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AQUAKNIGHT 2nd International Conference

AQUAKNIGHT 2nd International Conference

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2.2. unipa   vincenza notaro - management of apparent losses 2.2. unipa vincenza notaro - management of apparent losses Presentation Transcript

  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA1 Management of Commercial Losses Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA vincenza.notaro@gmail.com 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference "Water Loss Management in the Mediterranean Countries: the AQUAKNIGHT Project Results“ 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA2 Apparent Losses …..Apparent losses are the nonphysical losses that occur when water is successfully delivered to the customer but, for various reasons, is not measured or recorded accurately.… AWWA MANUAL M36
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA3 Apparent losses The main components of apparent losses are:  unauthorised consumptions  meter reading and billing errors  meter under-registrations → 3 Metering errors are caused by intrinsic inaccuracies affecting the water meter
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA4 Unauthorized Consumption Components • Illegal connections; • Open bypasses; • Buried or otherwise obscured meters; • Misuse of fire hydrants and fire-fighting systems (unmetered fire lines); • bypassed consumption meters (meter tampering); • Illegally opening closed valves on customer service piping that has been shut off for non payment;
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA5 Illegal Connection Example For expenditure analysis unauthorized consumptions in the Water Balance can be put equal to 0.25% of Water Supply (representative value from water audit worldwide) Illegal consumption can be higher where economic conditions are poor
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA6 Systematic data handling Errors Data transfer errors – Manual meter reading errors – AMR equipment failure Procedural/data entry errors during meter change-outs – Data analysis errors – Use of poorly estimated volumes in lieu of meter readings Policy and procedure shortcomings – Delays in registration, metering or billing operations
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA7 Water meter intrinsic error Despite their importance, water meters are characterized by intrinsic inaccuracies that change with the flow rate passing through the meter. UNIPA Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 -20% -40% -60% -80% -100% ε1 ε2 Flow rate [l/h] Error ISO 4064:2005 Q1 ≤ Q < Q2 → ε ≤ ε1 = 5% Q2 ≤ Q ≤ Q4 → ε ≤ ε2 = 2% Performance curve of a new water meter
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA8 Water meter intrinsic error Meter performance is related to: •the TECHNICAL FEATURES OF THE METER •the METER WEARING PROCESS (METER AGE) •the WATER QUALITY •the NETWORK PRESSURE •the TEMPORAL PATTERN OF END USER DEMAND UNIPA
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA9 Influence of user’s consumption Generally, the apparent losses due to meter under-registration are related to the percentage of user’s consumption occurring at low and very low flow rates. UNIPA A class C water meter with Qn = 1,5 m3/h can have a starting flow equal to 5-10 l/h thus theoretically the 7% of consumption should be not registered The percentage increases with water meter aging and wearing process. Flow rate (l/h) %ofuserconsumption
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA10 Water meter intrinsic error Consumption at low flow rate can be due to: • leaks inside the households, usually in faucets and toilets • private domestic storage tanks – The filling of the tank is produced through a proportional ball valve which laminates the instantaneous water demand and reduces flow rates UNIPA
