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World hosts report_2014_03 World hosts report_2014_03 Document Transcript

  • Announcement New Methodology Coming Soon The HE Index, introduced in December 2009, has become a widely-used metric in the industry for tracking cybercrime and assigning reputations to Autonomous Systems. HostExploit is pleased to announce that a new methodology is being developed for the next report that will enable greater accuracy of data, higher granularity and many more features. Alongside the new methodology, the following services will be upgraded: HostExploit • New website with easier access to archived reports • Blocklists and other host tools SiteVet • New website with members’ features • Higher granularity, from Country level all the way down to Domains and URLs • Customisable blocklists and reports • Email alerts and notifications HostExploit’s World Hosts Report March 2014 ISBN 978-0-9836249-6-7
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 2 In association with ECYFEDEditor Jart Armin Reviewers Dr. Bob Bruen Raoul Chiesa Peter Kruse Andre’ DiMino Thorsten Kraft Andrey Komarov Godert Jan van Manen Steven Dondorp Edgardo Montes de Oca Contributors Steve Burn Greg Feezel Andrew Fields David Glosser Niels Groeneveld Matthias Simonis Will Rogofsky Philip Stranger Bryn Thompson DeepEnd Research Comparative Data AA419 Abuse.CH Clean-MX.DE Cyscon SIRT Emerging Threats Google Safe Browsing Group-IB HostExploit hpHosts ISC KnujOn MalwareDomains MalwareDomainList RashBL Robtex Shadowserver SiteVet Spamhaus SRI International StopBadware SudoSecure Team Cymru The Measurement Factory UCE-Protect Partner of the ACDC project
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 3 Table of Contents Introduction����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������4 Editorial4 Disclaimer4 Frequently Asked Questions������������������������������������������������������������������������5 Methodology5 Definitions 5 Top 50 Hosts���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������6 Top 10s������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7 Top 10 Visual Breakdown 7 Top 10 Newly Registered 7 Top 10 Countries 8 Hosts by Topic������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������9 Infected Web Sites 9 Botnet C&Cs 10 Spam11 Phishing12 Current Events 13 Zeus Botnets 14 Exploits15 Badware16 Appendix 1: Glossary�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������17 Appendix 2: Methodology���������������������������������������������������������������������������19
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 4 Editorial In what appears to be a continuing theme, the three worst positions on the HE Index are held by hosts or networks registered in the United States. The HE Index represents concentrations of malicious activity detected on web hosts and networks, in a report spanning three months. It may not be a surprise to find that the three US-based hosts topping the rankings are the same as in the previous quarter - although this time 1st and 3rd places are reversed. AS11042 Landis Holdings moved to the top of the rankings while AS33182 HostDime.com shifted to third. AS26347 New Dream Network remained anchored in second place. Closer investigation reveals that a lot more happened than these position changes might, at first, suggest. Looking at the individual categories that collectively form the quantification metrics of the HE Index, exposes the nature of the deterioration in AS11042 Landis Holdings’ position. During the reporting period, Zeus botnet activity increased significantly on the servers of AS11042 Landis Holdings. Similarly, there was increased malicious activity on the servers of AS26347 New Dream Network with more Infected Websites and Exploits but the surge was not sufficient to take the top position from AS11042 Landis Holdings. Third placed AS33182 HostDime had the fewest changes of the top three which, although nothing to be proud of as very little has been done to clean up their networks, engendered the drop in the table, albeit on the back of increased malicious activity on the servers of two other US-registered hosts. On a global scale, smaller countries with lower levels of regulations remain the location of choice for professional, cybercriminal servers, with the Virgin Islands, Belrus and Kyrgyzstan all making the Top 10. Cyprus is not only a new entrant to Top 10 countries list, but has gone straight to top spot for its large concentrations of Current Events, Spam and Zeus botnet activities. Lastly, despite the appearance of hosts from the United States and Russia in the Top 10, both countries have gone down in the overall country rankings. Disclaimer Every reasonable effort has been made to assure that the source data for this report was up to date, accurate, complete and comprehensive at the time of the analysis. However, reports are not represented to be error-free and the data we use may be subject to update and correction without notice. HostExploit or any of its partners including CyberDefcon, Group-IB and CSIS are not responsible for data that is misrepresented, misinterpreted or altered in any way. Derived conclusions and analysis generated from this data are not to be considered attributable to HostExploit or to our community partners. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Please contact CyberDefcon to use this work. Introduction Get in touch If you like what we do and would like to be involved, why not become a HostExploit sponsor or partner? We are continually looking to improve on what we do by expanding our outreach. If you think you can be of assistance, we would love to hear from you. Get in touch at contact@hostexploit.com
