Citation
Use and Abuse
Malibu Rohwani
"Not everything
that can be counted counts,
and not everything
that counts can be counted."
Albert Einstein
Overview
 Context - research /research evalution
 The power of citation tracking for your research
 Use and Abuse
What are we counting?
 Number of papers per individual
 Total number of citations, and cites per
paper
 World University rankings
Citations: use
Individual assessment (promotion and
tenure)
UCD: Selection criteria, senior lecturer post
◦ PhD completed ...
Citations: use
Individual assessment, promotion etc
Senior Lecturer (DCU)
◦ Refereed publications
◦ Impact of publication ...
Grant Funding
SFI Starting Investigator Research Grant
 The applicant must demonstrate a proven
record of internationally...
Citations
 Use with caution!
 Do have shortcomings which will be
highlighted throughout this presentation
…..
Citation Tracking /
Searching
Citation tracking allows you to:
 Find out how many times a paper
has been cited
 Search b...
Citation Tracking /
Searching
Collating this info is difficult
and not all databases or
websites do it
 Web of Science
 ...
Research impact of individuals
Using Web of Science you can find out
an individual’s:
- top cited work
- what journals the...
H-Index
 Developed by Hirsh in 2005:
"An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output,"
Proceedings of th...
Research impact of
individuals: Example
 Charles K Kao, Nobel Laureate for
Physics, 2009
◦ "Father of Fiber Optic Communi...
H-Index
Some high ranking physicists:
Martin Cohen, Berkeley 94
Philip Anderson, Princeton 91
Edward Witten, Princeton
110...
H-Index
Mohamed El Naschie has an impressive H-Index of 33.
But why? Check his citations in Web of Science
Search for El N...
Use and Abuse
 Potential for manipulation
◦ Self-citations
◦ Strategy to improve one’s citations and H-
index
H-Index
 A scientist may artificially increase his/her
H-index by
 (1) Self citation
 (2) Double Publications
 (3) Con...
Self citations
 Thomson Reuters considers self-citation
beyond 20% as suspect of abuse
 Famous people:
 El-Naschie: 50%...
Self citations
19 self citations
Out of 24
references
Duplicate Publications
SPIE Conferences
World highest?
40 self citations
Out of 49 references
SPIE Conferences
SPIE Conferences
 Novel approaches for high-efficiency InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes: Device physics and epit...
Citation Club
 Of the 31 papers not written by El Naschie in a issue
of Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, at least 11 are
rel...
Coercive Citations
 Becoming editor or guest editor of a
journal
 “you cite my article only once in your 40
references. ...
Guest Editor
 IEEE OSA Journal of Display Technology
 Special Issue Volume 9, Issue 4 (April
2013).
 Recent advances in...
Some papers
 Effects of H2 in GaN barrier spacer layer of InGaN/GaN multiple
quantum-well light-emitting diodes. Lai, W.-...
Special Issue
 All 17 papers have 6-10 citations to
Tansu, and all papers are from China,
Taiwan and Singapore
 A single...
Conclusions
 No single ‘perfect’ JIF
 Objective tools have a role and can
contribute to the evaluation of research
quali...
SOCIAL MEDIA
 Share your
 findings…
 And get cited
Academic Citations: Use and abuse
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Academic Citations: Use and abuse

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My lecture explains all you need to know about Academic Citations, H-index. Use and Abuse by professors.

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Academic Citations: Use and abuse

