Vitamin a


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Vitamin a

  2. 2. Elmer Verner McCollum (March 3, 1879 – November 15, 1967) is an American biochemist known for his work on the influence of diet on health. Elmer Verner McCollum
  3. 3. Elmer Verner McCollum’s Bio data Born March 3, 1879 Fort Scott Kansas,U.S. Died November 15, 1967 (aged 88) Residence America Nationality American Fields Biochemist Institutions Johns Hopkins Boomerang School of Public Health Alma mater University of Kansas Yale University Ph.D. Known for Discovering Vitamin A, Vitamin B and Vitamin D . Discovering the influence of diet on health. Devising the Vitamin naming system. Discovered the importance of trace metals on Diet. Notable awards Howard N.Potts Medal (1921)
  4. 4. WHAT IS VITAMIN-A ? Vitamin A is the name of a group of fat-soluble retinoid, including retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and retinal esters . Vitamin A is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cellular communication Vitamin A is critical for vision as an essential component of rhodopsin a protein that absorbs light in the retinal receptors, and because it supports the normal differentiation and functioning of the conjunctival membranes and cornea . Vitamin A also supports cell growth and differentiation, playing a critical role in the normal formation and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs
  5. 5. BENEFITS OF VITAMIN - A Vitamin A prevents eye problems, promotes a healthy immune system, is essential for the growth and development of cells, and keeps skin healthy.
  6. 6. Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin A Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation 0–6 months* 400 mcg RAE 400 mcg RAE 7–12 months* 500 mcg RAE 500 mcg RAE 1–3 years 300 mcg RAE 300 mcg RAE 4–8 years 400 mcg RAE 400 mcg RAE 9–13 years 600 mcg RAE 600 mcg RAE 14–18 years 900 mcg RAE 700 mcg RAE 750 mcg RAE 1,200 mcg RAE 19–50 years 900 mcg RAE 700 mcg RAE 770 mcg RAE 1,300 mcg RAE 51+ years 900 mcg RAE 700 mcg RAE
  7. 7. Table 2: Selected Food Sources of Vitamin A Food Mcg RAE per serving IU per serving Percent DV* Sweet potato, baked in skin, 1 whole 1,403 28,058 561 Beef liver, pan fried, 3 ounces 6,582 22,175 444 Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 573 11,458 229 Carrots, raw, ½ cup 459 9,189 184 Pumpkin pie, commercially prepared, 1 piece 488 3,743 249 Cantaloupe, raw, ½ cup 135 2,706 54 Peppers, sweet, red, raw, ½ cup 117 2,332 47 Mangos, raw, 1 whole 112 2,240 45
  8. 8. Table 3: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Preformed Vitamin A Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation 0–12 months 600 mcg RAE (2,000 IU) 600 mcg RAE (2,000 IU) 1–3 years 600 mcg RAE (2,000 IU) 600 mcg RAE (2,000 IU) 4–8 years 900 mcg RAE (3,000 IU) 900 mcg RAE (3,000 IU) 9–13 years 1,700 mcg RAE (5,667 IU) 1,700 mcg RAE (5,667 IU) 14–18 years 2,800 mcg RAE (9,333 IU) 2,800 mcg RAE (9,333 IU) 2,800 mcg RAE (9,333 IU) 2,800 mcg RAE (9,333 IU) 19+ years 3,000 mcg RAE (10,000 IU) 3,000 mcg RAE (10,000 IU) 3,000 mcg RAE (10,000 IU) 3,000 mcg RAE (10,000 IU)
  9. 9. SOURCES OF VITAMIN-A Good sources of vitamin A are milk, eggs, liver, fortified cereals, darkly colored orange or green vegetables (such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and kale), and orange fruits such as cantaloupe, apricots, peaches, papayas, and mangos .
  10. 10. WHERE IS VITAMIN-A - OBTAINED Vitamin A can be obtained in the diet foods of animal origin such as milk, eggs, fish, butter, fortified margarine, cheese and liver. In developing countries it is obtained from carotene, which is present in the green and yellow fruits and vegetables, furthermore the vegetable sources of this vitamin are sweet potatoes, pumpkin, mangoes, apricot, beet greens and dark green leafy vegetables
  11. 11. VITAMIN-A DEFICIENCY The deficiency of vitamin leads to skin changes and to night blindness or failure of dark adaptation due to the effects of deficiency on retina.
