Cog lifespan 9 personality (1)

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  • People with low self-esteem were often given messages that failed experiences (losing a game, getting a poor grade, etc.) were failures of their whole self.
  • Cog lifespan 9 personality (1)

    1. 1. Personality and the Self
    2. 2. <ul><li>Infants are largely egocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Around the second half of the first year, a strong attachment to parents is shown </li></ul><ul><li>At 9 months, infants like to play games with adults </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the second year, a sense of self is developing </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Developing an awareness of self as different from others is an important step in social development </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson developed a theory of psychosocial stages of development, each stage contributing to a unique sense of self </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Stage 1 (birth to 18 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic trust vs. mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>If needs are met, child learns world is predictable and safe </li></ul><ul><li>If needs are not met in Stage 1, distrust in the world develops </li></ul>Significant relationship: the maternal parent, or constant caregiver.
    5. 5. <ul><li>Stage 2 (18 months to 3 years) is called autonomy vs. shame & doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Success in tasks leads to autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in stage 2 leads to fears and a sense of doubt </li></ul>Significant relationship: parents
    6. 6. <ul><li>Stage 3 (3 to 6 years) is called initiative vs. guilt </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of mastery develops if the child successfully exercises enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Failure leads to dependence and regret </li></ul>Significant relationship: basic family
    7. 7. <ul><li>Stage 4 (6 – 12 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry vs. inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>The child gains a sense of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in Stage 4 leads to feelings of inferiority and incompetence </li></ul>Significant relationship: school and neighbourhood
    8. 8. <ul><li>Stage 5 (12 to 18 years) </li></ul><ul><li>identity vs. role confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Successful negotiation of this stage leaves the adolescent strong in devotion and fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in Stage 5 leads to youth and adults who do not know who they are, have no idea where they are going </li></ul>Significant relationship: peer groups
    9. 9. <ul><li>Stage 6 ( 18 to 35 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. isolation </li></ul><ul><li>The young adult needs to make decisions and work through emotions of affiliation and love, work towards intimacy and solidarity with people around </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in Stage 6 leads to inability to form intimate relationships and isolation </li></ul>Significant relationship: marital partner and friends
    10. 10. <ul><li>Stage 7 (35 to retirement age ~ 60) </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity vs. self absorption </li></ul><ul><li>The older adult is focused on work and family. Successful negotiation of this stage will grant the adult with a sense of care and contribution/production </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in Stage 7 leads to stagnation and self-absorption </li></ul>Significant relationships: within the workplace, the community and the family .
    11. 11. <ul><li>Stage 8 (retirement to death) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity vs. despair </li></ul><ul><li>The mature adult will evaluate his/her life to ascertain if it was a meaningful one. Positive reflection will give a sense of integrity, the mature adult then revels in wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Negative evaluation gives a sense of despair </li></ul>All of mankind …. My kind
    12. 12. <ul><li>Self awareness </li></ul><ul><li>recognition of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>knowing likes and dislikes </li></ul><ul><li>Developing self-awareness helps us to recognise when we are stressed or under pressure. It is also often a prerequisite for effective communication and interpersonal relations, as well as for developing empathy for others. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Self image </li></ul><ul><li>Self-image is how one perceives oneself ... </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the way one acts </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Performance, abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Material possessions </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Healthy Self-Esteem Childhood experiences that lead to healthy self-esteem include- </li></ul><ul><li>being praised </li></ul><ul><li>being listened to </li></ul><ul><li>being spoken to respectfully </li></ul><ul><li>getting attention and hugs </li></ul><ul><li>experiencing success in sports or school </li></ul><ul><li>having trustworthy friend </li></ul><ul><li>Low Self-Esteem Childhood experiences that lead to low self-esteem include- </li></ul><ul><li>being harshly criticized </li></ul><ul><li>being yelled at, or beaten </li></ul><ul><li>being ignored, ridiculed or teased </li></ul><ul><li>being expected to be &quot;perfect&quot; all the time </li></ul><ul><li>experiencing failures in sports or school </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>The Impostor : acts happy and successful, but is really terrified of failure. Lives with the constant fear that she or he will be &quot;found out.&quot; Needs continuous successes to maintain the mask of positive self-esteem, which may lead to problems with perfectionism, procrastination, competition, and burn-out. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>The Rebel : acts like the opinions or good will of others - especially people who are important or powerful - don't matter. Lives with constant anger about not feeling &quot;good enough.&quot; Continuously needs to prove that others' judgments and criticisms don't hurt, which may lead to problems like blaming others excessively, breaking rules or laws, or fighting authority. </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>The Loser : acts helpless and unable to cope with the world and waits for someone to come to the rescue. Uses self-pity or indifference as a shield against fear of taking responsibility for changing his or her life. Looks constantly to others for guidance, which can lead to such problems as lacking assertiveness skills, under-achievement, and excessive reliance on others in relationships. </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Four stages – oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital </li></ul><ul><li>A child at a given stage of development has certain needs and demands. Both frustration and overindulgence lock some amount of the child's libido, resulting in fixation </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Unmet needs leads to character which is characterized by pessimism, envy, suspicion and sarcasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessively satisfied, is optimistic, gullible, and is full of admiration for others around him. </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Anal expulsive character is generally messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant. </li></ul><ul><li>Anal retentive character is neat, precise, orderly, careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, and passive-aggressive. </li></ul><ul><li>The resolution of the anal stage with proper toilet training affects the individual propensities towards possession and attitudes towards authority </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Where the child goes through the Oedipus or Electra complex </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic characters are reckless, resolute, self-assured, and narcissistic--excessively vain and proud. or afraid or incapable of close love </li></ul><ul><li>Freud also postulated that fixation could be a root cause of homosexuality </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Anxiety and stress in maintaining normal relationships with the opposite gender </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation can occur, development will be troubled, further repression and defence mechanisms </li></ul>

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