Grammar
Grammar is a way of thinking about
language.
Four Levels of Grammar:
• Parts of Speech
• Parts of the Sentence
• P...
Parts of Speech:
the eight kinds of words in English
•nouns
•pronouns
•verbs
•adjectives
•adverbs
•prepositions
•conjuncti...
Nouns
A noun is the name of a person, place,
thing, or idea.
Examples: Mozart, Chicago, epidermis, rock,
freedom
Proper nouns are capitalized; common nouns
are not.

• Mozart (proper), epidermis (common)
Concrete nouns are names of obj...
When we address someone directly, the person’s
name or title is called the noun of direct
address.

• Karen, meet me at th...
Singular nouns name individual things;
plural nouns name multiple things.

• boat, flock, kindness (singular)
• boats, flo...
Pronouns
A pronoun is a word that takes the
place of a noun.
Noun:
Ike passed the ball.

Pronoun:
He passed the ball.
Pronouns may be masculine gender
(he, him, his), feminine gender
(she, her, hers), or neuter gender (it).
Pronouns may have person and number.
Subject Pronouns:
SINGULAR

PLURAL

First Person

I

we

Second
Person

you

you

he,...
The pronoun’s antecedent is the noun the pronoun
replaces.
Example:
Ike caught the ball, and then he passed it.
↑
↑
antece...
*There isn’t always an antecedent.
Example:
Anyone who is registered may vote.
(no antecedent)
Use subject pronouns as subjects; use object
pronouns as objects.
Example:
They bought the tickets and gave them to us.
↑
...
MEMORIZE the subject and
object pronouns!
SUBJECT
OBJECT
PRONOUNS PRONOUNS
I
Singular you

me
you

she, he, it

we
Plural

her, him, it

us

you

you

they

them
MEMORIZE the subject and
object pronouns!
The quiz will be on _________________.
Possessive pronouns are used
to indicate ownership or
possession.
Example:
Diego lost his pesos.
The dog found its doghous...
SUBJECT

me

my, mine

you

you

your, yours

she, he, it

her, him, it her, hers, his,
its

we

Plural

POSSESSIVE

I

Si...
Possessive pronouns DO NOT need
apostrophes (because they are already in
the possessive form).
Its or It’s?
Its is a possessive pronoun. It’s is a
contraction of it and is. The
apostrophe replaces the missing i.
Posse...
Using the Right Word:
it’s/its
Examine the use of the word “its” in the
following sentence.

“She approached the monster c...
Using the Right Word: it’s/its
Copy the following sentences. Choose the correct
word according to its use in the sentence....
Using the Right Word: it’s/its
Copy the following sentences. Choose the
correct word according to its use in the
sentence....
Using the Right Word: Your Turn
Write sentences, using the word in parentheses
correctly.
5. (its)
6. (it’s)
So far, we have studied personal pronouns.
SUBJECT

me

my, mine

you

you

your, yours

she, he, it

her, him, it her, he...
Other Kinds of Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are used
to ask questions.
who, whose, whom, which,

what
Example:
Who went...
Demonstrative pronouns are used to
demonstrate or point out.
this, that, these, those
Example:
This is the dog I want to a...
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that
relates an adjective clause to a main
clause.

who, whose, whom which, that
Example:
...
Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a
specific person or a specific thing.
Singular Indefinite Pro...
Possessive pronouns must agree in
number with indefinite pronouns.
Example:
Neither believed his eyes. (Not their
eyes)
Plural Indefinite Pronouns
both

many

few

several

Examples:
Several reported their findings.
Many are absent.
The following pronouns may be singular OR plural,
depending on their meaning in the sentence:

all

some

Singular:

any

...
Using Who and Whom
Who is the subject form; whom is the
object form.
Who will play the lead? (Who= subject)
Whom do you se...
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
Pronouns that end in –self or –selves are either
intensive or reflexive pronouns.
Reflexi...
Adjectives
Definition: An adjective is a word that
modifies a noun or pronoun.

