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  • New TPL master

    1. 1. Addressing the Gap Reading Interventions for Struggling Grade Three & Four Students
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Evidence of decline in reading achievement for some children around the age of 9-10 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Few specialised interventions in place to address this systemic failure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond Reading Recovery, these children face a lonely battle to succeed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There were attempts by committed teachers to personalise learning through focussed and targeted differentiation within their classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Future data will provide further evidence as to whether this mainstream approach is able to effectively meet the needs of ‘at risk’ students. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What are these students like <ul><li>They are: </li></ul><ul><li>a diverse group </li></ul><ul><li>the majority are boys </li></ul><ul><li>disengaged </li></ul><ul><li>disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>lack self-management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>have low self efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>have trouble with text books </li></ul><ul><li>have trouble understanding in what is involved in tasks </li></ul><ul><li>feel distrustful of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>have a dependence of decoding </li></ul><ul><li>absent a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely passive </li></ul><ul><li>Lack initiative </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fluent Vs Impaired Readers <ul><li>Engaging Struggling Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Left FMRI shows fluent reader: occipito-temporal region is activated, responsible for visual processing </li></ul><ul><li>Right MRI shows dyslexic reader: more sounding out in Broca’s area in frontal lobe </li></ul>
    5. 5. Overview <ul><li>‘ Without effective, specialised help, they are doomed </li></ul><ul><li>to school failure, illiteracy and severely limited life </li></ul><ul><li>chances.’ (Clay, M.M., and Tuck, B. 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Our project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was based on the philosophy that all children can learn given the ‘right’ conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>addressed the needs of ‘hardest to teach’ students by linking effective teaching pedagogy with an understanding of the precise difficulties experienced by these children during their struggle to be competent readers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed the challenges of bringing about successful outcomes for these children is achievable and critical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires greater recognition by the educational system of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges the system to invest knowledge and resources </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>the commitment and collaboration of the team </li></ul><ul><li>the generosity of the schools and colleagues we visited. </li></ul><ul><li>access TPL (Teacher Professional Leave) which made our combined efforts possible </li></ul><ul><li>We also thank our own schools and students for allowing us to be absent for the duration of our study. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Thanks <ul><li>Schools visited: </li></ul><ul><li>Woodend -Andy Kozack and Bev Saddler </li></ul><ul><li>New Gisborne – Suzanne Cooke and Jill Plumber </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of the Rosary Kyneton – Anne </li></ul><ul><li>Mildura South - Marie Therese O’Leary </li></ul><ul><li>Irymple South - Robyn Gallagher </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cliffs East – Kim Ryan </li></ul><ul><li>Nichols Point – Jo McQuinn </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Rosary Heathcote-Melanie </li></ul><ul><li>Heathcote-Michael Saunders </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Gully – Ann Rochford </li></ul><ul><li>Camp Hill – Jill Scobie and Sue Prentice </li></ul><ul><li>Tasmania-Louise Anders </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Therapist: Christine Sertori </li></ul><ul><li>SRA Rep: Di Mcpherson </li></ul><ul><li>Lioncrest Rep: Liz </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective Reading Tutor : Genevieve Hosking </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Officers </li></ul><ul><li>Sue Hinton </li></ul><ul><li>Helen Bandrowski (Catholic Education)) </li></ul><ul><li>Pam Toose </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Nicolson </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Baird </li></ul><ul><li>John Walsh </li></ul><ul><li>Rob Sbaglia </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Holmes-Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Tamara Downey </li></ul><ul><li>Andrea Chalmers </li></ul><ul><li>Yvonne Madden </li></ul><ul><li>Trish Priest </li></ul><ul><li>ERIK Tutors: Kim Cheep and Leonie </li></ul><ul><li>NAPLAN Documentation: Kangaroo Flat – Brooke Benendick </li></ul>
    8. 8. Proposal <ul><li>Major factors identified as negatively </li></ul><ul><li>impacting on reading success for students in </li></ul><ul><li>Grades 3 /4 </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistency in teaching practices </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Student self-efficacy / engagement </li></ul>
    9. 9. Inconsistency in teaching practices <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Whole School agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Addressed by </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a Professional and Development Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Whole school Literacy Plan with levelled scope and sequence charts </li></ul>
    10. 10. Assessment <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient provision of support </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate assessment materials </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Addressed by </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of appropriate diagnostic tools and support from administration </li></ul><ul><li>Whole School assessment schedule </li></ul>
    11. 11. Teacher Capacity <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective models of pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of support for intervention beyond grade one </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of student accountability, task ownership and specific feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to grow as a teacher in order to grow students </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Professional Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Professional Leave </li></ul>