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 5 Methodology InDecember2009,weintroducedtheHEIndexasanumericalrepresentationofthe‘badness’ of an Autonomous System (AS). Although generally well-received by the community, we have since received many constructive questions, some of which we will attempt to answer here. Why doesn’t the list show absolute badness instead of proportional badness? A core characteristic of the index is that it is weighted by the size of the allocated address space of the AS, and for this reason it does not represent the total bad activity that takes place on the AS. Statistics of total badness would, undoubtedly, be useful for webmasters and system administrators who want to limit their routing traffic, but the HE Index is intended to highlight security malpractice among many of the world’s internet hosting providers, which includes the loose implementation of abuse regulations. Shouldn’t larger organizations be responsible for re-investing profits in better security regulation? The HE Index gives higher weighting to ASes with smaller address spaces, but this relationship is not linear. We have used an “uncertainty factor” or Bayesian factor, to model this responsibility, which boosts figures for larger address spaces. The critical address size has been increased from 10,000 to 20,000 in this report to further enhance this effect. If these figures are not aimed at webmasters, at whom are they targeted? The reports are recommended reading for webmasters wanting to gain a vital understanding of what is happening in the world of information security beyond their daily lives. Our main goal, though, is to raise awareness about the source of security issues. The HE Index quantifies the extent to which organizations allow illegal activities to occur - or rather, fail to prevent it. Why do these hosts allow this activity? It is important to state that by publishing these results, HostExploit does not claim that many of the hosting providers listed knowingly consent to the illicit activity carried out on their servers. It is important to consider many hosts are also victims of cybercrime. Definitions IPs Throughout the report, the field “IPs” refers to the number of originating IPv4 addresses allocated to the AS. In the context of countries, it is the sum of the “IPs” for each AS in that country. Country Since an AS will usually be physically routed across multiple countries, HostExploit determines the most prominent country of origin for ASes based on their routing locations and registration data. HE Index HostExploit’s quantitative metric, representing the concentration of malicious activity served from an Autonomous System. HE Rank Rank of the Index compared to all 44,556 ASes. Please see the Glossary for further definitions. Frequently Asked Questions
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 6 HE Rank HE Index ASN Name Country IPs 1 291.22 11042 Landis Holdings Inc US 28,416 2 289.08 26347 New Dream Network, LLC US 156,928 3 248.71 33182 HostDime.com, Inc. US 78,848 4 245.64 31034 Aruba S.p.A. IT 145,664 5 242.00 29182 ISPsystem RU 44,544 6 239.48 47583 Hostinger International US 13,568 7 219.72 13335 CloudFlare, Inc. US 258,560 8 211.48 12824 home.pl PL 204,800 9 191.78 25532 Masterhost RU 77,824 10 191.71 26496 GoDaddy.com, LLC US 1,768,192 11 187.04 8560 1&1 Internet AG DE 372,224 12 182.24 16276 OVH Systems FR 1,079,552 13 180.30 34619 Cizgi Telekomunikasyon TR 30,208 14 179.01 25504 Vautron Rechenzentrum AG DE 22,784 15 169.96 46606 Unified Layer US 648,960 16 168.71 27823 Dattatec.com AR 12,288 17 166.51 38955 World4You Internet Services AT 6,400 18 163.94 16265 LeaseWeb B.V. NL 397,824 19 162.89 29073 Ecatel Network NL 12,800 20 161.04 40034 Confluence Networks Inc VG 16,128 21 161.00 48159 Telecommunication Infrastructure IR 385,728 22 160.02 24940 Hetzner Online AG DE 705,280 23 159.48 43146 Agava Ltd. RU 20,736 24 157.23 36351 SoftLayer Technologies Inc. US 1,453,824 25 156.97 50465 IQHost Ltd RU 2,048 26 151.78 51559 Netinternet TR 19,200 27 149.34 54444 Avesta Networks LLC US 5,888 28 147.53 42244 eServer.ru Ltd. RU 36,352 29 145.19 35415 Webazilla B.V. NL 77,056 30 143.64 42807 Aerotek Bilisim Taahhut Sanayi TR 9,984 31 142.84 30633 Leaseweb USA US 81,152 32 142.22 41079 SuperHost.pl PL 4,608 33 140.56 41126 JSC Centrohost RU 4,096 34 138.82 53225 IPGLOBE DATACENTER BR 11,008 35 135.10 50810 Mobin Net Communication IR 275,456 