	  be	  the	  most	  important	            factor	  in	  establishing	  secure	  a...
LATER DEVELOPMENTSecurely	  a5ached	  babies	  mostly	  turned	  out	  to	  be	  enthusias7c,	  posi9ve,	  and	  non-­‐pro...
EFFECTS OF DAY CARE      Children	  are	  not	  significantly	  affected	  by	                      nonmaternal	  care.	  	 ...
GENDER IDENTITYA firm sense of oneself as either male orfemale!   SEX TYPINGAcquisition of behavioral characteristicsthat ...
But are gender identity and sex typing simplythe product of cultural        prescriptions and expectations, or a arethey p...
Psychoanalytic TheorySigmund Freud! 3                   “Beginning	  of	  the	  Phallic	  Stage	  of	  years              ...
Social Learning TheorySex typing is because of the way a sexis treated in a culture. ! Contradictions  •       Children th...
Cognitive-Developmental TheoryProposes that gender identity plays acritical role in sex typing. ! 2               •  Child...
3              •  Children are able to separate photos of years                 boys and girls but do not know if they    ...
Gender-Schema Theory A set of beliefs about gender.!•  Children become sex-typed because sex is a major  focus around whic...
SOURCESMain source:!         Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.Source of photos:!         Google ™
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Beginnings of Life

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Beginnings of Life

  1. 1. The Beginnings of Life Nature  and  Nurture;  Physical,  Social,  and   Cogni7ve  Development   Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  2. 2. The Beginnings of LifeCapacio, Krista Kae T. & Larrazabal, Ma. Amale Y. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  3. 3. Nature and NurtureHuman beings enter Knowledge is acquired the world with an through experiences and inborn store of interactions with the knowledge and world. understanding of reality. 17th CenturyCould be accessed through careful reasoning and introspection. JOHN LOCKE! Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  4. 4. For short,HEREDITY ENVIRONMENT Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  5. 5. The mind of a newborn infant is a tabula rasa (blank state). Knowledge is provided entirely by experience; there JOHN LOCKE! is no built-in knowledge.Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  6. 6. 19th CenturyCHARLES DARWIN!
  7. 7. 19th   Century  CHARLES DARWIN! Theory  of  Evolu-on  
  8. 8. 19th CenturyCHARLES DARWIN! Theory  of  Evolu-on   HEREDITY
  9. 9. BEHAVIORISM 20th Century B.F. Skinner Human nature is John B. Watson completely malleable.Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  10. 10. “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, andmy own specified world to bring them up in, and I’llguarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select—doctor,lawyer, artist, merchant chief, and yes, even beggar- man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” (1930)Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  11. 11. Today, mostpsychologists agree not only that both nature and nurture play important roles butalso that they interact continuously to guide development. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  12. 12. PHYSICAL DevelopmentSource:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  13. 13. Newborn100 Billion Neurons 3 years but  with  few  connec-ons   3x larger brain Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  14. 14. Brain Development2-6 •  Left brain hemisphere develops moreyears fully which may explain why children acquire language quickly.! !Middle •  Handedness—the preference for usingchildhood one hand ! !