    12. 12. Parental Involvement <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>Parents less visible at school </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by </li></ul><ul><li>Parent education </li></ul><ul><li>Parent involvement in classrooms with training </li></ul><ul><li>Continued emphasis on parent / school partnerships </li></ul>Introduction Reading Writing Speaking & Listening
    13. 13. Student self-efficacy / engagement <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor motivation and reluctance to read </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Support </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate diagnostic assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted direct teaching and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who engender a love of literacy in all students </li></ul>
    14. 14. Effective Teaching <ul><li>Six characteristics indentified in the more effective early years teachers . </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPATION - They ensured high levels of student participation </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>ORCHESTRATION - They can simultaneously orchestrate the complex demands of classroom teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Pace </li></ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul>
    15. 15. Effective Teaching <ul><li>DIFFERENTIATION They can target and differentiate their instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Individualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Connection </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWLEDGE They are deeply knowledgeable about literacy learning </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Substance </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Metalanguage </li></ul>
    16. 16. Effective Teaching <ul><li>SUPPORT They can support and scaffold learners at word and text levels </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitness – Word </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitness – Text </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul><ul><li>RESPECT They can do all of this in classrooms characterised </li></ul><ul><li>by mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul>
    17. 17. Learning Intentions WALT W e A re L earning T o
    18. 18. Success Indicators Wilf W hat I ’m L ooking F or
    19. 19. Reflection Tib T his I s B ecause
    20. 20. Intervention Programs <ul><li>Enhancing Reading Intervention for at Risk Students (ERIK) - University of Melbourne and Catholic Education Office Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges ( Intervention )- Department of Education Tasmania </li></ul><ul><li>Rainbow Reading (Intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Recovery (Intervention) - Marie Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective Reading SRA (Intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>Catch a Falling Star (Intervention) - Catholic Education Office Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Literacy Success Strategy ( CLaSS ) University of Melbourne and Catholic Education Office Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Science Research Associates SRA Reading Labs - McGraw Hill, Columbus , Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Scientific Investigation ( CSI ) - Lioncrest </li></ul><ul><li>STARS - Hawker Brownlow Education </li></ul><ul><li>WA First Steps Early Years Department of Education, Employment and Training Victoria. (Longman) </li></ul><ul><li>MULTILIT – Making Up for Lost Time in Literacy </li></ul>
    21. 21. Formal Assessment <ul><li>Developmental Assessment Resources for Teachers (DART ) _ Australian Council for Education Research </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading (PAT-R ) -Australian Council for Educational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading (PAT-R 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH ) -Australian Council for Educational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Neale Analysis of Reading Ability - Australian Council for Educational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Writing and Reading Assessment Profile (WRAP) - </li></ul><ul><li>Probe Reading Assessment - 2nd edition- Pool and Parkin, 2002, Triune Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>LEXILES </li></ul><ul><li>CARS- Series B Teacher Guide 2006Hawker Brownlow Education </li></ul><ul><li>Peter’s Dictation </li></ul><ul><li>South Australian Spelling Test </li></ul><ul><li>Read and Retell - Literacy Professional learning Resource – Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>On Demand Testing -Education Department </li></ul><ul><li>PM Benchmark Kit- Nelleye & Smith 2000,nferNelson </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Survey- Marie Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Now </li></ul>
    22. 22. Making a Difference
    23. 23. Making a Difference
    24. 24. Reading
    25. 25. Literacy Circles <ul><li>What are Literacy circles? </li></ul><ul><li>sophisticated book club type discussions </li></ul><ul><li>structured reading activity </li></ul><ul><li>powerful, high-level discussion and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>short stories, shorter pieces of non-fiction and extracts from novels and plays </li></ul>
    26. 26. Literacy Circles <ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>select, read and discuss their own texts </li></ul><ul><li>connect with stories, articles, novels </li></ul><ul><li>take responsibility as readers and group members </li></ul><ul><li>construct meaning together </li></ul><ul><li>begin to debate and challenge one another </li></ul><ul><li>develop interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>develop higher order thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>develop reflective and met cognitive skills </li></ul>
    27. 27. Literacy Circles <ul><li>Group members </li></ul><ul><li>take specific responsibilities during discussion sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>meet regularly, </li></ul><ul><li>discussion roles change at each meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>showcase their work for the rest of the class after finishing </li></ul>
