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Cog lifespan 9 personality (1)
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Cog lifespan 9 personality (1)


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  • People with low self-esteem were often given messages that failed experiences (losing a game, getting a poor grade, etc.) were failures of their whole self.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Personality and the Self
    • 2.
      • Infants are largely egocentric
      • Around the second half of the first year, a strong attachment to parents is shown
      • At 9 months, infants like to play games with adults
      • By the end of the second year, a sense of self is developing
    • 3.
      • Developing an awareness of self as different from others is an important step in social development
      • Erik Erikson developed a theory of psychosocial stages of development, each stage contributing to a unique sense of self
    • 4.
      • Stage 1 (birth to 18 months)
      • Basic trust vs. mistrust
      • If needs are met, child learns world is predictable and safe
      • If needs are not met in Stage 1, distrust in the world develops
      Significant relationship: the maternal parent, or constant caregiver.
    • 5.
      • Stage 2 (18 months to 3 years) is called autonomy vs. shame & doubt
      • Success in tasks leads to autonomy
      • Failure in stage 2 leads to fears and a sense of doubt
      Significant relationship: parents
    • 6.
      • Stage 3 (3 to 6 years) is called initiative vs. guilt
      • A sense of mastery develops if the child successfully exercises enthusiasm
      • Failure leads to dependence and regret
      Significant relationship: basic family
    • 7.
      • Stage 4 (6 – 12 years)
      • Industry vs. inferiority
      • The child gains a sense of confidence
      • Failure in Stage 4 leads to feelings of inferiority and incompetence
      Significant relationship: school and neighbourhood
    • 8.
      • Stage 5 (12 to 18 years)
      • identity vs. role confusion
      • Successful negotiation of this stage leaves the adolescent strong in devotion and fidelity
      • Failure in Stage 5 leads to youth and adults who do not know who they are, have no idea where they are going
      Significant relationship: peer groups
    • 9.
      • Stage 6 ( 18 to 35 years)
      • Intimacy vs. isolation
      • The young adult needs to make decisions and work through emotions of affiliation and love, work towards intimacy and solidarity with people around
      • Failure in Stage 6 leads to inability to form intimate relationships and isolation
      Significant relationship: marital partner and friends
    • 10.
      • Stage 7 (35 to retirement age ~ 60)
      • Generativity vs. self absorption
      • The older adult is focused on work and family. Successful negotiation of this stage will grant the adult with a sense of care and contribution/production
      • Failure in Stage 7 leads to stagnation and self-absorption
      Significant relationships: within the workplace, the community and the family .
    • 11.
      • Stage 8 (retirement to death)
      • Integrity vs. despair
      • The mature adult will evaluate his/her life to ascertain if it was a meaningful one. Positive reflection will give a sense of integrity, the mature adult then revels in wisdom
      • Negative evaluation gives a sense of despair
      All of mankind …. My kind
    • 12.
      • Self awareness
      • recognition of personality
      • Recognising strengths and weaknesses
      • knowing likes and dislikes
      • Developing self-awareness helps us to recognise when we are stressed or under pressure. It is also often a prerequisite for effective communication and interpersonal relations, as well as for developing empathy for others.
    • 13.
      • Self image
      • Self-image is how one perceives oneself ...
      • Affects the way one acts
      • Physical
      • Performance, abilities
      • Material possessions
    • 14.
      • Healthy Self-Esteem Childhood experiences that lead to healthy self-esteem include-
      • being praised
      • being listened to
      • being spoken to respectfully
      • getting attention and hugs
      • experiencing success in sports or school
      • having trustworthy friend
      • Low Self-Esteem Childhood experiences that lead to low self-esteem include-
      • being harshly criticized
      • being yelled at, or beaten
      • being ignored, ridiculed or teased
      • being expected to be "perfect" all the time
      • experiencing failures in sports or school
    • 15.
      • The Impostor : acts happy and successful, but is really terrified of failure. Lives with the constant fear that she or he will be "found out." Needs continuous successes to maintain the mask of positive self-esteem, which may lead to problems with perfectionism, procrastination, competition, and burn-out.
    • 16.
      • The Rebel : acts like the opinions or good will of others - especially people who are important or powerful - don't matter. Lives with constant anger about not feeling "good enough." Continuously needs to prove that others' judgments and criticisms don't hurt, which may lead to problems like blaming others excessively, breaking rules or laws, or fighting authority.
    • 17.
      • The Loser : acts helpless and unable to cope with the world and waits for someone to come to the rescue. Uses self-pity or indifference as a shield against fear of taking responsibility for changing his or her life. Looks constantly to others for guidance, which can lead to such problems as lacking assertiveness skills, under-achievement, and excessive reliance on others in relationships.
    • 18.
      • Four stages – oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
      • A child at a given stage of development has certain needs and demands. Both frustration and overindulgence lock some amount of the child's libido, resulting in fixation
    • 19.
      • Unmet needs leads to character which is characterized by pessimism, envy, suspicion and sarcasm.
      • Excessively satisfied, is optimistic, gullible, and is full of admiration for others around him.
    • 20.
      • Anal expulsive character is generally messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant.
      • Anal retentive character is neat, precise, orderly, careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, and passive-aggressive.
      • The resolution of the anal stage with proper toilet training affects the individual propensities towards possession and attitudes towards authority
    • 21.
      • Where the child goes through the Oedipus or Electra complex
      • Phallic characters are reckless, resolute, self-assured, and narcissistic--excessively vain and proud. or afraid or incapable of close love
      • Freud also postulated that fixation could be a root cause of homosexuality
    • 22.
      • Anxiety and stress in maintaining normal relationships with the opposite gender
      • Fixation can occur, development will be troubled, further repression and defence mechanisms