Example:
The red car looked good.
An adjective often tells what kind, which
one, or how many.

Examples:
broken robot
those wires
two technicians
Proper Adjectives

When adjectives are made from proper nouns,
they are called proper adjectives. They
are always capitali...
Articles
The words a, an, and the are special
adjectives called articles.
The is the definite article; it points out
one s...
Good and Well
The word good is an adjective that may be used to
modify nouns or pronouns; the word well is an
adverb that ...
Three Degrees of Adjectives
Use the positive degree of an adjective
to describe one thing.
• This is a long movie.

Use th...
Short adjectives change their forms by adding
–er for the comparative and –est for the
superlative.
Positive
hot
ripe
crea...
Longer adjectives use more for the comparative
and most for the superlative.
Positive
fragrant
well-done
flavorful

Compar...
The comparative and superlative forms of some
adjectives are totally different words.
Positive
good
well
bad
many

Compara...
Verbs
Definition: A verb is a word that
shows action, or being, or links a
subject to a subject complement.
Examples:
• Th...
Action Verbs
Definition: An action verb says what
the subject of the sentence does.
• Shanna knew the winner.
• Students g...
If the verb is an action verb, it
might show action on a direct
object.
• Verdi composed the opera.
 (direct object)
Or, an action verb might show simple
action not on a direct object.
• Verdi composed.
Linking Verbs
Definition: A linking verb links the
subject of the sentence with a
subject complement.
Examples:
• He is a ...
Principal Parts of Verbs
Infinitive
to do (do)

Present
Past
Participle
doing
did

Past
Participle
done

to go (go)

going...
Regular Verbs
Most verbs make the principal parts
in the same regular way; therefore,
we refer to them as regular verbs.
I...
Irregular Verbs
Many verbs do not follow a regular
pattern. Instead, they have
principal parts which are unique.
Infinitiv...
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
A verb that has a direct object is called a
transitive verb.
• Rocks hit Sue. (Sue is th...
Why We Call Them “Transitive”
Transitive verbs are action verbs that are
called “transitive” because of the transit
of act...
Transitive or Intransitive?
• Laura saw a snake.

Saw what? snake (d.o.)
Saw is transitive.

• The snake moved
quickly.

M...
Transitive or Intransitive?
Copy each sentence. Underline the verb and label it
as transitive or intransitive.

• Ian shou...
Active and Passive Voice
An active voice verb is an action verb that
shows the subject actually acting.
• The meteor

stru...
Six Verb Tenses
•Present
•Past
•Future
•Present Perfect
•Past Perfect
•Future Perfect
Conjugating a Verb
Present Tense
“to protest”

Singular

1st Person I protest.

Plural
We protest.

2nd Person You protest...
Conjugating a Verb
Past Tense
“to protest”

Singular

protested
1st Person I _______.

Plural
protested
We _______.

prote...
Conjugating a Verb
Future Tense
“to protest”

Singular

will protest
1st Person I _______.

Plural
will protest
We _______...
Conjugating a Verb
Present Perfect

Tense

Singular

Plural

“to protest”

1st
Person
2nd
Person
3rd
Person

I have protes...
Conjugating a Verb
Past

Perfect

“to protest”

Tense

Singular

Plural

1st
Person
2nd
Person
3rd
Person

I had protested...
Conjugating a Verb
Future Perfect
Tense

“to protest” 1st
Person
2nd
Person
3rd
Person

Singular

Plural

I _______.