36 134.50 15626 ITL Company UA 31,232 37 134.31 9891 CS Loxinfo TH 25,344 38 133.07 15169 Google Inc. US 690,432 39 132.00 31815 Media Temple, Inc. US 113,152 40 131.10 47869 Netrouting Data Facilities NL 26,112 41 131.00 44112 SpaceWeb JSC RU 3,584 42 129.92 18479 Universo Online S.A. BR 24,064 43 129.67 29076 CITYTELECOM-AS Filanco LTD RU 45,824 44 129.44 15244 Lunar Pages US 53,248 45 125.43 34023 PE Shattah Zia G.Naman EU 256 46 124.88 4134 Chinanet Backbone CN 118,838,272 47 122.74 29873 The Endurance International Group US 100,352 48 122.68 4837 China169 Backbone CN 55,455,232 49 122.14 132524 Tata Institute IN 1,536 50 121.80 45839 PIRADIUS NET MY 18,688 Top 50 Hosts A list of the 50 ASes with the highest HE Indexes i.e. the highest observed concentrations of malicious activity. Autonomous System (AS) A logical collection of Internet routes, controlled by an organization or ISP. ASN Unique number assigned to the AS. HE Index HostExploit’s quantitative metric, representing the concentration of malicious activity served from an Autonomous System. HE Rank Rank of the Index compared to all 46,022 ASes. IPs Number of Internet Protocol addresses assigned to the AS.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 7 Top 10 Visual Breakdown Top 10 Newly Registered The following 10 ASes have the highest Indexes out of the 2,699 ASes registered since the last report. These could potentially be of future interest. HE Rank HE Index ASN Name Country IPs 183 82.064 133042 OBEC TH 2,304 192 80.026 262279 Agencia na Web Sistemas BR 8,192 261 70.592 8069 Microsoft Corporation US 0 706 44.945 62605 Brain Host, LLC US 4,096 960 37.009 262808 Brasilnet Telecomunicaes BR 8,192 1,371 29.022 12876 ONLINE S.A.S. FR 180,224 1,471 27.707 60897 IDEAL HOSTING TR 3,072 1,671 25.307 262701 Brasil Telecomunicacoes BR 5,120 1,694 25.029 62588 Active Solutions Group US 1,280 2,004 21.994 22905 SoftCom America Inc. US 20,992 Number of ASes At September 2013 report 44,556 As of this report 46,022 New ASes 2,699 Removed 1,233 Net gain 1,466 What’s this? The chart to the left gives a visual representation of how much of a contribution each sector makes to an AS’s Index. This enables you to see where a host needs to make the most improvement at a quick glance. Top 10s
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 8 Top 10 Countries Country Name ASes IPs Rank Index CY CYPRUS 55 1,944,832 216 18.0 Highest sector Zeus botnets 1 512.6 2nd-highest sector Current events 21 238.3 3rd-highest sector Spam 204 32.1 BY BELARUS 78 2,130,944 6 287.9 Highest sector Spam 3 560.2 2nd-highest sector Zeus botnets 2 502.4 3rd-highest sector Botnet C&Cs 2 375.1 VG VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH 7 24,320 2 442.8 Highest sector Botnet C&Cs 1 901.1 2nd-highest sector Phishing 1 874.1 3rd-highest sector Current events 1 821.3 PL POLAND 1,640 22,498,624 4 323.9 Highest sector Current events 2 770.9 2nd-highest sector Phishing 4 486.0 3rd-highest sector Zeus botnets 4 461.3 TR TURKEY 309 22,590,976 9 243.1 Highest sector Current events 4 481.4 2nd-highest sector Zeus botnets 5 344.8 3rd-highest sector Botnet C&Cs 6 220.6 HU HUNGARY 177 4,919,296 13 221.9 Highest sector Current events 3 482.2 2nd-highest sector Phishing 5 436.2 3rd-highest sector Zeus botnets 6 339.2 RU RUSSIAN FEDERATION 4,247 54,832,928 8 256.5 Highest sector Phishing 7 395.9 2nd-highest sector Current events 7 392.6 3rd-highest sector Badware 4 368.7 CZ CZECH REPUBLIC 455 9,555,520 11 228.2 Highest sector Phishing 2 513.3 2nd-highest sector Current events 6 470.9 3rd-highest sector Zeus botnets 8 295.6 IT ITALY 606 49,187,840 19 177.0 Highest sector Zeus botnets 9 291.4 2nd-highest sector Current events 22 227.6 3rd-highest sector Spam 23 213.2 US UNITED STATES 14,720 1,236,822,624 10 234.7 Highest sector Current events 11 323.6 2nd-highest sector Zeus botnets 10 280.6 3rd-highest sector Phishing 9 231.5 What’s this? We calculate an index for each country using a similar methodology to that for individual ASes. The Country Index scores a country’s badness levels out of 1,000, without being driven too strongly by the number of hosts in that country. The table to the right shows the resulting Top 10 countries from this methodology, along with the three sectors with the highest indexes.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 9 Infected Web Sites Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 906.7 47583 Hostinger International US 13,568 6 239.5 869.0 13335 CloudFlare, Inc. US 258,560 7 219.7 858.6 26347 New Dream Network, LLC US 156,928 2 289.1 661.4 11042 Landis Holdings Inc US 28,416 1 291.2 646.3 27823 Dattatec.com AR 12,288 16 168.7 610.1 12824 home.pl PL 204,800 8 211.5 598.2 33182 HostDime.com, Inc. US 78,848 3 248.7 528.1 25504 Vautron Rechenzentrum AG DE 22,784 14 179.0 468.8 31034 Aruba S.p.A. IT 145,664 4 245.6 458.4 41079 SuperHost.pl PL 4,608 32 142.2 7 of the top 10 ASes in the overall HE Index all feature in the top 10 for Infected Web Sites, as this category is a central component of a variety of cyber threats. In many cases this will be a byproduct of larger hacks and malicious activity, rather than a standalone infection. Once again, half of the hosts featured are US-based, with ease of registration being key for a quick turnover of infected web sites. Did you know? This category features more ASes from the overall top 10 than any other Hosts by Topic The numbers AS27823 Dattatec.com is the highest-ranked South American AS in the overall HE Index, at #16
