EXPLORATION ON THEAFFECTIVE STATES ANDLEARNING DURING ANAUGMENTED REALITY SESSIONPavlina PantevaMalinka IvanovaThe 9th International Scientific ConferenceeLearning and Software for EducationBucharest, Romania, April 25th - 26th 2013
AimTo explorewhether and howaugmented reality technologyinfluences on affective states and learningAn experiment with teachers in the role of learners
Introduction• AR is adopted in– classroom sessions– in outdoor activities using desktop, web-based ormobile applications• It is a suitable supplementary tool extendingeducational scenarios in– blended learning– online learning– formal learning– informal learning– self-paced learning
IntroductionAR technology contributes to:• achieving of high level of engagement and motivation• knowledge construction and transfer• learning in a unique explorative environment• promotion of creativity, curiosity and discovering
Introduction• In the context of primary education AR technologycould be an effective tool for teaching and learning ifthese processes are well designed– creation of suitable content– guided explorations– teachers have to possess abilities to transfer properknowledge to students through utilization of technology
Introduction• What is explored?– cognitive process, learning and emotionalconditions are strongly connected– the appropriate affective learner’s states can leadto the effective learning– the importance of positive emotions onstimulation of creative thinking, efficacy indecision making and in support of problem solving
Introduction• According to the teacher’s pedagogical strategy andpresented content different emotions could be inducedto pupils like: joy, pride, satisfaction, enthusiasm,pleasure, fear, worry, nervousness, etc . (Zembylas M.,2005)• The way of presentation of teaching content, includingthe utilized technology and digital media could furtherinfluence on formation of pupils affective states(Bardzell, J., Bardzell, S., Pace, T., 2008)The relationship among AR technology usage andresulting emotions are not explored and it is a challenge
MethodologyThe hypothesis:• AR technology can induce positive emotionsto learners and it could be used for betterknowledge perceiving, concepts rememberingand learning
Methodology• To prove or not this hypothesis the following proceduresare performed:(1) a lesson is designed for 3rd class pupils with topic “Animalsin the nature” with duration 40 minutes;(2) five 3D objects of animals are selected for presentationthrough marker AR technology and video is created;(3) a survey tool is developed to gather the teachers opinionabout the role of AR technology in primary school;(4) the video files with AR objects and survey are distributedonline to teachers;(5) the results are summarized and analyzed
A lesson design• A lesson for new knowledge giving about the animalsin the nature to pupils in 3rd class is designed• The aim of the lesson is to extend the concept aboutthe diversity of animals living in water and dry land• The main educational tasks are:(1) the knowledge about the connection between liveand still nature to be extended(2) the knowledge about the animal diversity accordingto their lifestyle to be acquired(3) the knowledge about the animal diversity in differentenvironments to be extended
A lesson design• The instructive task is focused on creating feelings oflove and care for keeping animal diversity in thenature• This lesson has to stimulate development of pupils’abilities for differentiation the terms of live and stillnature
A lesson designThe structure of the lesson includes four sections:(1) old knowledge actualization (about 10 minutes),(2) new knowledge introduction using the 5th ARobjects (10 minutes);(3) game playing to stimulate thinking and analyticalskills of pupils (15 minutes);(4) knowledge summarization (5 minutes)
A lesson designSection two• addressesintroduction ofnew knowledgesupported by ARtechnology• In parallel with theAR presentation ofeach animal theteacher gives:– short explanation,– introducingseveral terms likelive and stillnature, diversity,environment forliving to pupils
A lesson design• An example - the aim of thepresentation of the firstobject - humming bird is todemonstrate an animalinhabiting in air environment• The pupils alone have toconclude that this animal livein air environment, afterreceiving the visualinformation through the ARobject• Then, the teacher givesadditional explanation aboutthe name of the bird and thecharacteristics of its livingenvironment
Survey and ResultsFirst group of questions - gather the statistical informationabout the responders• 63% - young teachers with ages between 24 and 30 and with1-4 years of teaching practice• 53% - teachers in primary schools, a big part of the rest areafter school teachers working with pupils
Survey and ResultsSecond group of questions - to identify the main emotions induced inteachers when they perceive five different AR objects arranged in alesson0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%1 AR object 2 AR object 3 AR object 4 AR object 5 AR objectconcerned 95% 79% 79% 74% 68%excited 11% 26% 21% 26% 21%enthusiasted 16% 26% 16% 21% 37%activated 5% 16% 5% 0% 5%with new idea 16% 0% 11% 0% 0%attentive 42% 5% 32% 32% 26%joyful 0% 5% 5% 11% 21%How are you feeling when you perceive the AR object?
Survey and Results0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%concerned attentive enthusiasted excited activated with new idea joyfulEmotions - average• Second group of questions - to identify the main emotions induced inteachers when they perceive five different AR objects arranged in alesson
Survey and Results• Third group of questions - whether the ARtechnology can influence on the processes ofunderstanding and remembering• 95% of the surveyed teachers for the first and thesecond AR objects and 100% for the third, fourth andfifth AR objects - understand the main idea behindevery one AR object and comprehend the presentedconcepts• Nearly 100 % of responders remember the teachingthesis for all five AR objects and they do not needrepetition of these objects
Survey and Results• Fourth group of questions – whether the AR technology could displacethe attention from the main teaching thesis
Survey and Results• The teachers are asked about their intention to use ARtechnology in their classes• 84% of them is categorical that AR technology issuitable for concepts visualization during classes inprimary school• 95% of teachers think that AR technology is a good toolfor students’ attention concentration• 95% consider that AR technology could assist thebetter learning of new concepts• 79% of the teachers say that the AR technology couldprovoke the students’ interest and curiosity about theteaching topic
Survey and Results• 95% of the teachers wish to use AR technology assupportive tool in their classes• Why they will use AR technology?I will use it, because thestudents receive a real pictureabout a object that could not beshown directly in the classroom.Yes, because the information ispresented in an interesting andimpressive way.I will utilize the technology. Itwill be a very strongmotivational tool for studentsand for explanation of newterms and topics.Yes, the technology can supportteachers and can provoke thelearning interest of students.
Survey and ResultsYes, because thetechnology can assistteaching throughconcentration ofstudents attention onthe important lesson’parts.Yes, because it givesmore realistic conceptabout the learningtopic and objectsYes, because it issomething new anddifferent than usualstuff. The Bulgarianschool needsintegration of similartechnologicalsolutions.Yes, it is aninnovation that canattract the students’attention and canenrich theirknowledge.Yes, because it is avery goodpresentation tool ofthe teaching materialand can hold back thestudents’ attention.
Conclusions• AR induces the following emotions: concerned andinterested in, attentive, excited and enthusiastic• AR supports understanding and remembering• The idea behind the AR technology as well as thetechnology itself impress teachers – they remember both• The effectiveness of the technology is still under analysis toimprove teaching and learning in primary school• It needs further research and evaluation of the level ofcommitment and motivation of students• Integration of added reality with traditional learning andpedagogy of teaching should be carefully designed andevaluated