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Magic Lens: Grammar Notes
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Magic Lens: Grammar Notes

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For use with the Magic Lens grammar program. These are notes for students to take. One section at a time, not all at once.

For use with the Magic Lens grammar program. These are notes for students to take. One section at a time, not all at once.

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  • 1. Grammar Grammar is a way of thinking about language. Four Levels of Grammar: • Parts of Speech • Parts of the Sentence • Phrases • Clauses
  • 2. Parts of Speech: the eight kinds of words in English •nouns •pronouns •verbs •adjectives •adverbs •prepositions •conjunctions •interjections
  • 3. Nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: Mozart, Chicago, epidermis, rock, freedom
  • 4. Proper nouns are capitalized; common nouns are not. • Mozart (proper), epidermis (common) Concrete nouns are names of objects; abstract nouns are names of ideas. • rock (concrete), freedom (abstract)
  • 5. When we address someone directly, the person’s name or title is called the noun of direct address. • Karen, meet me at the library. • Meet me at the library, Karen. A collective noun names a group. • flock
  • 6. Singular nouns name individual things; plural nouns name multiple things. • boat, flock, kindness (singular) • boats, flocks, kindnesses (plural)
  • 7. Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Noun: Ike passed the ball. Pronoun: He passed the ball.
  • 8. Pronouns may be masculine gender (he, him, his), feminine gender (she, her, hers), or neuter gender (it).
  • 9. Pronouns may have person and number. Subject Pronouns: SINGULAR PLURAL First Person I we Second Person you you he, she, it they Third Person
  • 10. The pronoun’s antecedent is the noun the pronoun replaces. Example: Ike caught the ball, and then he passed it. ↑ ↑ antecedent pronoun
  • 11. *There isn’t always an antecedent. Example: Anyone who is registered may vote. (no antecedent)
  • 12. Use subject pronouns as subjects; use object pronouns as objects. Example: They bought the tickets and gave them to us. ↑ ↑ ↑ subject pronoun object pronouns
  • 13. MEMORIZE the subject and object pronouns!
  • 14. SUBJECT OBJECT PRONOUNS PRONOUNS I Singular you me you she, he, it we Plural her, him, it us you you they them
  • 15. MEMORIZE the subject and object pronouns! The quiz will be on _________________.
  • 16. Possessive pronouns are used to indicate ownership or possession. Example: Diego lost his pesos. The dog found its doghouse.
  • 17. SUBJECT me my, mine you you your, yours she, he, it her, him, it her, hers, his, its we Plural POSSESSIVE I Singular OBJECT us our, ours you you your, yours they them their, theirs
  • 18. Possessive pronouns DO NOT need apostrophes (because they are already in the possessive form).
  • 19. Its or It’s? Its is a possessive pronoun. It’s is a contraction of it and is. The apostrophe replaces the missing i. Possessive Pronoun its Contraction it’s = it + is Example: It’s too late to lock its cage.
  • 20. Using the Right Word: it’s/its Examine the use of the word “its” in the following sentence. “She approached the monster cautiously and bravely touched its cold, steel claw.” Its is a possessive pronoun. Example: The dog lost its collar. It’s is a contraction for the words it is. Example: The dog barks because it’s hungry.
  • 21. Using the Right Word: it’s/its Copy the following sentences. Choose the correct word according to its use in the sentence. 1. The snake shed ______ (its, it’s) skin. 2. Did you hear the bell? ____ (Its, It’s) ten minutes early. 3. Trying is not hard; ______ (its, it’s) easy. 4. Sometimes success is ______ (its, it’s) own reward.
  • 22. Using the Right Word: it’s/its Copy the following sentences. Choose the correct word according to its use in the sentence. 1. The snake shed ______ (its, it’s) skin. The snake shed its skin. 2. Did you hear the bell? ____ (Its, It’s) ten minutes early. Did you hear the bell? It’s ten minutes early. 3. Trying is not hard; ______ (its, it’s) easy. Trying is not hard; it’s easy. 4. Sometimes success is ______ (its, it’s) own reward. Sometimes success is its own reward.
  • 23. Using the Right Word: Your Turn Write sentences, using the word in parentheses correctly. 5. (its) 6. (it’s)
  • 24. So far, we have studied personal pronouns. SUBJECT me my, mine you you your, yours she, he, it her, him, it her, hers, his, its we Plural POSSESSIVE I Singular OBJECT us our, ours you you your, yours they them their, theirs
  • 25. Other Kinds of Pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. who, whose, whom, which, what Example: Who went to the park?
  • 26. Demonstrative pronouns are used to demonstrate or point out. this, that, these, those Example: This is the dog I want to adopt.
  • 27. A relative pronoun is a pronoun that relates an adjective clause to a main clause. who, whose, whom which, that Example: I called the man who lost his wallet.
