A little entertainment before we
start the presentation 
LAW 039
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY & CRIMINALOGY
PREPARED BY:
NURFILZATUNNAFSI BINTI RAHMAT 2011688506
NUR AMIRA BINTI NOOR KAMARUD...
WHAT
IS
LOVE?
 A profoundly tender, passionate affection
for another person.
 A feeling of warm personal attachment or
deep affection,...
*Love has been described as involving care,
responsibility, respect, and knowledge by Erich Fromm
in The Art of Loving.
*R...
*Love is so unique for different people or at different times
that nothing of general importance and description can be
sa...
*
40%
20%
20%
17%
3% feeling or kind of
attraction
companionship &
compatabality
giving
security
efficiency, practicalit
y...
OF
LOVE
KIND
THE
PASSIONATE
LOVE
COMPANIONATE
LOVE
UNREQUITED
LOVE
An intense and often illogical
emotional response to another
person.
Usually seen as a key of true love
but it appears to ...
Two social psychologists, Hatfield and Walster
(1981), proposed that passionate love requires
three basic factors:
 Know ...
Hatfield and Sprecher (1986b) developed the
Passionate Love Scale to measure these
positive and negative elements.
It cont...
Affection we feel for those with whom our live
are deeply entwined” (Hatfield, 1988, p.205)
Companionate love is based on ...
A love felt by one person for another who does
not feel in love in return.
Can be awkward no matter what the situation.
• The closeness felt by two people
and the strength of the bond that
holds them together.
Intimacy
• Based on romance, phy...
“The amount of love one experiences depends on the
absolute strength of these three components, and the
type of love one e...
Intimacy Passion Commitment
Liking/Friendship X
Infatuation X
Empty Love X
Romantic Love X X
Companionate
Love
X X
Fatuous...
Liking/Friendship
• A person feels
closeness, bondedness,
warmth toward
another person without
feeling of intense
passion ...
• Commitment
remains, but the
intimacy or passion is
absent.
• E.g - Arranged
marriage.
Empty
Love
• A combination of inti...
• Companionate love combine
intimacy and commitment
component of love.
• This type of love is observed in
long-term marria...
Consummate Love
• The complete form of love, consists of
intimacy, passion and decision/commitment.
• Sternberg cautions t...
FACTORS
OF
LOVE
• Are you in love with someone, or have
you ever been in love?
• What attracted you to him/her and
made you experience suc...
REASON OF
LOVING
SOMEONE
SIMILAR
LOOK
SIMILARITY
UNMET
DEEDS
OPPOSITE
ATTRACT
I. That person looks like someone that you loved
before or someone you still love. For example
you might fall in love with...
I. You might fall in love with someone if he has got
something that you miss or that you need. For
example a dark guy may ...
I. Similarity results in attraction if the
person was similar to you in the things
you consider important. For example if
...
I. From points 2 and 3 we can conclude
that each person will be looking for
traits that are opposite to the ones he
dislik...
WHAT MAKE PEOPLE
FALL IN LOVE
SMELL
LOVE
PHEROMONES
THE BRAINS
a) We fall in love partly because of smell.
The scent of a bouquet of red roses, for
instance, is a cultural preference th...
a) Dr Kristal from the University of Buffalo
says, “Smell forms part of the framework that
conforms to cultural attractive...
a) Invisible signals are part of what makes people fall
in love. “Pheromones are unlearned, and perhaps
unsmellable, signa...
a) We fall in love partly because of hormones.
Oxytocin and vasopressin are present when people
fall in love and stay toge...
“Love is a promise, love is a
souvenir, once given never
forgotten, never let it disappear”
- John Lennon -
What is Love and its categories?
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What is Love and its categories?