  1. 1. Citation Use and Abuse Malibu Rohwani
  2. 2. "Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted." Albert Einstein
  3. 3. Overview  Context - research /research evalution  The power of citation tracking for your research  Use and Abuse
  4. 4. What are we counting?  Number of papers per individual  Total number of citations, and cites per paper
  5. 5.  World University rankings
  6. 6. Citations: use Individual assessment (promotion and tenure) UCD: Selection criteria, senior lecturer post ◦ PhD completed in the area of Quantitative Finance or a cognate area. ◦ Strong, demonstrable, commitment to research and publication in their chosen field ◦ Strong, demonstrable, commitment to teaching ◦ Ability to communicate both technical and non-technical material effectively in the classroom. ◦ Good international research network ◦ A number of publications in ranking journals ◦ Excellent administrative skills
  7. 7. Citations: use Individual assessment, promotion etc Senior Lecturer (DCU) ◦ Refereed publications ◦ Impact of publication on the discipline (citation indexes) Associate Professor (DCU)  Excellence in Research & Scholarship ◦ Substantial number of articles in leading refereed journals and international journals
  8. 8. Grant Funding SFI Starting Investigator Research Grant  The applicant must demonstrate a proven record of internationally recognised independent research accomplishments. The applicant must be senior author (first, last or corresponding) on at least 3 articles in international peer-reviewed publications AND be a named author on an average of at least 1 international peer-reviewed publication per year since the award of the PhD (or equivalent).
  9. 9. Citations  Use with caution!  Do have shortcomings which will be highlighted throughout this presentation …..
  10. 10. Citation Tracking / Searching Citation tracking allows you to:  Find out how many times a paper has been cited  Search backwards and forwards in time to see how ideas develop  Find the most highly cited papers in your field  Identify key researchers and institutions by their citation counts
  11. 11. Citation Tracking / Searching Collating this info is difficult and not all databases or websites do it  Web of Science  Scopus  Google Scholar / Publish or Perish
  12. 12. Research impact of individuals Using Web of Science you can find out an individual’s: - top cited work - what journals they have published in - who is citing them - their H-index
  13. 13. H-Index  Developed by Hirsh in 2005: "An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(46):16569-16572, November 15, 2005 www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/102/46/16569  Means to evaluate research output  Based on number or publications and the number of citations per publication  For example, an h-index of 10 means that there are 10 published papers that have 10 citations or more
  14. 14. Research impact of individuals: Example  Charles K Kao, Nobel Laureate for Physics, 2009 ◦ "Father of Fiber Optic Communications" Lets search Web of Science for Kao CK  What are his key works?  Where has he published?  What fields have been citing him?  What’s his H-Index?
  15. 15. H-Index Some high ranking physicists: Martin Cohen, Berkeley 94 Philip Anderson, Princeton 91 Edward Witten, Princeton 110 (world’s highest) But… Charles K Kao (Nobel laureate, physics, 2009) 6 Why? Mainly published in EE conferences, monographs and patents.
  16. 16. H-Index Mohamed El Naschie has an impressive H-Index of 33. But why? Check his citations in Web of Science Search for El Naschie M* Further info: Schiermeier, Q. 2008. Self-publishing editor set to retire. Nature. 456 (7221), pp432.
  17. 17. Use and Abuse  Potential for manipulation ◦ Self-citations ◦ Strategy to improve one’s citations and H- index
  18. 18. H-Index  A scientist may artificially increase his/her H-index by  (1) Self citation  (2) Double Publications  (3) Conference papers  (4) Citation club  (5) Coercive citation
  19. 19. Self citations  Thomson Reuters considers self-citation beyond 20% as suspect of abuse  Famous people:  El-Naschie: 50%  Nelson Tansu: 55%
  20. 20. Self citations
  21. 21. 19 self citations Out of 24 references
  22. 22. Duplicate Publications
  23. 23. SPIE Conferences World highest? 40 self citations Out of 49 references
  24. 24. SPIE Conferences
  25. 25. SPIE Conferences  Novel approaches for high-efficiency InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes: Device physics and epitaxy engineering Tansu, N., Zhao, H., Zhang, J., Liu, G., Li, X.-H., Ee, Y.-K., Song, R., Huang, G.S. 2011 Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 7954, art. no. 795418  This paper has 40 self references to Tansu  Zhang, J., Zhao, H., Tansu, N. 2011 Gain characteristics of deep UV AlGaN quantum wells lasers  Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 7953, art. no. 79530H  This paper has 27 self references to Tansu  Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes using TiO2 microsphere arrays Li, X.-H., Ee, Y.-K., Song, R., Tansu, N. 2011 Proceedings of SPIE - The  International Society for Optical Engineering 7954, art. no. 79540U  This paper has 27 self references to Tansu Thermoelectric properties of MOCVD-grown AlInN alloys with various compositions Zhang, J.,Tong, H., Liu, G., Herbsommer, J.A., Huang, G.S., Tansu, N. 2011 Proceedings of SPIE - TheInternational Society for Optical Engineering 7939, art. no. 79390O  This paper has 27 self references to Tansu  Cathodoluminescence characteristics of linearly shaped staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes Zhao, H., Zhang, J., Liu, G., Toma, T., Poplawsky, J.D., Dierolf, V., Tansu, N.2011 Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 7939, art. no.793905  This paper has 27 self references to Tansu  Analysis of thermoelectric properties of AlInN semiconductor alloys Zhang, J., Tong, H.,Herbsommer, J.A., Tansu, N. 2011 Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for OpticalEngineering 7933, art. no. 79330X  This paper has 28 self references to Tansu  176 self citations from 6 papers in a single SPIE Conference
  26. 26. Citation Club  Of the 31 papers not written by El Naschie in a issue of Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, at least 11 are related to his theories and include 58 citations of his work in the journal.  Ji-Huan He, the journal's regional editor for China, also cites El Naschie's work frequently.  An issue of the journal has one paper by He that cites himself 14 times and El Naschie twice.  He is also editor of the International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation, which in a 2005 editorial said: "Men of genius like Einstein and Elnaschie very often ask some straightforward and seemingly innocent questions, which may turn out to have undreamed of answers."
  27. 27. Coercive Citations  Becoming editor or guest editor of a journal  “you cite my article only once in your 40 references. Consequently, I kindly ask you to add references of my articles to your present article”.
  28. 28. Guest Editor  IEEE OSA Journal of Display Technology  Special Issue Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2013).  Recent advances in solid state lighting  Guest Editor: Nelson Tansu
  29. 29. Some papers  Effects of H2 in GaN barrier spacer layer of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum-well light-emitting diodes. Lai, W.-C., Yang, Y.-Y. 2013  10 citations to Tansu  Investigating the effect of piezoelectric polarization on GaN-based LEDs with different quantum barrier thickness. Wang, C.K., Chiang, T.H., Chen, K.Y., Chiou, Y.Z., Lin, T.K., Chang, S.P., Chang, S.J.  9 citations to Tansu  Lateral current spreading effect on the efficiency droop in GaN based light-emitting diodes. Huang, S., Fan, B., Chen, Z., Zheng, Z., Luo, H., Wu, Z., Wang, G., Jiang, H.  8 citations to Tansu  Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes. Li, Y., Gao, Y., He, M., Zhou, J., Lei, Y., Zhang, L., Zhu, K., Chen, Y.  11 citations to Tansu
  30. 30. Special Issue  All 17 papers have 6-10 citations to Tansu, and all papers are from China, Taiwan and Singapore  A single special issue = 160 citations to Tansu
  31. 31. Conclusions  No single ‘perfect’ JIF  Objective tools have a role and can contribute to the evaluation of research quality when used appropriately – must be aware of their limitations!  Abuse through self citations  Ongoing debate….
  32. 32. SOCIAL MEDIA  Share your  findings…  And get cited

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