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA11 User’s storage tanks User’s storage tanks interposed between the revenue meter and the end user can affect the share of consumption at low flow rates This supply scheme is very common in the Mediterranean where water shortage often happens and the intermittent water supply is a common practice. Private roof tank Network Revenue water meter Float valve User fixtures and appliances
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA12 The float valve • The float valve dampens the instantaneous water demand and reduces the flow rate of water passing through the meter. • Slow closure of the float valve reduces flow rates passing through the meter and so increasing metering errors. 12 Rizzo and Cilia (2005) When an old revenue meter is coupled with a private water tank, it may not register even more than the 50% of the volume passing through it
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA13 Typical Consumption Pattern for different households Household Type I: Apartment blocks with direct injection from the network or a pump (tested N° 389 for a week). Household Type II: Apartment blocks fed from an elevated tank (at the top of the building). Water meter is installed upstream the tank. Tested N° 58 households for a week. Household Type III: Independent houses with garden. Tested 34 households for 4 weeks Arregui, F.J.* et all. Reducing Apparent Losses Caused By Meters Inaccuracies
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA14 Calculate weighted error Arregui, F.J.* et all. Reducing Apparent Losses Caused By Meters Inaccuracies Multiply the percentage of water consumed in a flow range by a user and the average error at the medium flow rate of the flow interval
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA15 Apparent Losses and Roof Tanks Upstream Downstream UpstreamUpstream DownstreamDownstream Research in Malta has conclusively shown that even with new Class D (Qn=1.0m3/HR) meters, between 5 to 10% of water consumed is not registered by the meters. Upstream Downstream After replacing the ballvalve with a solenoid valve
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA16 Apparent Losses and Roof Tanks Malta findings D Class meter under registration – roof tanks • New class D meters installed before and after roof tank • 6%-9% less volume recorded on the inlet meter due to low flows from ball valves • Changed control to solenoid system • Inlet meter registered 5%-9 %more • Potential for E1.5 million savings 3.75Lt/Hr 7.5Lt/Hr 1m3/Hr 2m3/Hr Class D (Qn=1.0m3/Hr) Meter Accuracy Flow 5% under-recording 5% over-recording 2% over-recording 2% under-recording 3.75Lt/Hr 7.5Lt/Hr 1m3/Hr 2m3/Hr Class D (Qn=1.0m3/Hr) Meter Accuracy Flow 5% under-recording 5% over-recording 2% over-recording 2% under-recording 3.75Lt/Hr 7.5Lt/Hr 1m3/Hr 2m3/Hr Class D (Qn=1.0m3/Hr) Meter Accuracy Flow 5% under-recording 5% over-recording 2% over-recording 2% under-recording 3.75Lt/Hr 7.5Lt/Hr 1m3/Hr 2m3/Hr Class D (Qn=1.0m3/Hr) Meter Accuracy Flow 5% under-recording 5% over-recording 2% over-recording 2% under-recording Ball or Float Valve Flow recorded by meter, at a flow above starting flow Flow not recorded by meter, at a flow below starting flow Water being consumed within household Flow (Lt/Hour) Time (Minutes)10 20 30 400 10 20 30 Flow recorded by meter, at a flow above starting flow Flow not recorded by meter, at a flow below starting flow Water being consumed within household Flow (Lt/Hour) Time (Minutes)10 20 30 400 10 20 30 Ball or Float Valve Ball or Float Valve Flow recorded by meter, at a flow above starting flow Flow not recorded by meter, at a flow below starting flow Water being consumed within household Flow (Lt/Hour) Time (Minutes)10 20 30 400 10 20 30 Flow recorded by meter, at a flow above starting flow Flow not recorded by meter, at a flow below starting flow Water being consumed within household Flow (Lt/Hour) Time (Minutes)10 20 30 400 10 20 30
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA17 Apparent losses reduction • How to reduce the apparent Losses? • What is the economic level of apparent losses that can be accepted for a water utility?