We _...
Why We Call Them “Perfect”Tenses
The three perfect tenses are called perfect
because the word perfect comes from
the Latin...
Present Perfect—action which is finished now
Example: I have returned.
Past Perfect—action which was finished then
(in the...
Progressive Verb Forms
Progressive verb forms show action
still in progress. (always end in –ing)
Present Progressive:

I ...
Adverbs

Definition: An adverb is a word that
modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb.
Examples:
• The movie started early.
...
Adverbs help make meaning clear by telling how,
when, where, or to what extent.
Examples:
• The guide spoke softly. (How?)...
Prepositions

Definition: A preposition is a word that shows
a relationship between its object (the object
of the preposit...
Prepositions show relationships of time,
relationships of space, and relationships
of direction.
Examples:
• I took the test before lunch. (Time)
• I will save you a seat beside me. (Space)
• My relatives are traveling ...
Conjunctions
Definition: A conjunction is a word that
joins (junct) two words or two groups of
words together (con).
Examp...
Types of Conjunctions
•Coordinating conjunctions
•Subordinating conjunctions
•Correlative conjunctions
•Conjunctive adverb...
Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions are used to join words
which are equal (co) in importance.

Coordinati...
Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions join unequals. They
join something of lesser importance (sub) to
som...
Words Often Used as Subordinating Conjunctions
after

because

so that

whatever

although

before

than

when

as

if

th...
Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are multiple-word
conjunctions.

Correlative Conjunctions:

either...or
...
Conjunctive Adverbs
Conjunctive adverbs are words which act both
as adverbs and conjunctions. They are
commonly used to be...
Interjections

Definition: An interjection is a word which
shows emotion but has no grammatical
purpose. In other words, t...
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Magic Lens: Grammar Notes

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For use with the Magic Lens grammar program. These are notes for students to take. One section at a time, not all at once.