  • 28. Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a specific person or a specific thing. Singular Indefinite Pronouns another anything everybody neither one anybody each everyone nobody somebody anyone either everything no one someone
  • 29. Possessive pronouns must agree in number with indefinite pronouns. Example: Neither believed his eyes. (Not their eyes)
  • 30. Plural Indefinite Pronouns both many few several Examples: Several reported their findings. Many are absent.
  • 31. The following pronouns may be singular OR plural, depending on their meaning in the sentence: all some Singular: any none Plural: All of my story is true. All of the reporters are here. None of the lake is foggy. None of the photos are sharp.
  • 32. Using Who and Whom Who is the subject form; whom is the object form. Who will play the lead? (Who= subject) Whom do you see? (Whom=direct object) From whom do we buy the tickets? (whom=object of the preposition)
  • 33. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Pronouns that end in –self or –selves are either intensive or reflexive pronouns. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns: myself yourself herself himself itself ourselves yourselves themselves A reflexive pronoun reflects back to a word used previously in the sentence. The sentence’s meaning is incomplete without it. Example: Linda reminded herself to buy film. An intensive pronoun adds emphasis to a noun or another pronoun. The meaning of the sentence is complete without it. Example: I myself agree with that idea.
  • 34. Adjectives Definition: An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Example: The red car looked good.
  • 35. An adjective often tells what kind, which one, or how many. Examples: broken robot those wires two technicians
  • 36. Proper Adjectives When adjectives are made from proper nouns, they are called proper adjectives. They are always capitalized. Examples: Friday night June day Italian dressing
  • 37. Articles The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. The is the definite article; it points out one specific person, place, thing or idea. Example: Please hand me the book. A and an are indefinite articles; they are less specific. Example: Please hand me a book.
  • 38. Good and Well The word good is an adjective that may be used to modify nouns or pronouns; the word well is an adverb that modifies verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Example: The good athlete runs well. adjective modifying the noun athlete adverb modifying the verb runs
  • 39. Three Degrees of Adjectives Use the positive degree of an adjective to describe one thing. • This is a long movie. Use the comparative degree of an adjective to compare two things. • This movie is longer than the one I watched yesterday. Use the superlative degree of an adjective to compare more than two things. • This is the longest movie I have ever watched.
  • 40. Short adjectives change their forms by adding –er for the comparative and –est for the superlative. Positive hot ripe creamy spicy Comparative hotter riper creamier spicier Superlative hottest ripest creamiest spiciest
  • 41. Longer adjectives use more for the comparative and most for the superlative. Positive fragrant well-done flavorful Comparative more fragrant more well-done more flavorful Superlative most fragrant most well-done most flavorful
  • 42. The comparative and superlative forms of some adjectives are totally different words. Positive good well bad many Comparative better better worse more Superlative best best worst most
  • 43. Verbs Definition: A verb is a word that shows action, or being, or links a subject to a subject complement. Examples: • The skaters raced around the park. • He is. • He is tired.
  • 44. Action Verbs Definition: An action verb says what the subject of the sentence does. • Shanna knew the winner. • Students gathered their books.
  • 45. If the verb is an action verb, it might show action on a direct object. • Verdi composed the opera.  (direct object)
  • 46. Or, an action verb might show simple action not on a direct object. • Verdi composed.
  • 47. Linking Verbs Definition: A linking verb links the subject of the sentence with a subject complement. Examples: • He is a poet. • My skates are fast.
  • 48. Principal Parts of Verbs Infinitive to do (do) Present Past Participle doing did Past Participle done to go (go) going went gone to think (think) thinking thought thought to dream (dream) dreaming dreamed dreamed
  • 49. Regular Verbs Most verbs make the principal parts in the same regular way; therefore, we refer to them as regular verbs. Infinitive Past to work Present Participle working to spill spilling spilled worked Past Participle (has) worked (has) spilled
  • 50. Irregular Verbs Many verbs do not follow a regular pattern. Instead, they have principal parts which are unique. Infinitive Past to shrink Present Participle shrinking Past Participle shrank (has) shrunk to write writing wrote (has) written
  • 51. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs A verb that has a direct object is called a transitive verb. • Rocks hit Sue. (Sue is the d.o.) A verb that does not have a direct object is called an intransitive verb. • Rocks flew. (No d.o.)
  • 52. Why We Call Them “Transitive” Transitive verbs are action verbs that are called “transitive” because of the transit of action or energy that takes place when the subject acts on the object. If I kick the bucket, the energy transfers from me to the bucket I am kicking. The stem trans means “across.” In an intransitive verb, there is no transfer of energy.
  • 53. Transitive or Intransitive? • Laura saw a snake. Saw what? snake (d.o.) Saw is transitive. • The snake moved quickly. Moved what? no d.o. Moved is intransitive.