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 10 Botnet C&Cs Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 971.5 50465 IQHost Ltd RU 2,048 25 157.0 828.4 56617 SIA "VPS Hosting" LV 1,024 51 120.0 665.4 61322 Sotal-Interactive ZAO RU 256 201 78.2 582.6 29182 ISPsystem RU 44,544 5 242.0 441.4 57010 IT House Ltd. RU 2,560 184 82.0 399.5 26230 Telecom Ottawa Limited CA 21,248 530 52.8 398.5 43355 UPL Telecom s.r.o. CZ 6,144 420 59.1 301.8 38731 Vietel - CHT Compamy Ltd VN 20,736 94 101.8 290.8 8069 Microsoft Corp US 0 261 70.6 288.5 47900 Art-master LLC UA 256 1,062 34.7 The botnet category continues to be dominated by ASes in Eastern Europe. The inclusion of a Microsoft AS at #9 is unexpected. As a newly-registered AS, it is likely to be due to configuration issues. AS50465 IQHost continues to hold the top position, having done so since 2012. The numbers 114 botnet C&Cs were observed in this period, down from 124 in the previous report. This is lower than the total number of incidences in any other category. The power that each C&C holds, however, underlines their importance from a security perspective. Did you know? Sotal-Interactive and ISPsystem are both primarily hosted out of Russia, but registered in Ukraine and Luxembourg, respectively.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 11 Spam Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 757.2 48159 Telecommunication Inf... IR 385,728 21 161.0 720.3 53225 IPGLOBE DATACENTER BR 11,008 34 138.8 702.4 50810 Mobin Net Communication IR 275,456 35 135.1 582.4 57879 sfip84 DE 5,120 65 112.4 551.9 45727 Three Hutchison US 16,384 84 106.4 539.7 24203 PT Excelcomindo Pratama ID 8,960 89 104.1 514.4 48359 Hesabgar Pardaz Gharb Co. IR 7,168 103 99.3 445.8 22368 TELEBUCARAMANGA S.A. CO 89,344 157 85.8 433.3 16322 PARSONLINE IR 507,648 112 95.0 424.6 133042 OBEC TH 2,304 183 82.1 The top positions in this category follow the trend seen in previous reports. Spammers continue to prefer countries with the lowest levels of regulations and barriers to AS registration. Eight of the top 10 hosts fit this description, with Iran, Brazil, Indonesia and Thailand represented here. What do we do? For this category, we examine traditional spam servers as well as spam bots, crawlers and community- driven IP reputations. The numbers More than 100,000 sources of spam were examined during the reporting period.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 12 Phishing Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 920.3 47846 Sedo GmbH DE 1,280 166 83.9 815.8 47583 Hostinger International US 13,568 6 239.5 318.1 15169 Google Inc. US 690,432 38 133.1 299.7 26347 New Dream Network, LLC US 156,928 2 289.1 265.0 33182 HostDime.com, Inc. US 78,848 3 248.7 248.3 30060 VeriSign Infrastructure US 5,376 312 66.9 240.5 40034 Confluence Networks Inc VG 16,128 20 161.0 233.9 46816 DirectSpace Networks, LLC. US 8,192 450 57.3 232.9 11042 Landis Holdings Inc US 28,416 1 291.2 230.7 46606 Unified Layer US 648,960 15 170.0 Major web hosting companies in regulated countries dominate the top 10 positions in this category, including all three of our aforementioned ‘worst’ hosts. In this fast moving sector, phishers prefer the ease and availability of hosting in established regions. Since phishing sites are short-lived, guarantees of uptime are not needed and so it is not necessary to host from unregulated regions. The increased apparent legitimacy of a banking or e-commerce site being hosted from the United States or the United Kingdom is, however, beneficial to a phishing scam. The numbers 803 unique phishing campaigns were examined during this reporting period. Did you know? Cisco estimated in 2012 that around 100 billion dollars were lost to phishing attacks, from both corporations and consumers.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 13 Current Events Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 925.8 34023 PE Shattah Zia G.Naman EU 256 45 125.4 818.6 30633 Leaseweb USA US 81,152 31 142.8 649.0 32527 FriendFinder Networks US 2,560 216 76.2 633.3 45682 Excite Japan Co., Ltd. JP 2,048 228 74.4 568.8 31080 o2 Sp. Z.o.o. PL 512 168 83.8 479.5 48271 City Telecom KG 8,192 145 88.2 421.0 46179 MediaFire, LLC US 3,072 595 49.8 363.4 6870 H1 LLC RU 7,168 753 43.0 338.1 47583 Hostinger International US 13,568 6 239.5 291.4 39743 Voxility S.R.L. RO 47,360 66 112.3 As the name suggests, Currents Events is a fast-changing sector, which results in a variety of hosts being used to host new types of malicious content, and large movements from month to month. This results in a wide variety of ASes being include, from telecoms (AS31080 o2) to file hosting (AS46179 MediaFire) to web services (AS32527 FriendFinder). Did you know? Current Events is HostExploit’s own measurement of the most up- to-date and fast-changing attack vectors being utilized worldwide. These have recently included variants of MALfi attacks (XSS/RCE/ RFI/LFI), clickjacking techniques, and large botnets. The numbers Nearly 150,000 current events instances were observed over the reporting period.