What prompted interest in creating national education policy? -World War II -GI Bill, which created a huge increase in college enrollment -Brown vs. Board of Education
Brown Vs. Board – Desegregation of all schools, equal education opportunity NDEA – categorical aid to states to improve math, science and foreign language instruction in American schools, ($1 billion or 2 percent of national educational spending, still quite small) Civil Rights Movement
Keppel was clever – Catholics and National Education Association (key democrats butt heads, but he wrote the policy to focus on the poor and disadvantaged which brought these opposing groups together)
NEA - did not want any federal education aid to benefit private schools
Birth of a Policy: Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
Birth of a Policy: Elementary and SecondaryEducation Act (ESEA) of 1965 Presentation By: Malika Bennett Strategic Advocacy - June 9, 2012
What is ESEA?• United States federal statute enacted April 11, 1965 and signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.• ESEA is the most influential law impacting education passed by congress. First Passed with relative ease (House 263-153; Senate 73-18). First federal law mandating federal funds to primary and secondary education• Improve educational opportunities for disadvantaged children, federal governments definitive entry into public President education Lyndon B. Johnson• Part of Johnson’s "war on poverty" act (close skill gaps in reading, writing, math, etc among nation’s disadvantaged)• Act funds public education including: professional development, instructional materials, resources for educational programs, parental involvement promotion, etc.•
Sections of ESEA (1965)• Title I - Financial Assistance To Local Educational Agencies For The Education Of Children Of Low-Income Families• Title II - School Library Resources, Textbooks, and other Instructional Materials• Title III - Supplementary Educational Centers and Services• Title IV - Educational Research And Training• Title V - Grants To Strengthen State Departments Of Education• Title VI - General Provisions
Social Climate• America has historically favored local control of schools• Prior to the 1950’s federal involvement in education was almost non-existent• Many year’s prior to the 1960’s U.S resisted a national education policy• In fact as late as 1930’s less than 1/5 of adults over 25 had completed high school What prompted interest in creating national education policy?
Timeline for Education Policy1954 - Brown vs. Board of Education requires public schools to educate allchildren, regardless of race.1954 - The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) (Public Law 84-911)provided funding to United States education institutions.1964 - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-352) authorized theCommissioner of Education to arrange for support for institutions of highereducation and school districts to provide in-service programs for assistinginstructional staff in dealing with problems caused by desegregation.1965 - Primary and secondary education is funded through the Elementary andSecondary Education Act (ESEA) (Public Law 89-10). The ESEA was designedto address educational inequality.1965 - The first Federal grant program targeting students with disabilities, theElementary and Secondary Amendments of 1965 (Public Law 89-313), waspassed. This law authorized grants to state institutions and state-operatedschools devoted to the education of children with disabilities. Source: http://www.avoiceonline.org/edpol/timeline.html
Major Political Advocates of ESEA Francis Keppel, Jr. Former Harvard grad & Harvard dean; U.S. Commissioner of Education; Chief architect of ESEA bill; helped shaped policy; influential in bringing opposing parties together (think race, religion, republicans, etc.) President Lyndon B. Johnson A former teacher who had seen impact poverty had on his students; President of the United States; signed ESEA into law in 1965 Other political influencers: President Truman, Eisenhower and Kennedy; Much of ESEA came from the late President Kennedy’s proposal; Martin Luther King, Jr.
ESEA Advocates• President Johnson’s Administration• US Office of Education (USOE)• Democratic Party (House & Senate Majority)• National Advisory Council for the Education of Disadvantaged Children• National Education Association (NEA)• National Welfare Rights Organization• Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law• NAACP• African Americans, Minorities, etc.• Poor and disadvantaged populations
ESEA OppositionThe three R’s are ESEA’s main opposition: Race, Religion, and Republicans• States-Rights Conservatives• Anti-Government Conservatives• Catholics (opposed any bill that would direct federal money to public but not private schools• Congressman for Southern States• Congressman from Northern States with large African American populations
Communications Efforts Surrounding ESEA• Civil Rights Movement and War on Poverty provided political context for passage of ESEA; Much of ESEA’s public communication was naturally tied to these movements: – Types of communication: Marches, Speeches, Protests, National Media Coverage (TV, Newspaper, Radio), Advertisements, Pamphlets, Academic journals, books written about achievement gaps, music, etc. – The Civil Rights Movement made this bill successful – it drove awareness on issues of inequality. W on Poverty Ad: LBJ 1964 ar Presidential Campaign Commercial: http:/www.youtube.com/ / watch?v=phYimkeI0LA
Key Re-Authorizations of ESEA1965 - Congress passes ESEA. It is signed into law by President Lyndon B.Johnson1994 - ESEA reauthorized, introduced under President Bill Clinton as theImproving Americas Schools Act (IASA). (Extra help to disadvantagedstudents, charter schools, safe and drug-free schools, increases in bilingualand immigrant education funding, education technology programs, etc.)2002 - No Child Left Behind act is the reauthorization of ESEA. Signed intolaw by President George W. Bush (assessments for all students,achievement standards set by states, not federal government)2011 - No Child Left Behind act (reauthorization of ESEA) is renewed andsigned back into law by President Barrack Obama
That’s all folks Thank you!For more information Google: “ESEA of 1965”