  15. 15. Brain Development influenced  by  Geneticfactors Stimulation or deprivation afetal  behavior   child receives from the environment in early years.Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  16. 16. Genes program us.maturation A      process  that  expresses  gene7cally   determined  characteris7cs.   A  determined  sequence  of  growth  or   change  that  is  rela7vely  independent   of  external  events.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  17. 17. Fetal behavior Organ developmentkicking,  turning,  etc.     If  the  mother  contracts  Follows  an  orderly  sequence   rubella,  damage  depending  on  stage  growth.   depends  on  which  organ   system  was  developing   during  the  7me  of   3 months of  pregnancy   infec7on     Motor Development AEer  birth   Illustrates  the  interac7on   between  gene7cally   programmed  matura7on  and   environmental  influences.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  18. 18. William James A  newborn  sees  the  world  a   buzzing,   blooming   confusion.   Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  19. 19. Newborn CapacitiesSource:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  20. 20. Vision limited focus nearsightedHearing Able to distinguish different sounds.Proof: head-turning response Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  21. 21. Taste and Smell•  Babies prefer sweet-tasting liquids over others.•  Babies prefer breast milk over others. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  22. 22. Learning and Memory•  3-month-old babies already have good memories. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  23. 23. Motor SkillsGross motor skillsInvolve  the  use  of  large  bodily  movements.     Fine motor skillsInvolve  the  use  of  small  bodily  movements.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  24. 24. Cognitive Development in Childhood Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  25. 25. Psychological  thinking   about  children’s   cogni7ve  development   is  dominated  by     two perspectives. Environmen-­‐ tal-­‐learning   perspec-ve   Biological   Matura-on  Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  26. 26. Schemas  Theories  about  how  the  physical  and  social  worlds  operates   Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  27. 27. Piaget’s  4  Stages  of  Cogni-ve  Development  Sensorimotor   stage   Stage  of Concrete Operations   Stage  of Formal Preoperational Operations   stage   Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  28. 28. Sensorimotor Stage•  First 2 years!•  Relationship between actions and consequences!•  Concept of themselves as separate form the external world!object permanence Awareness that an object continues to exist when it is not present.! Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  29. 29. Preoperational Stage•  1 ½ - 2 years!•  Use symbols!•  Does not comprehend rules and regulations or operations!•  Dominated by visual impressions ! egocentrismBelief that everyone sees things the way youdo. ! Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  30. 30. Operational Stages•  Ages between 7 & 12!•  Conservation concept!•  Logical manipulation!•  Form mental representations of a series of actions!Concrete Operational StageAlthough children are using abstract terms, they are doing so in relation to concrete objects—objects to which they have direct sensory access.! Formal Operational StageThe person is able to reason in purely symbolic terms.! Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  31. 31. Alternatives to Piaget’s TheoryPiaget’s  theory  may  be  invalid  because  such  factors  may  have  affected  child’s  response.    Informa-on-­‐Processing  Approaches  Informa7on-­‐processing  skills—specific  skills  at  gathering  and  analyzing  informa7on  from  the  environment.  Knowledge-­‐Acquisi-on  Approaches  Knowledge—understanding    of  how  facts  in  a  par7cular  domain  are  organized.  Sociocultural  Approaches  Culture  can  influence  children’s  development  in  several  ways.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  32. 32. Theory of Mind•  Much of our behavior toward other people is based on our understanding of what they are thinking.! metacognition Thinking about thinking.! which  is  generally  HOW DOES A CHILD’S THEORY OF MIND DEVELOP? 3 steps Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  33. 33. 1 At  2,  children  have  an  understanding  of  simple  desires,   emo7ons,  and  perceptual  experiences  but  do  not   understand  that  people  mentally  represent  both   objects  and  their  own  desires  and  beliefs.    2 At  3,  children  begin  to  talk  about  beliefs  and  thoughts   as  well  as  desires,  and  seem  to  understand  that  beliefs   can  be  false  and  true.  Yet,  they  con7nue  to  explain   their  own  ac7ons  and  others  by  appealing  to  desires   rather  than  beliefs.    3 At  4,  children  begin  to  understand  that  people’s   thoughts  and  beliefs  affect  their  behaviors  and  that   people  can  have  beliefs  that  simply  do  not  reflect   reality.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  34. 