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA18 Potentially Recoverable Apparent Losses Pipe Materials Management: selection, installation, maintenance, renewal, replacement Data Analysis Error Between Archived Data and data Used (Billing/water Balance) Speed and quality of repairs Data Transfer Error Between Meters and archive; poor customer accountability ELAL - Economic Level of Apparent Losses Unavoidable Annual Apparent Losses Active Leakage Control Unauthorised Consumption Current Annual Apparent Losses Customer Meter inaccuracy The Pillars approach to the control of Apparent Losses
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA19 METER REPLACEMENT STRATEGY WATER UTILITIES NEED TO ASSESS HOW FREQUENTLY METERS ARE BEING REPLACED SUPPLIED WATER VOLUMES ARE TOTALLY MEASURED AND ACCOUNTED FOR WATER METERS MORE EFFICENT AND RELIABLE
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA20 REPLACEMENT INDICATOR 20 In the paper C. M. Fontanazza, G. Freni, G.La Loggia, V. Notaro & V.Puleo “A composite indicator for water metre replacement in an urban distribution network”, Urban Water Journal, (2012) DOI:10.1080/1573062X.2012.690434" the authors propose a performance-based tool suggesting a consistent replacement strategy of the meter installed in a water supply network to the reduction of apparent losses able to analyse the performance of the meters during their operative life taking into account the different factors affecting the meters accuracy DEFINITION OF A COMPOSITE INDICATORS “REPLACEMENT INDICATOR, RI= f(flow,pressure,meter age)
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA21 Cost benefit Analysis 1. Estimation of cost to reduce each component of apparent losses – Replacing customer meters – Updating of the billing system (new software, better audit etc.) – Training personnel on reading and managing data – AMR (Automatic Meter Reading) – UFR (Unmeasured Flow Reducer) 2. Evaluation of benefit (reduction of apparent losses) 3. Choose the solution with the best cost-benefit ratio and low pay-back period
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA22 ELAL – Economic Level of Apparent Losses Lmin Lmin = Economic Level of Apparent Losses From AWWA Manual M 36
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA23 Problems in ELAL calculation ELAL is difficult to calculate. – Different curves for each component, – Necessary to consider meter accuracy at different meter lives (time consuming) IWA Water Loss Task Force is developing a simplified method of obtaining ELAL
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA24 Actions to reduce Apparent Losses • Audit the customer meter reading and billing process • Perform annual meter accuracy test on a small sample (50 meters) • Installation of new meters to measure public water uses that are authorized but un-metered; • Verification of large consumers’ meters; • Check billing database to report broken meters (reading equal to zero) • Conduct customer connection survey in selected area where apparent losses are higher in order to identify illegal connections • Cross check customers of the water services with the customers of the electricity service. • Audit of domestic and commercial customers connections and verify if they correspond to the information on the customers’ database
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA25 The Bottom-up Validation of the Water Audit Step 1: Analyze the workings of the customer billing system to identify deficiencies in the water consumption data handling process (Meter Reading, Billing, Payment Processing, Collection) Step 2: Sample Customer Survey, including number of meters by meter size, customer type, and consumption ranges (check anomalies in flow size). Step 3: Perform meter accuracy testing for a variety of sample meter installations to understand the functional status of the meter population. Step 4: Assess a sample of customer accounts or locations for unauthorized consumption potential.
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA26 AMR (Automatic Meter Reading) “Fixed System”: It is the more complex system as it is fully automatic. – Short transmission intervals without any manual intervention – Data logging for the more advanced versions – Advanced statistic of customers consumption “drive-by system”: data are collected via a receiver passing near the transmitting units – Low possibility of data logging – High transmission interval – Useful only for billing porpoises
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA27 AMR Integration with other devices Bulk Meter Noise Loggers Users’ Meters AMR Repeater