  12. 12. VITAMIN-A AND HEALTHFUL DIETS The federal government's 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "nutrients should come primarily from foods. Foods in nutrient-dense, mostly intact forms contain not only the essential vitamins and minerals that are often contained in nutrient supplements, but also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. ...Dietary supplements...may be advantageous in specific situations to increase intake of a specific vitamin or mineral.
  14. 14. LIVER The liver of any animal is packed with vitamins and minerals, and is best prepared steamed or fried with onions and herbs. Turkey liver provides the most vitamin A with 75333IU (1507% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 62526IU (1250% DV) per liver. The liver of most any animal will provide 1000%+ DV of vitamin A.
  15. 15. Paprika, Red Pepper, Cayenne, Chili Powder A tablespoon of paprika contains 3691IU (74% DV) for vitamin A, or 52735 IU (1055% DV) for a 100 gram serving. Other red pepper powders have similar amounts with Cayenne powder providing 41610 IU (832% DV) per 100g or 2081IU (42% DV) in a single tablespoon
  16. 16. Sweet Potatoes With their bright orange color sweet potatoes are packed with vitamin A. Sweet potatoes provide 19218IU (384% DV) of vitamin A per 100 gram serving, or 38436IU (769% DV) in a cup of mashed sweet potato, and 21909IU (438% DV) in a medium sized sweet potato.
  17. 17. CARROTS Carrots are excellent cooked or as a snack. 100 grams of raw carrots provides 16706IU (334% DV) for vitamin A. That is 10191IU (204% DV) for a medium sized carrot, and 2069IU (41% DV) for a single baby carrot.
  18. 18. DARK LEAFY VEGETABLES Crisp, fresh, and delicious, dark leafy greens are great in a salad or steamed as a side. As a bonus they are also Kale provides the most vitamin A with 15376IU (308% DV) per 100g serving, 10302IU (206% DV) per cup. It is followed by Turnip Greens (232% DV), Mustard Greens (210% DV), Dandelion Greens (203% DV), Spinach (188% DV), and Collards (133% DV).
  19. 19. BUTTERNUT SQUASH Dark orange squash has a delicious nutty and sweet flavor. 100 grams baked provides 11155IU (223% DV) of vitamin A, or 22868IU (457% DV) per cup.
  20. 20. DRIED HERBS Dried herbs are so packed with vitamins they appear on practically every. Make it a habit to add a pinch of dried herb to everything you prepare. Dried Parsley provides the most vitamin A with 10184IU (204% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 204IU (4% DV) per tablespoon. It is followed by Dried Basil (188% DV), Dried Marjoram (161% DV), Dill (154% DV), and Oregano (138% DV).
  21. 21. LETTUCE The kind of lettuce matters when it comes to vitamin A content. Dark colorful lettuces provide the most vitamin A with Red and Green Leaf lettuces providing 7492IU (150% DV) per 100 gram serving, 2098IU (42% DV) per cup shredded, and 1274IU (25% DV) per leaf. Iceberg only provides 502IU (10% DV) per 100g, 361IU (7% DV) per cup shredded, and 75IU (2% DV) per leaf.
  22. 22. DRIED APRICOTS Dried apricots are a great portable snack food. 100 grams will provide 3604IU (72% DV) of vitamin A, which is 4685IU (94% DV) per cup, and 144IU (6% DV) per dried apricot.
  23. 23. CANTALOUPE Cantaloupe and other yellow/orange melons are a great source of vitamin A. Cantaloupe provides 3382IU (68% DV) of vitamin A per 100 gram
  24. 24. Vitamin A overdose: Excessive Vitamin A intake usually occurs through consumption of large amounts of Vitamin A supplements. Vitamin A is used in the body for vision, immunity and bone and tissue growth and maintenance. Excessive Vitamin A use during pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects. Vitamin A overdose can cause symptoms such as orange skin, blurred vision and nausea. Vitamin A toxicity can cause more severe symptoms such as growth retardation, hair loss and enlarged spleen and liver. So, we have to be aware of Vitamin A overdose also.
  25. 25. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. Source: WHO
  26. 26. It was K.MALLIKARJUN of 8th class , KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA,N.A.D, VISAKHAPATNAM . I need your kind suggestions and remarks at: 9885115964. Thank you.