34. Overall  level  of  cogni7ve  development  determines  ones   MORAL JUDGEMENT Children’s  understanding  of  moral  rules  and  social   conven-ons  He  proposed  that  children’s  understanding  of  rules  develops  in  a   series  of  4  stages:   1 Children have no collective purpose.! 2 Children act more by the consequence rather than by the intentions behind an action. ! Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  35. 35. 3 Children give weigh to subjective consideration. !4 Youngsters show interest in generating rules to deal even with situations they never encountered. ! Ideological mode of moral reasoning.!Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  36. 36. Personality and Social Development Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  37. 37. TEMPERAMENTMood-related personality characteristics.! Research  emphasizes  that  con7nuity  or   discon7nuity  of  temperament  is  a  func7on  of   the  interac-on  between  the  child’s  genotype  (inherited  characteris-c)  and  the  environment.   Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  38. 38. EARLY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Parent-­‐child  bond:  Child smiles! Parent encouraged! 8 Stranger Anxiety! months 14 -18 Separation Anxiety! months This is because of •  Memory capacity 3 Secure! •  Autonomy years Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  39. 39. ATTACHMENT An infant’s tendency to seek closeness to particular people and to feel more secure in their presence. ! A  caregiver’s  sensi-ve  responsiveness  to  baby’s  needs   produces  secure  aYachment.  A  caregiver’s  response  is  not  the  major  cause  of  aJachment   behaviors.     AYachment  paYerns  may  reflect  this  interac-on  between   baby’s  temperament  and  parent’s  responsiveness.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  40. 40. The  mother’s  behavior  appears  to  be  the  most  important   factor  in  establishing  secure  aYachment.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  41. 41. LATER DEVELOPMENTSecurely  a5ached  babies  mostly  turned  out  to  be  enthusias7c,  posi9ve,  and  non-­‐problema7c.  They   are  beJer  equipped  to  cope  with  new  experience.    Insecurely  a5ached  babies  grew  frustrated,  angry,   and  nega9ve;  they  easily  give  up  given  difficul7es.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  42. 42. EFFECTS OF DAY CARE Children  are  not  significantly  affected  by   nonmaternal  care.     Good  quality  day  care  can  reduce  the  effects  of   growing  up  in  a  highly  stressed  home  life.     Low  quality  day  care  however,  may  lead  to   nega7ve  effects  on  a  child.     Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  43. 43. GENDER IDENTITYA firm sense of oneself as either male orfemale! SEX TYPINGAcquisition of behavioral characteristicsthat a culture considers apporpirate toones sex. ! Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  44. 44. But are gender identity and sex typing simplythe product of cultural prescriptions and expectations, or a arethey partly a product of “natural” development??? Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  45. 45. Psychoanalytic TheorySigmund Freud! 3 “Beginning  of  the  Phallic  Stage  of  years Psychosexual  Development”   •  Children are aware of their reproductive organ. •  They develop sexual feelings to the opposite sex. •  Oedipal Effect—they feel jealous of their same sex parent •  Later on diminishes as child wants to become that of the same sex parent—sex typing. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  46. 46. Social Learning TheorySex typing is because of the way a sexis treated in a culture. ! Contradictions •  Children themselves may construct and enforce their own exaggerated version of society’s gender rules. •  Development patterns to the child’s view of gender rules. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  47. 47. Cognitive-Developmental TheoryProposes that gender identity plays acritical role in sex typing. ! 2 •  Children are able to identify their own sexyears in a photo. •  Able to identify sex of a stereotypically dressed man or woman in a photo but cannot predict another child’s toy preference. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  48. 48. 3 •  Children are able to separate photos of years boys and girls but do not know if they will either become a mother of a father.Gender Constancy The understanding that a person’s sex remains the same despite changes in age and appearance. Contradiction Children have strong and clear preference for activities deemed appropriate for their sex long before they attain gender constancy. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  49. 49. Gender-Schema Theory A set of beliefs about gender.!•  Children become sex-typed because sex is a major focus around which their culture chooses to organize its view of reality.•  It implies that if the culture becomes less sex typed, children will be less sex typed in their behavior and self-concept. Source:  Atkinson  &  Hilgard’s  Introduc7on  to  Psychology  14th  ed.    
  50. 50. SOURCESMain source:! Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 14th ed.Source of photos:! Google ™
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