  1. 1. A little entertainment before we start the presentation 
  2. 2. LAW 039 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY & CRIMINALOGY PREPARED BY: NURFILZATUNNAFSI BINTI RAHMAT 2011688506 NUR AMIRA BINTI NOOR KAMARUDIN 2011693334 NORMALIZA BINTI MAT ISA 2011675254 NOR FATIHAH BINTI IBRAHIM 2011692996 SHAMIN AZYA BINTI AZMAN 2011676048
  3. 3. WHAT IS LOVE?
  4. 4.  A profoundly tender, passionate affection for another person.  A feeling of warm personal attachment or deep affection, as for a parent, child, or friend.  Sexual passion or desire.  A person toward whom love is felt; beloved person; sweetheart.
  5. 5. *Love has been described as involving care, responsibility, respect, and knowledge by Erich Fromm in The Art of Loving. *Rollo May says there have been four types of love in Western tradition (page 37 of Love and Will)--sex or lust; eros, the creative drive; philia or friendship; and agape, the love devoted toward the welfare of others.
  6. 6. *Love is so unique for different people or at different times that nothing of general importance and description can be said about it. *Though love is a variety of things and involves a variety of things, the varieties themselves can be meaningfully explained and described, and they can be explained and described simply in terms of everyday experience rather than described away in scientific (or pseudo-scientific) jargon or theory. *And though they can be described in specific, accurate, logical, non-mystical and non-mythical prose which will make reflection, decision, and discussion of love easier and clearer, this will not thereby make love seem prosaic. *And it may even heighten both the value of love itself and the meaning, poignancy, and perception poetry about it provides.
  7. 7. * 40% 20% 20% 17% 3% feeling or kind of attraction companionship & compatabality giving security efficiency, practicalit y or roles
  8. 8. OF LOVE KIND THE
  9. 9. PASSIONATE LOVE COMPANIONATE LOVE UNREQUITED LOVE
  10. 10. An intense and often illogical emotional response to another person. Usually seen as a key of true love but it appears to be infatuation to the outside observers.
  11. 11. Two social psychologists, Hatfield and Walster (1981), proposed that passionate love requires three basic factors:  Know the basic idea of it (Sternberg, 1996).  „Appropriate‟ love object must be present - a physically attractive person of the opposite sex who is not currently married.  The individual must be in the state of psychological arousal (sexual excitement, fear, anxiety, positive and negative feelings or whatever) that can be interpreted as the emotion of love (Dutton & Aron, 1974; Istvan, Griffitt & Werdner, 1983).
  12. 12. Hatfield and Sprecher (1986b) developed the Passionate Love Scale to measure these positive and negative elements. It contains items such as: • “For me, _____ is the perfect romantic partner” • “I would feel deep despair if ---_____ left me.”
  13. 13. Affection we feel for those with whom our live are deeply entwined” (Hatfield, 1988, p.205) Companionate love is based on a very close friendship in which two people are sexually attracted, have a great deal in common, care about each other‟s well-being, and express mutual liking and respect (Caspi & Herbeber, 1990). Can be long lasting.
  14. 14. A love felt by one person for another who does not feel in love in return. Can be awkward no matter what the situation.
  15. 15. • The closeness felt by two people and the strength of the bond that holds them together. Intimacy • Based on romance, physical attraction and sexuality excitement associated with a couple‟s relationship. Passion • The cognitive processes involved in deciding that you love another person and are committed to maintain the relationship. Decision/ Commitment
  16. 16. “The amount of love one experiences depends on the absolute strength of these three components, and the type of love one experiences depends on their strengths relative to each other” (Sternberg, 2004). Different stages and types of love can be explained as different combinations of these three elements. A relationship based on a single element is less likely to survive than one based on two or three elements. When all three angles of the triangle are equally strong, the result is consummate love.
  17. 17. Intimacy Passion Commitment Liking/Friendship X Infatuation X Empty Love X Romantic Love X X Companionate Love X X Fatuous Love X X Consummate Love X X X
  18. 18. Liking/Friendship • A person feels closeness, bondedness, warmth toward another person without feeling of intense passion or long-term commitment (Sternberg, 2004). Infatuation • “Experiencing of passionate arousal in the absence of intimacy and decision/commitment…lik e Tennov‟s limerance” (Sternberg, 2004).
