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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY & CRIMINALOGY
NURFILZATUNNAFSI BINTI RAHMAT 2011688506
NUR AMIRA BINTI NOOR KAMARUDIN 2011693334
NORMALIZA BINTI MAT ISA 2011675254
NOR FATIHAH BINTI IBRAHIM 2011692996
SHAMIN AZYA BINTI AZMAN 2011676048
A profoundly tender, passionate affection
for another person.
A feeling of warm personal attachment or
deep affection, as for a parent, child, or
Sexual passion or desire.
A person toward whom love is felt; beloved
*Love has been described as involving care,
responsibility, respect, and knowledge by Erich Fromm
in The Art of Loving.
*Rollo May says there have been four types of love in
Western tradition (page 37 of Love and Will)--sex or
lust; eros, the creative drive; philia or friendship; and
agape, the love devoted toward the welfare of others.
*Love is so unique for different people or at different times
that nothing of general importance and description can be
said about it.
*Though love is a variety of things and involves a variety of
things, the varieties themselves can be meaningfully
explained and described, and they can be explained and
described simply in terms of everyday experience rather than
described away in scientific (or pseudo-scientific) jargon or
*And though they can be described in specific, accurate,
logical, non-mystical and non-mythical prose which will make
reflection, decision, and discussion of love easier and clearer,
this will not thereby make love seem prosaic.
*And it may even heighten both the value of love itself and the
meaning, poignancy, and perception poetry about it provides.
3% feeling or kind of
y or roles
An intense and often illogical
emotional response to another
Usually seen as a key of true love
but it appears to be infatuation to
the outside observers.
Two social psychologists, Hatfield and Walster
(1981), proposed that passionate love requires
three basic factors:
Know the basic idea of it (Sternberg, 1996).
„Appropriate‟ love object must be present -
a physically attractive person of the
opposite sex who is not currently married.
The individual must be in the state of
psychological arousal (sexual
excitement, fear, anxiety, positive and
negative feelings or whatever) that can be
interpreted as the emotion of love (Dutton
& Aron, 1974; Istvan, Griffitt &
Hatfield and Sprecher (1986b) developed the
Passionate Love Scale to measure these
positive and negative elements.
It contains items such as:
• “For me, _____ is the perfect romantic
• “I would feel deep despair if ---_____ left
Affection we feel for those with whom our live
are deeply entwined” (Hatfield, 1988, p.205)
Companionate love is based on a very close
friendship in which two people are sexually
attracted, have a great deal in common, care
about each other‟s well-being, and express
mutual liking and respect (Caspi &
Can be long lasting.
A love felt by one person for another who does
not feel in love in return.
Can be awkward no matter what the situation.
• The closeness felt by two people
and the strength of the bond that
holds them together.
• Based on romance, physical
attraction and sexuality
excitement associated with a
• The cognitive processes involved
in deciding that you love another
person and are committed to
maintain the relationship.
“The amount of love one experiences depends on the
absolute strength of these three components, and the
type of love one experiences depends on their
strengths relative to each other” (Sternberg, 2004).
Different stages and types of love can be explained as
different combinations of these three elements.
A relationship based on a single element is less likely
to survive than one based on two or three elements.
When all three angles of the triangle are equally
strong, the result is consummate love.
Intimacy Passion Commitment
Empty Love X
Romantic Love X X
Fatuous Love X X
X X X
• A person feels
another person without
feeling of intense
passion or long-term
• “Experiencing of
passionate arousal in the
absence of intimacy and
e Tennov‟s limerance”
remains, but the
intimacy or passion is
• E.g - Arranged
• A combination of intimacy
and passion component of
• Romantic lover are bonded
emotionally and physically
• Companionate love combine
intimacy and commitment
component of love.
• This type of love is observed in
long-term marriages where
passion is no longer present”
(Ashford, 2009) but a deep
affection and commitment
• “Fatuous in the sense that
a commitment is made on
the basis of passion
without the stabilizing
influence of intimate
• The complete form of love, consists of
intimacy, passion and decision/commitment.
• Sternberg cautions that maintaining a consummate
love may be even harder than achieving it.
• "Without expression," he warns, "even the greatest
of loves can die" (1987, p.341).
• Consummate love may not be permanent. For
example, if passion is lost over time, it may
change into companionate love.
• Are you in love with someone, or have
you ever been in love?
• What attracted you to him/her and
made you experience such intense
• Why Do We Fall In Love?
I. That person looks like someone that you loved
before or someone you still love. For example
you might fall in love with a girl who looks like
your mother if you were a guy or fall in love
with someone who looks like your father if you
were a girl.
II. Of course that person is not going to match
your parent's looks perfectly but some facial
traits will be common between them both
that only your subconscious mind will notice.
I. You might fall in love with someone if he has got
something that you miss or that you need. For
example a dark guy may be attracted to a light
skinned girl,a girl who has low self
confidence might be attracted to someone who
is assertive and confident.
II. This is a healthy mechanism because it leads to
more balanced children. If this was the only
reason people fall in love then every generation
was going to be more balanced than the one
before it but there are many other rules.
I. Similarity results in attraction if the
person was similar to you in the things
you consider important. For example if
someone shares your same beliefs then
attraction is more likely to happen.
II. For example a religious guy would be
more interested in a girl who has some
kind of connection to religion.
I. From points 2 and 3 we can conclude
that each person will be looking for
traits that are opposite to the ones he
dislikes about himself and that are
similar to the ones he likes about
WHAT MAKE PEOPLE
FALL IN LOVE
a) We fall in love partly because of smell.
The scent of a bouquet of red roses, for
instance, is a cultural preference that
boosts the chemistry in romantic
a) Dr Kristal from the University of Buffalo
says, “Smell forms part of the framework that
conforms to cultural attractiveness standards.
For example, smelling like a strawberry
instead of mildew [makes you attractive].”
b) Smelling delicious could be part of why we
fall in love.
a) Invisible signals are part of what makes people fall
in love. “Pheromones are unlearned, and perhaps
unsmellable, signals that enter the brain through
the olfactory system.
b) They can function in
sex, alarm, territoriality, aggression, and fear,” says
Dr Kristal. He believes that we choose specific
mates not solely due to pheromones, but for other
c) Other sensory cues are better explanations for why
we fall in love, such as touch, smell, and hearing.
a) We fall in love partly because of hormones.
Oxytocin and vasopressin are present when people
fall in love and stay together for a long time.
b) Dopamine is also part of the chemistry in romantic
relationships. So, when you‟re wondering “Why
doesn‟t he love me?” you may have to look to brain
chemistry as the answer.
c) It‟s not necessarily you, it‟s just that your brain
chemicals didn‟t mesh. Lack of hormones could
explain why people fall in love.
“Love is a promise, love is a
souvenir, once given never
forgotten, never let it disappear”
- John Lennon -
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