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 14 Zeus Botnets Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 971.5 54444 Avesta Networks LLC US 5,888 27 149.3 784.8 34201 Padicom Solutions SRL RO 6,400 127 91.7 669.8 58271 LinkUp Ltd. UA 3,584 79 106.9 504.4 52048 DataClub S.A. LV 2,048 246 71.7 498.7 35415 Webazilla B.V. NL 77,056 29 145.2 495.9 57230 Aria Web Development LLC GB 2,560 152 87.1 412.2 24607 LENET UAB LT 9,216 576 50.6 402.3 51852 Private Layer INC CH 27,904 67 112.3 399.6 11042 Landis Holdings Inc US 28,416 1 291.2 345.9 30968 Infobox.ru RU 41,216 121 92.6 The rankings for Zeus Botnets mirrors those of Botnet C&Cs, with many Eastern European ASes represented, and a couple of surprise inclusions (AS57230 Aria Web Development) The top ranked AS from the previous report, AS57668 Santrex, has dropped out of the top 10 entirely. Did you know? Zeus, a form of botnet delivered via a trojan payload, remains one of the most popular varieties of botnet, some 6 years after it first gained popularity in the underground cybercriminal scene. Zeus has been continually improved, with its many variations proving to be adept at bypassing security systems and gathering large networks of zombie machines. The numbers The total number of Zeus servers observed has continued to remain nearly constant. This suggests that Zeus continues to be a successful and profitable botnet toolkit of choice.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 15 Exploits Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 947.3 25532 Masterhost RU 77,824 9 191.8 480.6 24973 KONTENT GmbH DE 4,096 154 86.4 470.2 8560 1&1 Internet AG DE 372,224 11 187.0 458.2 43541 VSHosting s.r.o. CZ 14,336 100 99.9 458.1 38277 CommuniLink Internet Lim... HK 5,632 129 90.7 451.2 7941 Internet Archive US 6,144 69 111.2 420.1 26347 New Dream Network, LLC US 156,928 2 289.1 419.8 31034 Aruba S.p.A. IT 145,664 4 245.6 394.0 34755 Turkiye Odalar Borsalar TR 768 1,210 31.7 389.0 12824 home.pl PL 204,800 8 211.5 This category continues to include repeat offenders, with AS25532 Masterhost, AS8560 1&1, and AS43541 VSHosting all having been present in the previous report. In fact, all of the Top 5 here were all present in this same category in the previous quarter. AS25532 Masterhost is proving to be a consistent choice of registrar for Exploits. Did you know? Exploits and the web sites that serve them are a key piece of the cybercrime puzzle, as they often provide the first point-of-entrance into a victim’s computer. Exploits take advantage of vulnerabilities in software, which may or may not be publicly-known. The exploit may utilize other code that directly harms the victim’s system, or it may only be used by the attacker as a payload to take initial control of the machine. The numbers The top 10 ASes in this category account for over 21% of all exploits observed during the reporting period, up from 16% last report.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 16 Badware Index ASN Name Country IPs HE Rank HE Index 607.5 31034 Aruba S.p.A. IT 145,664 4 245.6 526.6 38955 World4You Internet Services AT 6,400 17 166.5 457.6 26347 New Dream Network, LLC US 156,928 2 289.1 413.5 33182 HostDime.com, Inc. US 78,848 3 248.7 406.1 34619 Cizgi Telekomunikasyon TR 30,208 13 180.3 402.4 8560 1&1 Internet AG DE 372,224 11 187.0 395.6 11042 Landis Holdings Inc US 28,416 1 291.2 394.0 132524 Tata Institute IN 1,536 49 122.1 376.7 41079 SuperHost.pl PL 4,608 32 142.2 339.1 42807 Aerotek Bilisim Taahhut TR 9,984 30 143.6 Six ASes in this category have remained in the top 10 from the previous report,. This makes it one of the most surprisingly stable sets of listed hosts under this category, since the badware sector is very fast changing. Badware is responsive to short-term trends and the hosts in this category will, by necessity, change accordingly. Our top four ‘worst’ hosts also feature highly in this category, which taken together with equally high scores for phishing and infected websites, suggest similar requirements of the hosts selected to serve these types of malicious activities. Did you know? Badware fundamentally disregards how users might choose to employ their own computer. Examples of such software include spyware, types of malware, rogues, and deceptive adware. It commonly appears in the form of free screensavers that surreptitiously generate advertisements, redirects that take browsers to unexpected web pages and keylogger programs that transmit personal data to malicious third parties. The numbers The top 10 hosts in this category account for 12% of the total instances of badware observed, down signifcantly from 23% last report.