  19. 19. • Commitment remains, but the intimacy or passion is absent. • E.g - Arranged marriage. Empty Love • A combination of intimacy and passion component of love. • Romantic lover are bonded emotionally and physically through passionate arousal. Romantic Love
  20. 20. • Companionate love combine intimacy and commitment component of love. • This type of love is observed in long-term marriages where passion is no longer present” (Ashford, 2009) but a deep affection and commitment remain. Companionate Love • “Fatuous in the sense that a commitment is made on the basis of passion without the stabilizing influence of intimate involvement” (Sternberg, 2004). Fatuous Love
  21. 21. Consummate Love • The complete form of love, consists of intimacy, passion and decision/commitment. • Sternberg cautions that maintaining a consummate love may be even harder than achieving it. • "Without expression," he warns, "even the greatest of loves can die" (1987, p.341). • Consummate love may not be permanent. For example, if passion is lost over time, it may change into companionate love.
  22. 22. FACTORS OF LOVE
  23. 23. • Are you in love with someone, or have you ever been in love? • What attracted you to him/her and made you experience such intense feelings? • Why Do We Fall In Love?
  24. 24. REASON OF LOVING SOMEONE SIMILAR LOOK SIMILARITY UNMET DEEDS OPPOSITE ATTRACT
  25. 25. I. That person looks like someone that you loved before or someone you still love. For example you might fall in love with a girl who looks like your mother if you were a guy or fall in love with someone who looks like your father if you were a girl. II. Of course that person is not going to match your parent's looks perfectly but some facial traits will be common between them both that only your subconscious mind will notice.
  26. 26. I. You might fall in love with someone if he has got something that you miss or that you need. For example a dark guy may be attracted to a light skinned girl,a girl who has low self confidence might be attracted to someone who is assertive and confident. II. This is a healthy mechanism because it leads to more balanced children. If this was the only reason people fall in love then every generation was going to be more balanced than the one before it but there are many other rules.
  27. 27. I. Similarity results in attraction if the person was similar to you in the things you consider important. For example if someone shares your same beliefs then attraction is more likely to happen. II. For example a religious guy would be more interested in a girl who has some kind of connection to religion.
  28. 28. I. From points 2 and 3 we can conclude that each person will be looking for traits that are opposite to the ones he dislikes about himself and that are similar to the ones he likes about himself.
  29. 29. WHAT MAKE PEOPLE FALL IN LOVE SMELL LOVE PHEROMONES THE BRAINS
  30. 30. a) We fall in love partly because of smell. The scent of a bouquet of red roses, for instance, is a cultural preference that boosts the chemistry in romantic relationships.
  31. 31. a) Dr Kristal from the University of Buffalo says, “Smell forms part of the framework that conforms to cultural attractiveness standards. For example, smelling like a strawberry instead of mildew [makes you attractive].” b) Smelling delicious could be part of why we fall in love.
  32. 32. a) Invisible signals are part of what makes people fall in love. “Pheromones are unlearned, and perhaps unsmellable, signals that enter the brain through the olfactory system. b) They can function in sex, alarm, territoriality, aggression, and fear,” says Dr Kristal. He believes that we choose specific mates not solely due to pheromones, but for other reasons. c) Other sensory cues are better explanations for why we fall in love, such as touch, smell, and hearing.
  33. 33. a) We fall in love partly because of hormones. Oxytocin and vasopressin are present when people fall in love and stay together for a long time. b) Dopamine is also part of the chemistry in romantic relationships. So, when you‟re wondering “Why doesn‟t he love me?” you may have to look to brain chemistry as the answer. c) It‟s not necessarily you, it‟s just that your brain chemicals didn‟t mesh. Lack of hormones could explain why people fall in love.
  34. 34. “Love is a promise, love is a souvenir, once given never forgotten, never let it disappear” - John Lennon -
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