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA28 Benefits from AMR • Readily available users’ consumption at the more convenient time step (monthly, weekly etc.) • Full integration of AMR technology with the billing system for quick invoice and reference • Reducing of manpower: no need to read manually water consumption and to transfer data to the billing database • Alarming system to know quickly any anomaly like non-operating meters or under reading • Fully automatic process from reading of consumption to issue of invoice
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA29 AMR – Hourly Pattern Domestic consumptions 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Domestic Consumption Pattern
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA30 AMR possible problems • Sometimes necessary to install many repeaters to improve transmission reliability • AMR repeaters and concentrators mount on light pole or on the building roof, authorization needed • Maintenance needed • Failure data transmission (less then 100% transmission rate), necessary to interpolate past user consumption • High cost
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA31 Evaluation of Illegal Connections (1) • Estimate Real Losses (Minimum Night Flow Analysis) • Evaluate customer meters inaccuracy (sample test, average weighted error) • Compile IWA water balance and calculate Illegal Consumption for difference
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA32 Evaluation of Illegal Connections (2) 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.1.1 A. Authorised Consumption Billed Authorised Consumption Revenue Water 12687 1.1.1.2 100000 1.1.2 1.1.2.1 B. Unbilled Authorised Non- Revenue Water (NRW) Consumption 1000 1.1.2.2 650 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.1.1 150000 Water Losses Apparent Losses 300 1.2.1.2 680 1.2.2 1.2.2.1 Real Losses 33983 1.2.2.2 200 1.2.2.3 500 112687 Leakage and Overflows at Utility’s Storage Tanks TILDE Simplified Water Balance using the IWA methodology (all figures in m3 / day) 1650 980 34683 Unbilled Metered Consumption Unbilled Un-metered Consumption 35663 37313 114337 Leakage on Service Connections 112687 Distribution Input Volume Billed Metered Consumption Billed Un-metered Consumption Unauthorised Consumption Customer Metering Inaccuracies Leakage on Transmission and/or Distribution Mains
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA33 Evaluation of Illegal Connections (3) This test should be done if illegal connections are suspected in a specific area – Test area (DMA/Sub DMA isolation) – Verify that no leak exist with acoustic equipment – Close all connections – Check the inlet flow meter for any positive flow
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA34 Evaluation of Illegal Connections (4) Reality: difficult to obtain leakage ZERO Solution: after closing all connections check flow at the inlet. – If flow is constant during time (2-3 hours) it’s leakage – If flow is floating there is illegal use – If flow is ZERO: no leaks no illegal use
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA35 AQUAKNIGHT Objectives 1. Reduce the water losses of distribution systems and rationalise demand in line with the environmental policies of all MED States. 2. Enhance the capacity of Mediterranean water operators in Non Revenue Water management by means of Active Leakage Control and improved water metering 3. Validate / Develop best practices to manage real and apparent water losses in the Mediterranean context
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA36 Evaluation of Commercial Losses 1. Installation and testing of an AMR system 2. Evaluation of consumption patterns and meters under-registration 3. Evaluation of benefits of meters replacement and UFR
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA37 Evaluation of Commercial Losses • Creation of a small subdistrict with less than 100 users • Installation of an accurate inlet flow meter and comparison with accumulated customer meters readings • Installation of UFRs • Replacement of customers old meters with new meters incorporating AMR • Bench testing of old meters at UNIPA’s laboratories
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA38 Evaluation of Commercial Losses Ball valve D h, V Private tank UFR +Flow meter ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS OF UFR ON METER UNDER-READING
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA39 UNIPA’s laboratory test bench The accuracy of the selected meters was tested by the UNIPA’s laboratory test bench The test bench is a weight calibration device compliant with the ISO 4064:2005 standard UNIPA • a water supply system (mains, 1 unpressurised tank, 2 pumps); • a test section in which the meter is placed; • 4 flow meters to establish the approximate flow rates at which the meter is tested; • 2 pneumatic and automatic gate valves; • 2 pressure gauges to measure the pressure upstream and downstream the tested meter; • 1 vacuum gauge; • 2 calibrated tanks, each placed on a precision electronic balance; • 1 temperature sensor • 1 a control panel