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 17 AS (Autonomous System) An AS is a unit of router policy, either a single network or a group of networks that is controlled by a common network administrator on behalf of an entity such as a university, a business enterprise, or Internet service provider. An AS is also sometimes referred to as a routing domain. Each autonomous system is assigned a globally unique number called an Autonomous System Number (ASN). Badware Software that fundamentally disregards a user’s choice regarding about how his or her computer will be used. Types of badware are spyware, malware, or deceptive adware. Common examples of badware include free screensavers that surreptitiously generate advertisements, malicious web browser toolbars that take your browser to different pages than the ones you expect, and keylogger programs that can transmit your personal data to malicious parties. Blacklists In computing, a blacklist is a basic access control mechanism that allows access much like your ordinary nightclub; everyone is allowed in except people on the blacklist. The opposite of this is a whitelist, equivalent of your VIP nightclub, which means allow nobody, except members of the white list. As a sort of middle ground, a gray list contains entries that are temporarily blocked or temporarily allowed. Gray list items may be reviewed or further tested for inclusion in a blacklist or whitelist. Some communities and webmasters publish their blacklists for the use of the general public, such as Spamhaus and Emerging Threats. Botnet Botnet is a term for a collection of software robots, or bots, that run autonomously and automatically. The term is now mostly associated with malicious software used by cyber criminals, but it can also refer to the network of infected computers using distributed computing software. Appendix 1: Glossary Current Events The most up-to-date and fast changing of attack exploits and vectors. Offences within this category include MALfi(XSS/RCE/RFI/LFI), XSS attacks, clickjacking, counterfeit pharmas, rogue AV, Zeus (Zbota), Artro, SpyEye, Ice9, Stuxnet, DuQu, BlackHat SEO as well as newly emerging exploit kits. CSRF (cross site request forgery) Also known as a “one click attack” / session riding, which is a link or script in a web page based upon authenticated user tokens. DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) DDoS attacks or floods can be executed in a variety of ways. The desired effect is to interrupt the normal business of a web service. Attackers use the power of multiple computer systems, via a botnet or by number of users, to cause a system crash. Another method of attack is by amplification using multiple DNS requests via open resolvers. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS associates various information with domain names; most importantly, it serves as the “phone book” for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e.g. www.example.com, into IP addresses, e.g. 208.77.188.166, which networking equipment needs to deliver information. A DNS also stores other information such as the list of mail servers that accept email for a given domain, by providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service. DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) A set of DNS extensions that authenticate the origin at DNS level and checks the integrity of DNS data. Implementation is required at registry level for the most effective protection. DNSBL Domain Name System Block List – an optional list of IP address ranges or DNS zone usually applied by Internet Service Providers (ISP) for preventing access to spam or badware. A DNSBL of domain names is often called a URIBL, Uniform Resource Indentifier Block List Exploit An exploit is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or sequence of commands that take advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability in order to cause irregular behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic. This frequently includes such things as violently gaining control of a computer system or allowing privilege escalation or a denial of service attack. Hosting Usually refers to a computer (or a network of servers) that stores the files of a web site which has web server software running on it, connected to the Internet. Your site is then said to be hosted. IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) IANA is responsible for the global coordination of the DNS Root, IP addressing, and other Internet protocol resources. It coordinates the global IP and AS number space, and allocates these to Regional Internet Registries. ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) ICANN is responsible for managing the Internet Protocol address spaces (IPv4 and IPv6) and assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries, for maintaining registries of Internet protocol identifiers, and for the management of the top-level domain name space (DNS root zone), which includes the operation of root nameservers. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering data packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on its address. IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP). Pv4 uses 32- bit (four-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4.3 billion possible unique addresses. However, some are reserved for special purposes such as private networks (18 million) or multicast addresses (270 million).
