Design Aspect of Standalone PV system

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Design Aspect of Standalone PV system

  1. 1. Design Aspect of StandAlone Solar PV System MALIK SAMEEULLAH M.Tech (RES) School of Renewable Energy and Efficiency NIT KURUKSHETRA
  2. 2. Content • • • • Introduction to solar PV industry Basic principle and general concept involve StandAlone PV system and features Designing aspect of off grid Solar PV
  3. 3. PV Solar Industry • India is a tropical country. About 5000 trillion kWh per year energy incident over India`s land area with most parts receiving 4-7 kWh per sq. m per day • Small part of total energy receive can meet entire India power requirement. • Nature friendly • Various Policies of central and state govt
  4. 4. India Solar Radiation Map Daily Global Radiation (KJ m-2 per day) City Horizontal Radiation Optimum Tilt Radiation New Delhi 19.67 21.54 Kolkata 17.47 19.07 Pune 20.40 21.94 Chennai 20.12 20.99
  5. 5. • Policies of Government Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) formed in 2006.  JNNSM is launched. It aim to produce 22GW of Solar Energy by 2022 There is no. of subsidy to achieve JNNSM Goal.
  6. 6. Solar Energy System Solar Energy Solar Thermal Collector System Solar PV system Low Temperature Collector Off Grid Solar PV system Medium Temperature Collector Grid Connected Solar PV system High Temperature Collector PV cell based low power device
  7. 7. Solar PV system Photovoltaic (PV) is method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current using semiconductor which exhibit PV effect.
  8. 8. Solar PV Cell • It consist of Semiconductor material • One PV cell produce approx. 0.5V with current range of 4-5 Amp. • Solar modules is an arrangement of PV cell in series and parallel combination to produce desired rating. • For 12V battery system 36 cell module is used (for charging voltage of 18V)
  9. 9. Rating Of PV modules
  10. 10. Standalone PV System: Application and features. • Not connected to power grid • Size of system is from few watts to 10 kW • Use for telephone tower, remote houses, water pumping etc. • System efficiency and cost is also depend upon geographical location • Modules and battery add almost 65% of total system cost • Cost of system increase as much as we required backup in bad weather • In average, for per kW system design required Rs. 2.5 Lacs
  11. 11. Pre Consideration Before Design of System • Assessment of space available, user requirement and budget. • Detail study of Solar radiation availability at site • Daily energy requirement of system and type of system and way to improve load side efficiency. • Sunlight and weather resistance system for all outdoor equipment
  12. 12. Design Step • • • • • • Solar Energy Estimation Load Estimation Inverter Selection Battery Bank Size Solar Module calc. Cost Estimation
  13. 13. Load Estimation • Detail study need to done to find system maximum load. • For Lighting load, it is essential to use energy efficient lamp like CFL, LED • Cost of Solar PV System is reduce, if proper load study is done Daily System Energy Requirement Table Appliance Load Voltage (AC/DC) Power Daily Use(H) Daily Energy use CFL (8*12) 240 V (AC) 96 W 9 0.864 kWh Fan(1*80) 240 V (AC) 80 W 15 1.200 kWh TV(1*120) 240 V (AC) 120 W 7 0.840 kWh PC (2*60) 240 V (AC) 120 W 6 0.720 kWh Charger point 240 V (AC) 20 W 3 0.060 kWh Total Daily AC Energy Demand Peak Load 3.684 kWh 436 W
  14. 14. Inverter Selection • Select Inverter input/output voltage. • Inverter output power rating is near to 1.5 time of max. load • Inverter output overload current 3-5 times total load current (for fault current protection) • Select output AC waveform suitable for load • Capability to sense battery condition • Now a day, inverter with efficiency in b/w 97% to 99%. Energy Supplied to Inverter 3.79 kWh Load Energy Required/ ƞ of Inverter 3.684/0.97
  15. 15. Battery Bank Size Parameter to choose battery size Depth of Discharge useful capacity= rated capacity*DOD Voltage and Ah of Battery No of day of storage required. For 24 V system and 3.79 kWh of Energy Ah capacity of battery 158 Ah 3790/24 Ah Now if DOD of battery is 70% Rating of Battery 226 Ah 158/0.7 Ah
  16. 16. Continue • Now if consider for system of one day backup, then Ah rating is just double • For the given system, total battery size is 450 Ah • Now for design purpose, battery of 12 V, 100 Ah and 70% DOD use • So total of 10 Battery required Battery bank
  17. 17. Solar PV module Calculation Main consideration during Panel sizing  Voltage, Current, wattage of the module Insolation level in design month  efficiency of battery and charge controller Tracking device availability
  18. 18. • Losses in battery and controller during charging is around 20%. Energy supplied by PV panel 4738 Wh 3790/0.8Wh Total Ah generated by Panel 197 Ah 4738/24 Ah Total Ampereto be produced 50.5 Amp 197/3.9 Amp No of Parallel module required 6 No. 50.5*12/100 Total PV module required =2*6 =12 No. (system voltage is 24 V)
  19. 19. Cost Estimation Solar Panel module 2*7=14 No. Charge controller Rating 100 W, 12 V Inverter Rating 0.5 Kw, 24 V input and 240 V output, 50 Hz. Battery Bank 2*8=16 No. Rating 100 Ah, DoD 70% AC Load of 436 W S.No Particulars Unit Rate (INR) Qty. Amount (Rs.) 1. Inverter kW 12000 0.5 kw 6000.00 2. Battery 100 Ah No. 2500 16 40000.00 3. Solar PV module 100 W No. 6000 14 84000.00 4. Charge Controller No. 5000 1 5000.00 Total 135000.00 Total Cost 5. Take 30% of total cost as Installation charge and protection device cost 40500.00 Total Amount 175500.00
  20. 20. Conclusion • StandAlone PV system depend mainly upon solar energy • Proper designing is essential to satisfy load demand • Each parameter play a crucial role in designing • Cost of system depend upon the economical consideration.
  21. 21. References • Mohamed H. Beshr, Hany A. Khater, Amr A. Andelraouf, “ Modelling of a Residential Solar Stand-Alone Power System”, Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010 • Marks Hankins, “Stand-Alone Solar Electric System”,Earthscan Expert Series • Chetan Singh Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaics Fundamental, Technologies and Applications”, PHI • Enda Flood, K. McDonnell, F. Murphy and G. Devlin, “A Feasibilty Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Power for Small Community in Ireland”, The Open Renewable Energy Journel,2011, 4, 78-92. • “Performance of Solar Power Plants in India”, submitted to Central Electricity Regulatory Commission New Delhi in Feb 2011.

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