    28. 28. Literacy Circles <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Questioner writes questions that will lead to discussion by the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrator uses some form of artwork to represent a significant scene or idea from the reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Passage selector points out interesting or important passages within the reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Word wizard discusses words in the text that are unusual, interesting, or difficult to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Connector finds connections between the reading material and something outside the text, </li></ul><ul><li>Summariser prepares a brief summary of the reading - the gist, key points, and the essence. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Literacy Circles to E 5 Engage <ul><li>Stimulate interest and curiosity, promote questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Connect learning to real world experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to past experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Present a purpose for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Determining challenging goals </li></ul><ul><li>Making assessment and performance requirements clear </li></ul><ul><li>Be explicit in what they children are going to learn </li></ul><ul><li>All participants are included and expected to have input </li></ul><ul><li>Group dynamics, boundaries and respect is explicitly taught and modelled </li></ul><ul><li>Students are clear on roles and gradually take ownership of the circle </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure reading is linked to ability and connected to interests </li></ul><ul><li>Model by reading aloud so everyone can follow </li></ul>
    30. 30. Literacy Circles to E 5 Explore <ul><li>Provide tools and procedures for students to organise information and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor own thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what the kids know </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Organise students with particular roles for Reading Circles ie. Questioner, passage selector, illustrator, connector, word watcher and summariser. </li></ul><ul><li>Students make decisions, give reasons </li></ul><ul><li>I wonder questions - What are you wondering about? </li></ul>Explore <ul><li>Provide tools and procedures for students to organise information and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor own thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what the kids know </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Organise students with particular roles for Reading Circles ie. Questioner, passage selector, illustrator, connector, word watcher and summariser. </li></ul><ul><li>Students make decisions, give reasons </li></ul><ul><li>I wonder questions - What are you wondering about? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Literacy Circles to E 5 Explain <ul><li>Explicitly teach relevant knowledge, concepts and skills </li></ul><ul><li>teacher provides strategies to enable students to connect and organise new and existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Presents new content/strengthens connections </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about what they have learnt </li></ul><ul><li>Think-pair-Share </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Questioner – after writing questions to the person beside and share questions and add more to the text </li></ul><ul><li>Explain their choices and provide evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Role of word wizard selects vocabulary, work from text, then source out word </li></ul>
    32. 32. Literacy Circles to E 5 Elaborate <ul><li>Extending and refining student’s understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Progressively build students ability to transfer and generalise their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivates higher order thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher monitors student understanding, providing explicit feedback and adjusting instruction accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections using vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate what inferences are being made </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in critically thinking </li></ul><ul><li>students come together and discuss what they have learnt </li></ul><ul><li>Role of summariser to elaborate on what was learnt </li></ul>
    33. 33. Literacy Circles to E 5 Evaluate <ul><li>Students self assess and reflect on their learning processes and the impact of effort on achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers provide feedback and assist students to evaluate their progress and achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Guide students to identify future goals </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides regular and constructive feedback via roaming and taking notes </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors group behaviours and discussions </li></ul><ul><li>At conclusion ask for general comments-what they did well and one thing they think they need to improve on next time </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective journal – using stems (wondering starters ) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Reciprocal Reading <ul><ul><li>I think …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll bet …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wonder if …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I imagine …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I suppose ...because… </li></ul></ul>Predicting Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce I think…
    35. 35. Reciprocal Reading <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t understand the part about …, so I: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This doesn’t make sense, so I … : </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t figure out …, so I: </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reread, reread, reread. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read on for clues. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the parts of the word I know. </li></ul><ul><li>Blend the sounds of the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Reread the sentence to see if it makes sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Try another word. </li></ul>Mmmm, that’s clearer. Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce
    36. 36. Reciprocal Reading <ul><li>When questioning with fiction and nonfiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions based on the text. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask questions that are based on the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>main idea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask some detail-oriented questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask some inferential questions. </li></ul><ul><li>When questioning with nonfiction only: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions based on text features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>such as maps, captions, and diagrams. </li></ul></ul>Questioning Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? What if? Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce
    37. 37. Reciprocal Reading <ul><li>When summarizing fiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retell the story in your own words. Include the setting, characters, problem, key events, and resolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give only key points that add up (+) to a short summary. </li></ul><ul><li>Use logical order. </li></ul><ul><li>Reread to remember main ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to illustrations to summarize. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Somebody Wanted But So. </li></ul><ul><li>When summarizing nonfiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave out unnecessary details. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refer to illustrations, headings, and other text features. </li></ul>Summarizing First,… Next,… Then,… Finally,… Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce
    38. 38. Guided Reading <ul><li>Purposes and benefits of guided </li></ul><ul><li>reading </li></ul><ul><li>using and developing the reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>interact with the teacher and the text </li></ul><ul><li>exploration of the structures and features of </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul><ul><li>talk, read and think their way through a text </li></ul><ul><li>observation, assessment and support </li></ul>
    39. 39. Guided Reading <ul><li>Suggested structure </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a suitable text and focus for the session ( individual copies of the book) </li></ul><ul><li>text will be one that the children have not read before </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarise yourself with the text </li></ul><ul><li>Consider questions you will ask to support the children’s reading </li></ul><ul><li>Consider elements that will help children as they read </li></ul>
    40. 40. Guided Reading <ul><li>Independent reading </li></ul><ul><li>Each child reads independently at their own pace, </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher moves around the group, listening to individual children, prompting assessing understanding and progress </li></ul>
    41. 41. Guided Reading <ul><li>Early-finishers’ activities </li></ul><ul><li>Re-read the book </li></ul><ul><li>Read with a partner </li></ul><ul><li>Retell the story to a partner </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a favourite part or character </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the most interesting fact (nonfiction) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify words with particular spelling patterns eg double letter words; silent letters etc </li></ul>
    42. 42. Guided Reading <ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Share responses to the text </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the children’s understanding </li></ul>
    43. 43. Guided Reading <ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate the children’s skills and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce new concepts, vocabulary, punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Praise successful problem-solving and self-correction </li></ul>
    44. 44. Planning for Reading <ul><li>Five key components of reading: </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness – Attentiveness to the sounds of spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics – Decoding unfamiliar words using knowledge of the alphabet principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency – Grade appropriate oral reading with appropriate speed, accuracy and expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Development - Knowledge of word meanings to facilitate effective spoken and written language communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Text Comprehension – Use of a variety of comprehension strategies to monitor comprehension to construct meaning from print. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>The spoken words consist of individual sounds (phonemes). </li></ul><ul><li>How words can be segmented (pulled apart) into sounds, and how these sounds can be blended (put back together) and manipulated (added, deleted, and substituted). </li></ul><ul><li>How to use their phonemic awareness to blend sounds to read words and to segment sounds in words to spell them. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Phonics <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet. </li></ul><ul><li>The alphabetic principle (an understanding that the sequence of sounds or phonemes in a spoken word are represented by letters in a written word. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics elements (e.g., letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables and meaningful words parts). </li></ul><ul><li>How to apply phonics elements as they read and write. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Fluency <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>How to decode isolated words accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>How to read connected text automatically with appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Vocabulary Development <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>The meanings for most of the words in a text so they can understand what they read. </li></ul><ul><li>How to apply a variety of strategies to learn words meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>How to make connections between words and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>How to accurately use words in oral and written language. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Text Comprehension
    50. 50. Conclusion <ul><li>OUR PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>based on anecdotal evidence gathered from a variety of colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>drew on our own experiences as professional people who are close to the action. </li></ul><ul><li>carried out an extensive review of literature, particularly focussing on engaging struggling readers. </li></ul><ul><li>looked at success factors for reading </li></ul><ul><li>used NAPLAN evidence to verify these state wide claims. </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><ul><li>Investigate characteristics of a balanced literacy program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detailed planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focussed teaching, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>checking for understanding, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structuring lessons to maximise learning outcomes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making connections and engaging students’ interests and backgrounds. </li></ul></ul>Recommendations
    52. 52. Recommendations <ul><li>allow more opportunities for building teacher capacity </li></ul><ul><li>recognise and promote the educational benefits of the parent teacher partnership </li></ul><ul><li>identify and track low achieving students throughout their schooling </li></ul><ul><li>provide additional assistance </li></ul><ul><li>embrace instructional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>provide student accountability and ownership of tasks and constructive, specific and targeted feedback </li></ul>
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