  • World Hosts Report - March 2014 18 IPv6 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is a version of the Internet Protocol that is designed to succeed IPv4. IPv6 uses a 128- bit address, IPv6 address space supports about 2^128 addresses ISP (Internet Service Provider) A company or organization that has the equipment and public access to provide connectivity to the Internet for clients on a fee basis, i.e. emails, web site serving, online storage. LFI (Local File Inclusion) Use of a file within a database to exploit server functionality. Also for cracking encrypted functions within a server, e.g. passwords, MD5, etc. MALfi (Malicious File Inclusion) A combination of RFI (remote file inclusion), LFI (local file inclusion), XSA (cross server attack), and RCE (remote code execution). Malicious Links These are links which are planted on a site to deliberately send a visitor to a malicious site, e.g. a site with which will plant viruses, spyware or any other type of malware on a computer such as a fake security system. These are not always obvious as they can be planted within a feature of the site or masked to misdirect the visitor. MX A mail server or computer/server rack which holds and can forward e-mail for a client. NS (Name Server) Every domain name must have a primary name server (eg. ns1.xyz.com), and at least one secondary name server (ns2.xyz.com etc). This requirement aims to make the domain still reachable even if one name server becomes inaccessible. Open Source Security The term is most commonly applied to the source code of software or data, which is made available to the general public with relaxed or non- existent intellectual property restrictions. For Open Source Security this allows users to create user- generated software content and advice through incremental individual effort or through collaboration. Pharming Pharming is an attack which hackers aim to redirect a website’s traffic to another website, like cattle rustlers herding the bovines in the wrong direction. The destination website is usually bogus. Phishing Phishing is a type of deception designed to steal your valuable personal data, such as credit card numbers, passwords, account data, or other information. Phishing is typically carried out using e-mail (where the communication appears to come from a trusted website) or an instant message, although phone contact has been used as well. Registry A registry operator generates the zone files which convert domain names to IP addresses. Domain name registries such as VeriSign, for .com. Afilias for .info. Country code top-level domains (ccTLD) are delegated to national registries such as and Nominet in the United Kingdom, .UK, “Coordination Center for TLD .RU” for .RU and .РФ Registrars A domain name registrar is a company with the authority to register domain names, authorized by ICANN. Remote File Inclusion (RFI) A technique often used to attack Internet websites from a remote computer. With malicious intent, it can be combined with the usage of XSA to harm a web server. Rogue Software Rogue security software is software that uses malware (malicious software) or malicious tools to advertise or install its self or to force computer users to pay for removal of nonexistent spyware. Rogue software will often install a trojan horse to download a trial version, or it will execute other unwanted actions. Rootkit A set of software tools used by a third party after gaining access to a computer system in order to conceal the altering of files, or processes being executed by the third party without the user’s knowledge. Sandnet A sandnet is closed environment on a physical machine in which malware can be monitored and studied. It emulates the internet in a way which the malware cannot tell it is being monitored. Wonderful for analyzing the way a bit of malware works. A Honeynet is the same sort of concept but more aimed at attackers themselves, monitoring the methods and motives of the attackers. Spam Spam is the term widely used for unsolicited e-mail. . Spam is junk mail on a mass scale and is usually sent indiscriminately to hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of inboxes simultaneously. Trojans Also known as a Trojan horse, this is software that appears to perform or actually performs a desired task for a user while performing a harmful task without the user’s knowledge or consent. Worms A malicious software program that can reproduce itself and spread from one computer to another over a network. The difference between a worm and a computer virus is that a computer virus attaches itself to a computer program to spread and requires an action by a user while a worm is self-contained and can send copies of itself across a network. XSA (Cross Server Attack) A networking security intrusion method which allows for a malicious client to compromise security over a website or service on a server by using implemented services on the server that may not be secure.
  • Appendix 2 HE Index Calculation Methodology September 25, 2013 1 Revision history Rev. Date Notes 1. December 2009 Methodology introduced. 2. March 2010 IP significant value raised from 10,000 to 20,000. 3. June 2010 Sources refined. Double-counting of Google Safe Browsing data through StopBad- ware eliminated. Source weightings refined. 4. October 2011 Sources refined. Source weightings refined. 5. July 2012 Sources refined. Table 1: Revision history 2 Motivation We aim to provide a simple and accurate method of representing the history of badness on an Autonomous System (AS). Badness in this context comprises malicious and suspicious server activities such as hosting or spreading: malware and exploits; spam emails; MALfi attacks (RFI/LFI/XSA/RCE); command & control centers; phishing attacks. We call this the HE Index; a number from 0 (no badness) to 1,000 (maximum badness). Desired properties of the HE Index include: 1. Calculations should be drawn from multiple sources of data, each representing different forms of badness, in order to reduce the effect of any data anomalies. 2. Each calculation should take into account some objective size of the AS, so that the index is not unfairly in favor of the smallest ASes. 3. No AS should have an HE Index value of 0, since it cannot be said with certainty that an AS has zero badness, only that none has been detected. 4. Only one AS should be able to hold the maximum HE Index value of 1,000 (if any at all). 3 Data sources Data is taken from the following 11 sources. Spam data from UCEPROTECT-Network and ZeuS data from Abuse.ch is cross-referenced with Team Cymru. Using the data from this wide variety of sources fulfils desired property #1.
