Regions of the brain that govern perceptual and cognitive abilities..
Children’s social interaction affect their ability to learn a language
ApproxAge Milestone 2mths Infants coo, making vowel sound approximations 4-8 mths Babbling, consonant sounds added into cooing 8-12 mths Comprehension of some words, inclusion in turn taking games, preverbal gestures of pointing etc. 12mths First word, babbling includes sound and intonation patterns of native speech 18-24mths Expansion of vocabulary, two word communications occur
Joint attention: following the adult’s focus of attention, aids learning language
Under-extension: applying particular words too narrowly
Over-extension: applying a particular word too widely
Over-regulation: overextend the rules to words that are exceptional
Fast mapping: rapid ability to connect new words with underlying concepts only after a brief encounter
Cries in different ways to say “I’m hurt, wet, hungry, or lonely.”
Makes noises to voice displeasure or satisfaction.
Recognizes and looks for familiar voices and sounds.
Responds to name.
Understands names of some familiar objects.
Shows interest in picture books.
Pays attention to conversation.
Babbles expressively as if talking.
Says first word (maybe)
Says “Da-da” and “Ma-ma”(maybe)
Identifies family members and familiar objects.
Points to a few body parts such as nose, ears.
Follows simple, one-step instructions.
Says two or more words.
Imitates familiar noises like cars, planes, birds.
Repeats a few words.
Looks at person talking.
Says “Hi” or “Bye” if reminded.
Uses expressions like “Oh-oh.”
Asks for something by pointing or using one word.
Identifies an object in a picture book.
Says about 50 words, but can understand many more.
Echoes single words that are spoken by someone else.
Talks to self and jabbers expressively.
Says names of toys and familiar objects.
Uses two to three word sentences like “Daddy bye-bye,” “All gone.”
Hums or tries to sing simple songs.
Listens to short rhymes or finger plays.
Points to eyes, ears, or nose when asked.
Uses the words “Bye,” “Hi,” “Please,” and “Thank you” if
Identifies up to 10 pictures in a book when objects are named.
Uses simple phrases and sentences.
Responds when called by name.
Responds to simple directions.
Starts to say plural and past tense words.
Enjoys simple stories, rhymes, and songs.
Uses two- to three-word sentences.
Enjoys looking at books.
Points to eyes, ears, or nose when asked.
Repeats words spoken by someone else.
Vocabulary expands up to 500 words.
Talks so 75% to 80% of speech is understandable.
Says own first and last name.
Understands words like over, under, on, and in; now, soon, and later.
Asks who, what, where, and why questions.
Talks in complete sentences of 3 to 5 words: “Mommy is drinking juice.” “There’s a big dog.”
Stumbles over words sometimes—usually not a sign of stuttering
Listens attentively to short stories and books; likes familiar stories told without any changes in words.
Enjoys listening to stories and repeating simple rhymes, telling simple stories from pictures or books.
Likes to sing and can carry a simple tune.
Recognizes common everyday sounds.
Identifies common colours such as red, blue, yellow, green.
Recognizes some letters if taught and may be able to print own name.
Recognizes familiar words in simple books or signs (STOP sign, fast food signs).
Speaks in fairly complex sentences—“The baby ate the cookie before I could put it on the table.”
Enjoys singing simple songs, rhymes, and nonsense words.
Adapts language to listener’s level of understanding. To baby sister: “Daddy go bye-bye.” To mother: “Daddy went to the store.”
Learns name, address, and phone number if taught.
Asks and answers who, what, why, where, and what if questions.
Names six to eight colours and three shapes.
Follows two unrelated directions. “Put your milk on the table and get your coat on.”
Likes to talk and carries on elaborate conversations.
Likes to shock others by using “forbidden” words.
Loves to tell jokes that may not make any sense to adults.
Speaks with correct grammar and word form.
Expresses self in pretend play.
Writes first name, some letters, and numbers.
Reads simple words.
Can conduct long conversations
Engages in meaningful pretend play
The ability to communicate fluently in two languages
Acquiring two languages simultaneously from young
Learning a second language after mastering the first
Sensitive period for language mastery
First language: from birth to six (6)
Second language: sometime during childhood
Learning a second language in adulthood is possible, just onerous.
Immersion programmes, exchange programmes
"Learning two languages confuses a child and lowers his intelligence."
"A child should learn one language properly first; then you can start teaching the other."
"A child who learns two languages won't feel at home in either of them. She'll always feel caught between two cultures."
"Bilinguals have to translate from their weaker to their stronger language."
"Children who grow up bilingual will make great translators when they grow up."
"Real bilinguals never mix their languages. Those who do are confused 'semi-linguals'."
"Bilinguals have split personalities."
"Bilingualism is a charming exception, but monolingualism is of course the rule."
"Be very careful; if you don't follow the rules exactly, your children will never manage to learn both languages!"
"You'll never manage to make him bilingual now. People really can't learn a language after age X."
Girls tend to develop language before boys
The 20mth girl has 2x the vocabulary of her male counterpart
Females demonstrate superior verbal fluency, speech articulation, grammatical skills, and use of more complex and longer sentences than males
Females tend to use more emotive words
Girls had greater brain activity in three known language areas than boys of their brain when completing reading comprehension or word meaning tasks.
Inferior frontal gyrus – an area involved in word meanings and other language functions.
Superior temporal gyrus on both sides of the brain – involved in sounds of words.
Fusiform gyrus on the left side of the brain – area involved in the spelling of words and their visual identification.
Girls used both the left and right sides of their brains for language-related activities, whereas boys primarily used the left side.
Girls’ language ability was dominated by auditory/listening areas of the brain for accessing and processing information related to spelling and rhyming.
Boys’ language ability was dominated by visual areas of the brain for accessing and processing information related to spelling and rhyming.
1. Use communication to asset your ideas, opinion, and identity.
2. Use talk to achieve something, such as solving a problems or developing strategies.
3. Use communication to attract and maintain others' attention.
4. Use communication to compete for the "talk stage." Make yourself stand out; take attention away from others, and get others to pay attention to you.
1. Use communication to create and maintain relationships. The process of communication, not its content, is the heart of the relationship.
2. Use communication to establish egalitarian [equal] relationships with others. Don't outdo, criticize, or put down others. If you have to criticize, be gentle.
3. Use communication to include others – bring them into the conversations, respond to their ideas.
4. Use communication to show sensitivity to others and relationships
Some studies show that females are found to use more questions than declarative statements in comparison with males
Men ’ s language is straighter forward, less polite and more direct, and women ’ s language is more indirect, less blunt and more circumlocutory.
Turn off the light when you leave .
Turn off the light when you leave.
Please turn off the light when you leave.
Would you please turn off the light when you leave?
Could you please turn off the light when you leave?
(5) It is very nice for you to turn off the light when you leave.
(6) I personally think that might be a waste to keep the light on when people are not there.
Men Women Managing up/down More careful when delivering criticism to boss More careful when delivering criticism to employee Indirectness When admitting fault or weakness When telling others what to do Equality Emphasise pecking order Emphasise relationship Body language Hold distance, fewer gestures Stand closer, more eye contact Requests Command or direct requests Changing subjects Complete, focused May veer off Problem solving Wants solutions Articulates discuss Giving feedback Direct, blunt Tact, sensitivity Asking questions Info gathering Gathering info develop relationship