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA40 UNIPA’s laboratory test bench Laboratory experiments were carried out in UNIPA laboratory in order: • to estimate metering error curves for different flow meters classes and ages • to find a direct link between meter age, network pressure and the apparent losses caused by the incapability of the meter to accurately measure the volume passing through it at low flow rates Class C; Q3 = 2.5 m3/h; DN 20 mm Class C; Q3 = 2.5 m3/h; DN 20 mm -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Errore[%] Q [m3/h] -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Errore[%] Q [m3/h] Class C; Q3 = 1.5 m3/h; DN 13 mm -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Errore[%] Q [m3/h]
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA41 Water meters selected in the Genoa DMA UNIPA OLD METERs - Multijet - Class B and C NEW AMR METER – Multijet – R160
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA42 Test bench results: Genoa old water meter Test pressure: 2 bar UNIPA -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] Water meter 99-455018-DN15mm-Class C Brand Schiumberger/Schol Diameter DN15 (1/2'') Nr. Point Flowrate Error Flowrate Error Flowrate Error Flowrate Error Class C [m3/h] [%] [m3/h] [%] [m3/h] [%] [m3/h] [%] Serial number 99-455018 1 Q1 0.016 -26.32 0.016 -24.98 0.015 -24.97 0.016 -25.42 Age 14 2 0.5(Q1+Q2) 0.019 -12.93 0.019 -12.16 0.020 -5.10 0.019 -10.06 TEST ISO 4064:2005 3 Q2 0.024 -10.96 0.024 -9.85 0.024 -10.97 0.024 -10.59 Q1 0.015 4 0.33(Q2+Q3) 0.528 3.80 0.515 3.91 0.516 3.59 0.520 3.77 Q2 0.0225 5 0.67(Q2+Q3) 1.054 3.00 1.055 2.65 1.065 3.02 1.058 2.89 Q3 1.5 6 Q3 1.474 2.44 1.449 2.57 1.436 2.44 1.453 2.48 Q4 3 7 Q4 2.959 1.80 2.965 3.91 2.975 0.14 2.966 1.95 AverageTest point TEST 1 Test 2 Test 3 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] Water meter 99-455018-DN15mm-Class C -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] Water meter 99-455018-DN15mm-Class C Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] Water meter 99-455018-DN15mm-Class C Average curve Each meter was tested three times and finally the average error curve was evaluated
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA43 Diameter DN15 (1/2'') Nr. Point Flowrate Error Flowrate Error Flowrate Error Flowrate Error Class R160 [m3/h] [%] [m3/h] [%] [m3/h] [%] [m3/h] [%] Serial number 1330046901 1 Q1 0.015 2.65 0.015 2.65 0.015 3.43 0.015 2.91 Age 0 2 0.5(Q1+Q2) 0.019 4.11 0.019 1.02 0.019 6.47 0.019 3.87 TEST ISO 4064:2005 3 Q2 0.024 7.51 0.024 2.59 0.024 3.18 0.024 4.43 Q1 [m3/h] 0.015625 4 0.33(Q2+Q3) 0.511 1.84 0.538 1.79 0.549 1.59 0.533 1.74 Q2 [m3/h] 0.025 5 0.67(Q2+Q3) 1.028 0.91 1.040 1.29 1.043 1.14 1.037 1.11 Q3 [m3/h] 2.5 6 Q3 1.377 1.20 1.447 1.01 1.439 1.61 1.421 1.27 Q4 [m3/h] 3.125 7 Q4 2.982 0.49 2.887 0.50 2.885 0.73 2.918 0.57 Test point TEST 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Test bench results: Genoa new AMR Test pressure: 2 bar UNIPA -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] AMR-Water meter 1330046901-DN15mm -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] AMR-Water meter 1330046901-DN15mm -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] AMR-Water meter 1330046901-DN15mm Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] AMR-Water meter 1330046901-DN15mm Average curve
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA44 Test bench results: Genoa water meters Test bench results were analysed classifying the meters in 5 age classes CLASS 0 = new meters CLASS 1 = meter age ranging between 1 – 5 years CLASS 2 = meter age ranging between 5 – 10 years CLASS 3 = meter age ranging between 10 – 15 years CLASS 4 = meter age major than 15 years UNIPA
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA45 Test bench results: Genoa water meters Test pressure: 2 bar UNIPA -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] CLASS 1 - Age (0-5 years) -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] CLASS 2 - Meter age [5-10 years) -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] CLASS 3 - Meter Age [10-15 years) -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] CLASS 4 - Meter Age > 15 years -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Error[%] Q [m3/h] CLASS 0 - New AMR
  • 2nd AQUAKNIGHT Conference, 21 May 2014, Aqaba, Jordan Vincenza Notaro, UNIPA46 Customer Night Use Estimate Unipa worked in the determination of customer demand patterns and legitimate night use by customers 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Domestic Consumption Pattern