  • # Source Data Weighting 1. UCEPROTECT-Network Spam IPs Very high 2. Abuse.ch ZeuS servers High 3. Google / C-SIRT Badware instances Very high 4. SudoSecure / HostExploit Spam bots Low 5. Shadowserver / HostExploit / SRI C&C servers High 6. C-SIRT / HostExploit Phishing servers Medium 7. C-SIRT / HostExploit Exploit servers Medium 8. C-SIRT / HostExploit Spam servers Low 9. HostExploit Current events High 10. hpHosts Malware instances High 11. Clean MX / C-SIRT Malicious URLs High 12. Clean MX Malicious ”portals” Medium Table 2: Data sources Sensitivity testing was carried out, to determine the range of specific weightings that would ensure known bad ASes would appear in sensible positions. The exact value of each weighting within its determined range was then chosen at our discretion, based on our researchers’ extensive understanding of the implications of each source. This approach ensured that results are as objective as realistically possible, whilst limiting the necessary subjective element to a sensible outcome. 4 Bayesian weighting How do we fulfil desired property #2? That is, how should the HE Index be calculated in order to fairly reflect the size of the AS? An initial thought is to divide the number of recorded instances by some value which represents the size of the AS. Most obviously, we could use the number of domains on each AN as the value to represent the size of the AS, but it is possible for a server to carry out malicious activity without a single registered domain, as was the case with McColo. Therefore, it would seem more pragmatic to use the size of the IP range (i.e. number of IP addresses) registered to the AS through the relevant Regional Internet Registry. However, by calculating the ratio of number of instances per IP address, isolated instances on small servers may pro- duce distorted results. Consider the following example: Average spam instances in sample set: 50 Average IPs in sample set: 50,000 Average ratio: 50 / 50,000 = 0.001 Example spam instances: 2 Example IPs: 256 Example ratio: 2 / 256 = 0.0078125 In this example, using a simple calculation of number of instances divided by number of IPs, the ratio is almost eight times higher than the average ratio. However, there are only two recorded instances of spam, but the ratio is so high due to the low number of IP addresses on this particular AS. These may well be isolated instances, therefore we need to move the ratio towards the average ratio, moreso the lower the numbers of IPs. For this purpose, we use the Bayesian ratio of number of instances to number of IP addresses. We calculate the Bayesian ratio as: B = ( M M + C ) · N M + ( C M + C ) · Na Ma (1) where: B: Bayesian ratio M: number of IPs allocated to ASN Ma: average number of IPs allocated in sample set N: number of recorded instances Na: average number of recorded instances in sample set
  • C: IP weighting = 20,000 The process of moving the ratio towards the average ratio has the effect that no AS will have a Bayesian ratio of zero, due to an uncertainty level based on the number of IPs. This meets the requirements of desired property #3. 5 Calculation For each data source, three factors are calculated. To place any particular Bayesian ratio on a scale, we divide it by the maximum Bayesian ratio in the sample set, to give Factor C: FC = B Bm (2) where: Bm: maximum Bayesian ratio Sensitivity tests were run which showed that in a small number of cases, Factor C favors small ASes too strongly. Therefore, it is logical to include a factor that uses the total number of instances, as opposed to the ratio of instances to size. This makes up Factor A: FA = min{ N Na , 1} (3) This follows the same format as Factor C, and should only have a low contribution to the Index, since it favors small ASes, and is used only as a compensation mechanism for rare cases of Factor C. If one particular AS has a number of instances significantly higher than for any other AS in the sample, then Factor A would be very small, even for the AS with the second highest number of instances. This is not desired since the value of one AS is distorting the value of Factor A. Therefore, as a compensation mechanism for Factor A (the ratio of the average number of instances) we use Factor B as a ratio of the maximum instances less the average instances: FB = N Nm − Na (4) where: Nm: maximum number of instances in sample set Factor A is limited to 1; Factors B and C are not limited to 1, since they cannot exceed 1 by definition. Only one AS (if any) can hold maximum values for all three factors, therefore this limits the HE Index to 1,000 as specified in desired property #4. The index for each data source is then calculated as: I = (FA · 10% + FB · 10% + FC · 80%) · 1000 (5) The Factor A, B & C weightings (10%, 10%, 80% respectively) were chosen based on sensitivity and regression testing. Low starting values for Factor A and Factor B were chosen, since we aim to limit the favoring of small ASes (property #2). The overall HE Index is then calculated as: H = 11 i=1 Ii·wi 11 i=1 wi (6) where: wi: source weighting (1=low, 2=medium, 3=high, 4=very high)