  • 54. Transitive or Intransitive? Copy each sentence. Underline the verb and label it as transitive or intransitive. • Ian shouted a warning. shouted--transitive • He shouted loudly. shouted--intransitive • The reptile exhibit will open--intransitive will open soon. • The snake opened its jaws. opened--transitive
  • 55. Active and Passive Voice An active voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject actually acting. • The meteor struck the ship. A passive voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject passively being acted upon. • The ship was struck by the meteor.
  • 56. Six Verb Tenses •Present •Past •Future •Present Perfect •Past Perfect •Future Perfect
  • 57. Conjugating a Verb Present Tense “to protest” Singular 1st Person I protest. Plural We protest. 2nd Person You protest. You protest. 3rd Person He, she, it protests. They protest.
  • 58. Conjugating a Verb Past Tense “to protest” Singular protested 1st Person I _______. Plural protested We _______. protested protested 2nd Person You ______. You _______. 3rd Person He, she, it They protested ______. protested _________.
  • 59. Conjugating a Verb Future Tense “to protest” Singular will protest 1st Person I _______. Plural will protest We _______. will protest 2nd Person You will protest You _______. ______. 3rd Person He, she, it They will protest ______. will protest _________.
  • 60. Conjugating a Verb Present Perfect Tense Singular Plural “to protest” 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person I have protested _______. We have protested _______. You have protested You have protested ______. _______. He, she, it has protested _________. They have protested ______.
  • 61. Conjugating a Verb Past Perfect “to protest” Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person I had protested _______. We had protested _______. You had protested You had protested ______. _______. He, she, it had protested _________. They had protested ______.
  • 62. Conjugating a Verb Future Perfect Tense “to protest” 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person Singular Plural I _______. We _______. You ______. You _______. will have protested will have protested will have protested will have protested He, she, it They ______. will have protested will have protested _________.
  • 63. Why We Call Them “Perfect”Tenses The three perfect tenses are called perfect because the word perfect comes from the Latin word perficere (“to finish”). Stem Meaning per through fac make perficere = to finish (to be through making something; to make it perfect) The perfect tenses, therefore, are the tenses of things which are finished.
  • 64. Present Perfect—action which is finished now Example: I have returned. Past Perfect—action which was finished then (in the past) Example: I had returned. Future Perfect—action which will be finished in the future Example: I will have returned.
  • 65. Progressive Verb Forms Progressive verb forms show action still in progress. (always end in –ing) Present Progressive: I am playing. Past Progressive: I was playing. Future Progressive: I shall be playing. Present Perfect Progressive: Past Perfect Progressive: Future Perfect Progressive: I have been playing. I had been playing. I will have been playing.
  • 66. Adverbs Definition: An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb. Examples: • The movie started early. • My report is too long. • He and she swim very well.
  • 67. Adverbs help make meaning clear by telling how, when, where, or to what extent. Examples: • The guide spoke softly. (How?) • The speaker arrived late. (When?) • He approached the cave and looked inside. (Where?) • The cave was very dark. (To what extent?)
  • 68. Prepositions Definition: A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between its object (the object of the preposition) and another word in the sentence. Examples: • The book is on the shelf. ↑ ↑ (prep.) (object of prep.) • I have a one hundred dollar check for you. ↑ ↑ (prep.) (obj. of prep.)
  • 69. Prepositions show relationships of time, relationships of space, and relationships of direction.
  • 70. Examples: • I took the test before lunch. (Time) • I will save you a seat beside me. (Space) • My relatives are traveling from Chicago. (Direction)
  • 71. Conjunctions Definition: A conjunction is a word that joins (junct) two words or two groups of words together (con). Examples: • Bob and Jane were here. • I am eating outside since it is sunny.
  • 72. Types of Conjunctions •Coordinating conjunctions •Subordinating conjunctions •Correlative conjunctions •Conjunctive adverbs
  • 73. Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions are used to join words which are equal (co) in importance. Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
  • 74. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions join unequals. They join something of lesser importance (sub) to something of greater importance.
  • 75. Words Often Used as Subordinating Conjunctions after because so that whatever although before than when as if though whenever as if in order that till where as long as provided unless wherever as though since until while
  • 76. Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are multiple-word conjunctions. Correlative Conjunctions: either...or not only...but also both...and neither…nor whether…or
  • 77. Conjunctive Adverbs Conjunctive adverbs are words which act both as adverbs and conjunctions. They are commonly used to begin clauses. Conjunctive Adverbs: therefore, however, hence, so, then, moreover, nevertheless, yet, consequently, besides
  • 78. Interjections Definition: An interjection is a word which shows emotion but has no grammatical purpose. In other words, they just throw (ject) and exclamation into (inter) a sentence. Examples: • Whew! • Wow! • Oh, look at that beautiful valley.