IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST BENIFICIENT THE MOST MERCIFUL M JAVED MALIK
Presentation on flash drives
PRESENTED BY: <ul><li>Zeeshan altaf 05-FC-ECE-01 </li></ul><ul><li>Salman Zafar 05-FC-ECE-02 </li></ul><ul><li>Ashir Walee...
CONTENTS <ul><li>1.Overview  </li></ul><ul><li>2.History </li></ul><ul><li>3.Principles of operation  </li></ul><ul><li>4 ...
OVERVIEW
DEFINITION <ul><li>Flash memory is non-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the information store...
HISTORY
HISTORY <ul><li>Flash memory (both NOR and NAND types) was invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka while working for Toshiba in 1984...
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
INTERNAL STRUCTURE <ul><li>Flash memory stores information in an array of floating gate transistors, called CELLS, each of...
  A USB Flash Memory Device.
LIMITATIONS
<ul><li>One limitation of flash memory is that although it can be read or programmed a byte or a word at a time in a rando...
LOW LEVEL ACCESS <ul><ul><li>NOR memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAND memories </li></ul></ul>
NOR MEMMORIES <ul><li>The read-only mode of NOR memories is similar to reading from a common memory, provided address and ...
NAND MEMMORIES <ul><li>NAND flash memories cannot provide execute-in-place due to their different construction principles....
FLASH FILE SYSTEM
<ul><li>The basic concept behind flash file systems is: When the flash store is to be updated, the file system will write ...
<ul><li>Common flash memory parts (individual internal components or &quot;chips&quot;) range widely in capacity from kilo...
<ul><li>In 2005, Toshiba and SanDisk developed a NAND flash chip capable of storing 8 gigabyte of data using MLC (multi-le...
SPEED
<ul><li>Flash memory cards are available in different speeds. Some are specified the approximate transfer rate of the card...
<ul><li>Many cards are simply rated 100x, 130x, 200x, etc. For these cards the base assumption is that 1x is equal to 150 ...
DATA CORRUPTION & RECOVERY
<ul><li>The most common cause of data corruption is removal of the flash memory device while data is being written to it. ...
<ul><li>Data recovery from flash memory devices can be achieved in some cases. Heuristic and Brute Force methods are examp...
FLASH MEMORY MANUFACTURERS
<ul><li>Atmel </li></ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul><ul><li>Kingston Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Micron Technology </li></ul>...
REFERENCES
<ul><li>REFERENCE WEBSITES: </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_memory </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tatam...
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Flash USB

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST BENIFICIENT THE MOST MERCIFUL M JAVED MALIK
  2. 2. Presentation on flash drives
  3. 3. PRESENTED BY: <ul><li>Zeeshan altaf 05-FC-ECE-01 </li></ul><ul><li>Salman Zafar 05-FC-ECE-02 </li></ul><ul><li>Ashir Waleed 05-FC-ECE-06 </li></ul><ul><li>M.Sharif 05-FC-ECE-12 </li></ul>
  4. 4. CONTENTS <ul><li>1.Overview </li></ul><ul><li>2.History </li></ul><ul><li>3.Principles of operation </li></ul><ul><li>4 Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>5 Low-level access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.1 NOR memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.2 NAND memories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 Flash file systems </li></ul><ul><li>7 Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>8 Speed </li></ul><ul><li>9.Data Corruption and Recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Flash Memory Manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>11. References </li></ul>
  5. 5. OVERVIEW
  6. 6. DEFINITION <ul><li>Flash memory is non-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in the chip. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, flash memory offers fast read access times (though not as fast as volatile DRAM memory used for main memory in PCs) and better kinetic shock resistance than hard disks. </li></ul>
  7. 7. HISTORY
  8. 8. HISTORY <ul><li>Flash memory (both NOR and NAND types) was invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka while working for Toshiba in 1984. Because the process of the memory contents reminded him of a flash of a camera. Dr. Masuoka presented the invention at the IEEE 1984 at International Electron Devices Meeting held in San Jose, California. Intel saw the massive potential of the invention and introduced the first commercial NOR type flash chip in 1988. </li></ul>
  9. 9. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
  10. 10. INTERNAL STRUCTURE <ul><li>Flash memory stores information in an array of floating gate transistors, called CELLS, each of which traditionally stores one bit of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Newer flash memory devices, sometimes referred to as multi-level cell devices, can store more than 1 bit per cell, by using more than two levels of electrical charge, placed on the floating gate of a cell. </li></ul>
  11. 11. A USB Flash Memory Device.
