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Maklumat Lanjut Tumbuhan

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Transcript

  • 1. Selected Plant Topics Chapters 23 – 25
  • 2. Specialized Tissues in Plants 23 -1
  • 3. Seed Plant Structure
    • Three of the principal organs of seed plants are roots, stems, and leaves
  • 4. Roots
    • Absorb water and dissolved nutrients
    • Anchor plants in the ground
    • Hold soil into place and prevent erosion
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8. Stems
    • Support above ground parts of plant
    • Transports nutrients
  • 9. Leaves
    • Main photosynthetic systems
    • Let in oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • 10. Vascular Tissue
    • Forms a transport system that moves water and nutrients throughout the plant
  • 11. Types of vascular tissue
    • Xylem – brings water and nutrients up from the roots
    • Phloem – brings food down from the leaves
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Leaf Structures and Functions
    • Mesophyll – where photosynthesis happens
    • Palisade mesophyll – closely packed, lots of chloroplasts
    • Spongy mesophyll – loose tissue with many airspaces
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • Stomata – pore-like openings in the underside of the leaf
    • Allow CO 2 and O 2 to diffuse in and out of the leaf
  • 18. Guard Cells
    • Control the opening and closing of the stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
  • 19.  
  • 20. Transpiration
    • The loss of water through its leaves
  • 21.  
  • 22. Gas Exchange
    • If stomata were kept open all the time, water loss due to transpiration would so great that few plants would be able to take in enough water to survive.
    • Plants keep their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose too much water.
    • The stomata open and close in response to changes in water pressure in the guard cells
  • 23.
    • When pressure is high – stomata open
    • When pressure is low – stomata close
    • Q: What time of day do you think stomata are open and why?
    • A: Daytime, cause that’s when photosynthesis happens
  • 24. 24 – 1 Reproduction with Cones and Flowers
  • 25. Life Cycle of Gymnosperms
    • Reproduction in gymnosperms takes place in cones
    • Male cones produce – pollen grains
    • Female cones produce – ovules
  • 26. Structure of Flowers
    • Flowers are reproductive organs that are composed of 4 kinds of specialized leaves
  • 27.  
  • 28. Sepals
    • Enclose the bud before it opens, leaf-like
  • 29. Petals
    • Brightly colored, attract insects to flower
  • 30. Stamen
    • Male reproductive structure of flower, made of 2 parts
    • Filament – long, thin, stalk that supports the anther
    • Anther – makes pollen grains
    Anther Filament Anther + Filament = Stamen
  • 31.  
  • 32. Pistil
    • Female reproductive structure, made of 3 parts
  • 33. Stigma
    • where pollen grains land, sticky
  • 34. Style
    • Connects stigma to ovary
    Style
  • 35. Ovary
    • swollen base of the pistil where ovules are formed
    Ovary
  • 36. Pollination
    • Most gymnosperms and some angiosperms are wind pollinated, whereas most angiosperms are pollinated by animals
    • Insect pollination is beneficial to insects and other animals because it provides them with food
    • Plants also benefit because this method of pollination is more efficient
  • 37. Q: What kind of symbiotic relationship is this?
    • A: Mutualism
  • 38. 25 – 1 Hormones and Plant Growth
    • In plants, the division, maturation, and development of cells are controlled by a group of chemicals called hormones
  • 39. Hormones
    • A substance that is produced in one part of the organism and affects another part of the same organism
  • 40. Target Cell
    • The portion of an organism affected by a particular hormone
  • 41. Auxins
    • Discovered by Charles Darwin and his son
    • They were trying to explain phototropism
  • 42. Phototropism
    • The tendency for plants to grow toward light
  • 43.  
  • 44.
    • Auxins are produced in the apical meristem and are transported downward into the rest of the plant
    • They stimulate cell elongation
  • 45.  
  • 46. Gravitropism
    • The response of a plant to gravity
  • 47. Auxin Like Weed Killers
    • High concentrations of auxins can inhibit growth, so scientists have produced many auxin like compounds to be used as herbicide
    • Ex.) Agent Orange
  • 48.  
  • 49. Cytokins
    • Plant hormones that stimulate cell division , the growth of lateral buds and cause dormant seeds to sprout
    • Cytokins often produce effects opposite to those of auxins
  • 50. Gibberellins
    • Promote growth, particularly in stems and fruits
  • 51. Ethylene
    • Stimulate fruits to ripen
  • 52. 25 – 2 Plant Responses
  • 53. tropisms
    • The response of plants to external stimuli
    • Ex.) gravitropism and photoperiodism
  • 54. Thigmotropism
    • Growth in response to touch
  • 55. Rapid Responses
    • Some plant responses do not involve growth, they are so rapid it would be a mistake to call them tropisms
    • Ex.) sensitive plant, venus fly trap
  • 56. Sensitive Plant
  • 57. Venus Fly trap
  • 58. Photoperiodism
    • The way a plant responds to periods of light and darkness
    • Short day plants – flower when days are short
    • Long day plants – flower when days are long
    • Photoperiodism in plants is responsible for the timing of seasonal activities of plants
  • 59. Dormancy
    • The period during which an organism’s growth and activity decrease or stop
    • As cold weather approaches deciduous plants turn off photosynthetic pathways, transport materials from leaves to roots, and seal leaves from the rest of the plant