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Magic Lens: Grammar Notes

  1. 1. Grammar Grammar is a way of thinking about language. Four Levels of Grammar: • Parts of Speech • Parts of the Sentence • Phrases • Clauses
  2. 2. Parts of Speech: the eight kinds of words in English •nouns •pronouns •verbs •adjectives •adverbs •prepositions •conjunctions •interjections
  3. 3. Nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: Mozart, Chicago, epidermis, rock, freedom
  4. 4. Proper nouns are capitalized; common nouns are not. • Mozart (proper), epidermis (common) Concrete nouns are names of objects; abstract nouns are names of ideas. • rock (concrete), freedom (abstract)
  5. 5. When we address someone directly, the person’s name or title is called the noun of direct address. • Karen, meet me at the library. • Meet me at the library, Karen. A collective noun names a group. • flock
  6. 6. Singular nouns name individual things; plural nouns name multiple things. • boat, flock, kindness (singular) • boats, flocks, kindnesses (plural)
  7. 7. Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Noun: Ike passed the ball. Pronoun: He passed the ball.
  8. 8. Pronouns may be masculine gender (he, him, his), feminine gender (she, her, hers), or neuter gender (it).
  9. 9. Pronouns may have person and number. Subject Pronouns: SINGULAR PLURAL First Person I we Second Person you you he, she, it they Third Person
  10. 10. The pronoun’s antecedent is the noun the pronoun replaces. Example: Ike caught the ball, and then he passed it. ↑ ↑ antecedent pronoun
  11. 11. *There isn’t always an antecedent. Example: Anyone who is registered may vote. (no antecedent)
  12. 12. Use subject pronouns as subjects; use object pronouns as objects. Example: They bought the tickets and gave them to us. ↑ ↑ ↑ subject pronoun object pronouns
  13. 13. MEMORIZE the subject and object pronouns!
  14. 14. SUBJECT OBJECT PRONOUNS PRONOUNS I Singular you me you she, he, it we Plural her, him, it us you you they them
  15. 15. MEMORIZE the subject and object pronouns! The quiz will be on _________________.
  16. 16. Possessive pronouns are used to indicate ownership or possession. Example: Diego lost his pesos. The dog found its doghouse.
  17. 17. SUBJECT me my, mine you you your, yours she, he, it her, him, it her, hers, his, its we Plural POSSESSIVE I Singular OBJECT us our, ours you you your, yours they them their, theirs
  18. 18. Possessive pronouns DO NOT need apostrophes (because they are already in the possessive form).
  19. 19. Its or It’s? Its is a possessive pronoun. It’s is a contraction of it and is. The apostrophe replaces the missing i. Possessive Pronoun its Contraction it’s = it + is Example: It’s too late to lock its cage.
  20. 20. Using the Right Word: it’s/its Examine the use of the word “its” in the following sentence. “She approached the monster cautiously and bravely touched its cold, steel claw.” Its is a possessive pronoun. Example: The dog lost its collar. It’s is a contraction for the words it is. Example: The dog barks because it’s hungry.
  21. 21. Using the Right Word: it’s/its Copy the following sentences. Choose the correct word according to its use in the sentence. 1. The snake shed ______ (its, it’s) skin. 2. Did you hear the bell? ____ (Its, It’s) ten minutes early. 3. Trying is not hard; ______ (its, it’s) easy. 4. Sometimes success is ______ (its, it’s) own reward.
  22. 22. Using the Right Word: it’s/its Copy the following sentences. Choose the correct word according to its use in the sentence. 1. The snake shed ______ (its, it’s) skin. The snake shed its skin. 2. Did you hear the bell? ____ (Its, It’s) ten minutes early. Did you hear the bell? It’s ten minutes early. 3. Trying is not hard; ______ (its, it’s) easy. Trying is not hard; it’s easy. 4. Sometimes success is ______ (its, it’s) own reward. Sometimes success is its own reward.
  23. 23. Using the Right Word: Your Turn Write sentences, using the word in parentheses correctly. 5. (its) 6. (it’s)
  24. 24. So far, we have studied personal pronouns. SUBJECT me my, mine you you your, yours she, he, it her, him, it her, hers, his, its we Plural POSSESSIVE I Singular OBJECT us our, ours you you your, yours they them their, theirs
  25. 25. Other Kinds of Pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. who, whose, whom, which, what Example: Who went to the park?
  26. 26. Demonstrative pronouns are used to demonstrate or point out. this, that, these, those Example: This is the dog I want to adopt.
  27. 27. A relative pronoun is a pronoun that relates an adjective clause to a main clause. who, whose, whom which, that Example: I called the man who lost his wallet.
  28. 28. Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a specific person or a specific thing. Singular Indefinite Pronouns another anything everybody neither one anybody each everyone nobody somebody anyone either everything no one someone
  29. 29. Possessive pronouns must agree in number with indefinite pronouns. Example: Neither believed his eyes. (Not their eyes)
  30. 30. Plural Indefinite Pronouns both many few several Examples: Several reported their findings. Many are absent.
  31. 31. The following pronouns may be singular OR plural, depending on their meaning in the sentence: all some Singular: any none Plural: All of my story is true. All of the reporters are here. None of the lake is foggy. None of the photos are sharp.