  12. 12. LIMITATIONS
  13. 13. <ul><li>One limitation of flash memory is that although it can be read or programmed a byte or a word at a time in a random access fashion, it must be erased a &quot;block&quot; at a time. This generally sets all bits in the block to 1. Starting with a freshly erased block, any location within that block can be programmed. However, once a bit has been set to 0, only by erasing the entire block can it be changed back to 1. In other words, flash memory (specifically NOR flash) offers random-access read and programming operations, but cannot offer arbitrary random-access rewrite or erase operations </li></ul>
  14. 14. LOW LEVEL ACCESS <ul><ul><li>NOR memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAND memories </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. NOR MEMMORIES <ul><li>The read-only mode of NOR memories is similar to reading from a common memory, provided address and data bus is mapped correctly, so NOR flash memory is much like any address-mapped memory. NOR flash memories can be used as execute-in-place memory (XIP), meaning it behaves as a ROM memory mapped to a certain address. NOR flash memories have no intrinsic bad block management, so when a flash block is worn out, either the software using it has to handle this, or the device breaks. </li></ul>
  16. 16. NAND MEMMORIES <ul><li>NAND flash memories cannot provide execute-in-place due to their different construction principles. These memories are accessed much like block devices such as hard disks or memory cards. The blocks are typically 512 or 2048 bytes in size. Associated with each block are a few bytes (typically 12–16 bytes) that should be used for storage of an error detection and correction block checksum. </li></ul>
  17. 17. FLASH FILE SYSTEM
  18. 18. <ul><li>The basic concept behind flash file systems is: When the flash store is to be updated, the file system will write a new copy of the changed data over to a fresh block, remap the file pointers, then erase the old block later when it has time. One of the earliest flash file systems was Microsoft's FFS2 (presumably preceded by FFS1), for use with MS-DOS in the early 1990s. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Common flash memory parts (individual internal components or &quot;chips&quot;) range widely in capacity from kilobytes to several gigabytes each. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity of flash chips follows Moore's law because they are produced with the same processes used to manufacture other integrated circuits. However, there have also been jumps beyond Moore's law due to innovations in technology. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>In 2005, Toshiba and SanDisk developed a NAND flash chip capable of storing 8 gigabyte of data using MLC (multi-level cell) technology, capable of storing 2 bits of data per cell. In September 2005, Samsung Electronics announced that it had developed the world’s first 16 gigabyte chip. </li></ul><ul><li>In March 2006, Samsung announced flash hard drives with a capacity of 32 gigabytes, essentially the same order of magnitude as smaller laptop hard drives, and in September of 2006, Samsung announced 32 gigabytes chips produced using a 40 nm manufacturing process </li></ul>
  21. 21. SPEED
  22. 22. <ul><li>Flash memory cards are available in different speeds. Some are specified the approximate transfer rate of the card such as 2 MB per second, 12 MB per second, etc. The exact speed of these cards depends on which definition of &quot;megabyte&quot; the marketer has chosen to use. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Many cards are simply rated 100x, 130x, 200x, etc. For these cards the base assumption is that 1x is equal to 150 kibibytes per second. This was the speed at which the first CD drives could transfer information, which was adopted as the reference speed for flash memory cards </li></ul>
  24. 24. DATA CORRUPTION & RECOVERY
  25. 25. <ul><li>The most common cause of data corruption is removal of the flash memory device while data is being written to it. The situation is aggravated by the usage of unsuitable file systems that are not designed for removable devices (where there is data still waiting to write when the device is removed). </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Data recovery from flash memory devices can be achieved in some cases. Heuristic and Brute Force methods are examples of recovery that may yield results for general data on a compact flash card </li></ul>
  27. 27. FLASH MEMORY MANUFACTURERS
  28. 28. <ul><li>Atmel </li></ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul><ul><li>Kingston Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Micron Technology </li></ul><ul><li>M-Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung </li></ul><ul><li>Sandisk </li></ul><ul><li>Toshiba </li></ul><ul><li>Winbond </li></ul>
  29. 29. REFERENCES
  30. 30. <ul><li>REFERENCE WEBSITES: </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_memory </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tatamcgrawhill.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flashmemory.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://howstuffworks.com/flash058hhdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://samsung.memory.com/flash.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://usbdrives.net/jk74/fd.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pchardware.com/flash-dr.html </li></ul>

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