  32. 32. Using Who and Whom Who is the subject form; whom is the object form. Who will play the lead? (Who= subject) Whom do you see? (Whom=direct object) From whom do we buy the tickets? (whom=object of the preposition)
  33. 33. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Pronouns that end in –self or –selves are either intensive or reflexive pronouns. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns: myself yourself herself himself itself ourselves yourselves themselves A reflexive pronoun reflects back to a word used previously in the sentence. The sentence’s meaning is incomplete without it. Example: Linda reminded herself to buy film. An intensive pronoun adds emphasis to a noun or another pronoun. The meaning of the sentence is complete without it. Example: I myself agree with that idea.
  34. 34. Adjectives Definition: An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Example: The red car looked good.
  35. 35. An adjective often tells what kind, which one, or how many. Examples: broken robot those wires two technicians
  36. 36. Proper Adjectives When adjectives are made from proper nouns, they are called proper adjectives. They are always capitalized. Examples: Friday night June day Italian dressing
  37. 37. Articles The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. The is the definite article; it points out one specific person, place, thing or idea. Example: Please hand me the book. A and an are indefinite articles; they are less specific. Example: Please hand me a book.
  38. 38. Good and Well The word good is an adjective that may be used to modify nouns or pronouns; the word well is an adverb that modifies verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Example: The good athlete runs well. adjective modifying the noun athlete adverb modifying the verb runs
  39. 39. Three Degrees of Adjectives Use the positive degree of an adjective to describe one thing. • This is a long movie. Use the comparative degree of an adjective to compare two things. • This movie is longer than the one I watched yesterday. Use the superlative degree of an adjective to compare more than two things. • This is the longest movie I have ever watched.
  40. 40. Short adjectives change their forms by adding –er for the comparative and –est for the superlative. Positive hot ripe creamy spicy Comparative hotter riper creamier spicier Superlative hottest ripest creamiest spiciest
  41. 41. Longer adjectives use more for the comparative and most for the superlative. Positive fragrant well-done flavorful Comparative more fragrant more well-done more flavorful Superlative most fragrant most well-done most flavorful
  42. 42. The comparative and superlative forms of some adjectives are totally different words. Positive good well bad many Comparative better better worse more Superlative best best worst most
  43. 43. Verbs Definition: A verb is a word that shows action, or being, or links a subject to a subject complement. Examples: • The skaters raced around the park. • He is. • He is tired.
  44. 44. Action Verbs Definition: An action verb says what the subject of the sentence does. • Shanna knew the winner. • Students gathered their books.
  45. 45. If the verb is an action verb, it might show action on a direct object. • Verdi composed the opera.  (direct object)
  46. 46. Or, an action verb might show simple action not on a direct object. • Verdi composed.
  47. 47. Linking Verbs Definition: A linking verb links the subject of the sentence with a subject complement. Examples: • He is a poet. • My skates are fast.
  48. 48. Principal Parts of Verbs Infinitive to do (do) Present Past Participle doing did Past Participle done to go (go) going went gone to think (think) thinking thought thought to dream (dream) dreaming dreamed dreamed
  49. 49. Regular Verbs Most verbs make the principal parts in the same regular way; therefore, we refer to them as regular verbs. Infinitive Past to work Present Participle working to spill spilling spilled worked Past Participle (has) worked (has) spilled
  50. 50. Irregular Verbs Many verbs do not follow a regular pattern. Instead, they have principal parts which are unique. Infinitive Past to shrink Present Participle shrinking Past Participle shrank (has) shrunk to write writing wrote (has) written
  51. 51. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs A verb that has a direct object is called a transitive verb. • Rocks hit Sue. (Sue is the d.o.) A verb that does not have a direct object is called an intransitive verb. • Rocks flew. (No d.o.)
  52. 52. Why We Call Them “Transitive” Transitive verbs are action verbs that are called “transitive” because of the transit of action or energy that takes place when the subject acts on the object. If I kick the bucket, the energy transfers from me to the bucket I am kicking. The stem trans means “across.” In an intransitive verb, there is no transfer of energy.
  53. 53. Transitive or Intransitive? • Laura saw a snake. Saw what? snake (d.o.) Saw is transitive. • The snake moved quickly. Moved what? no d.o. Moved is intransitive.
  54. 54. Transitive or Intransitive? Copy each sentence. Underline the verb and label it as transitive or intransitive. • Ian shouted a warning. shouted--transitive • He shouted loudly. shouted--intransitive • The reptile exhibit will open--intransitive will open soon. • The snake opened its jaws. opened--transitive
  55. 55. Active and Passive Voice An active voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject actually acting. • The meteor struck the ship. A passive voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject passively being acted upon. • The ship was struck by the meteor.
  56. 56. Six Verb Tenses •Present •Past •Future •Present Perfect •Past Perfect •Future Perfect
  57. 57. Conjugating a Verb Present Tense “to protest” Singular 1st Person I protest. Plural We protest. 2nd Person You protest. You protest. 3rd Person He, she, it protests. They protest.
  58. 58. Conjugating a Verb Past Tense “to protest” Singular protested 1st Person I _______. Plural protested We _______. protested protested 2nd Person You ______. You _______. 3rd Person He, she, it They protested ______. protested _________.
  59. 59. Conjugating a Verb Future Tense “to protest” Singular will protest 1st Person I _______. Plural will protest We _______. will protest 2nd Person You will protest You _______. ______. 3rd Person He, she, it They will protest ______. will protest _________.
  60. 60. Conjugating a Verb Present Perfect Tense Singular Plural “to protest” 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person I have protested _______. We have protested _______. You have protested You have protested ______. _______. He, she, it has protested _________. They have protested ______.
  61. 61. Conjugating a Verb Past Perfect “to protest” Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person I had protested _______. We had protested _______. You had protested You had protested ______. _______. He, she, it had protested _________. They had protested ______.
  62. 62. Conjugating a Verb Future Perfect Tense “to protest” 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person Singular Plural I _______. We _______. You ______. You _______. will have protested will have protested will have protested will have protested He, she, it They ______. will have protested will have protested _________.
  63. 63. Why We Call Them “Perfect”Tenses The three perfect tenses are called perfect because the word perfect comes from the Latin word perficere (“to finish”). Stem Meaning per through fac make perficere = to finish (to be through making something; to make it perfect) The perfect tenses, therefore, are the tenses of things which are finished.
  64. 64. Present Perfect—action which is finished now Example: I have returned. Past Perfect—action which was finished then (in the past) Example: I had returned. Future Perfect—action which will be finished in the future Example: I will have returned.
  65. 65. Progressive Verb Forms Progressive verb forms show action still in progress. (always end in –ing) Present Progressive: I am playing. Past Progressive: I was playing. Future Progressive: I shall be playing. Present Perfect Progressive: Past Perfect Progressive: Future Perfect Progressive: I have been playing. I had been playing. I will have been playing.
  66. 66. Adverbs Definition: An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb. Examples: • The movie started early. • My report is too long. • He and she swim very well.
  67. 67. Adverbs help make meaning clear by telling how, when, where, or to what extent. Examples: • The guide spoke softly. (How?) • The speaker arrived late. (When?) • He approached the cave and looked inside. (Where?) • The cave was very dark. (To what extent?)
  68. 68. Prepositions Definition: A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between its object (the object of the preposition) and another word in the sentence. Examples: • The book is on the shelf. ↑ ↑ (prep.) (object of prep.) • I have a one hundred dollar check for you. ↑ ↑ (prep.) (obj. of prep.)
  69. 69. Prepositions show relationships of time, relationships of space, and relationships of direction.
  70. 70. Examples: • I took the test before lunch. (Time) • I will save you a seat beside me. (Space) • My relatives are traveling from Chicago. (Direction)
  71. 71. Conjunctions Definition: A conjunction is a word that joins (junct) two words or two groups of words together (con). Examples: • Bob and Jane were here. • I am eating outside since it is sunny.
  72. 72. Types of Conjunctions •Coordinating conjunctions •Subordinating conjunctions •Correlative conjunctions •Conjunctive adverbs
  73. 73. Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions are used to join words which are equal (co) in importance. Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
  74. 74. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions join unequals. They join something of lesser importance (sub) to something of greater importance.
  75. 75. Words Often Used as Subordinating Conjunctions after because so that whatever although before than when as if though whenever as if in order that till where as long as provided unless wherever as though since until while
  76. 76. Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are multiple-word conjunctions. Correlative Conjunctions: either...or not only...but also both...and neither…nor whether…or
  77. 77. Conjunctive Adverbs Conjunctive adverbs are words which act both as adverbs and conjunctions. They are commonly used to begin clauses. Conjunctive Adverbs: therefore, however, hence, so, then, moreover, nevertheless, yet, consequently, besides
  78. 78. Interjections Definition: An interjection is a word which shows emotion but has no grammatical purpose. In other words, they just throw (ject) and exclamation into (inter) a sentence. Examples: • Whew! • Wow! • Oh, look at that beautiful valley.

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