Moral Development
<ul><li>From childhood on, individuals develop morality, a system of learned attitudes about social practices, institution...
<ul><li>Tom is a fourteen-year-old boy who wanted to go to camp very much. His father promised him he could go if he saved...
<ul><li>1. Should Tom refuse to give his father the money? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does the father have the right to tell Tom...
<ul><li>Judy was a twelve-year-old girl. Her mother promised her that she could go to a special rock concert coming to the...
<ul><li>Should Louise, the older sister, tell their mother that Judy lied about the money or should she keep quiet?  </li>...
<ul><li>Kohlberg divides development into three “levels” </li></ul><ul><li>The central concept is justice, mortality as a ...
<ul><li>Level 1 is preconventional morality in which decisions about right and wrong are based on avoiding punishment and ...
<ul><li>Stage 1.   Reward and punishment  stage.   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good or bad depends on the physical consequences:...
<ul><li>Level 2 is conventional morality in which societal rules are internalised and children conform to avoid the disapp...
<ul><li>Stage 3.   Good boy/good girl  stage.   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to live up to the expectations of others, and ...
<ul><li>Level 3 is postconventional morality in which a person moves beyond fixed rules and laws, and judgments are based ...
<ul><li>Stage 5.   Social contract  stage </li></ul><ul><li>Being aware of the degree to which much of so-called morality ...
<ul><li>Piaget found young children’s ideas about morality to be rigid and rule-bound </li></ul><ul><li>The first stage,  ...
<ul><li>The second stage, called  moral realism , lasts from the approximate ages of five to nine.  </li></ul><ul><li>Chil...
<ul><li>The third and final stage is called  moral relativity . This stage begins at about seven years of age, so it overl...
<ul><li>Self-oriented morality   </li></ul><ul><li>Only interested in self-gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Others are only...
<ul><li>Authority-oriented morality .   </li></ul><ul><li>Blind acceptance of the decrees of authority figures, from paren...
<ul><li>Peer-oriented morality .   </li></ul><ul><li>Morality of conformity, where right and wrong is determined not by au...
<ul><li>Collective-oriented morality .   </li></ul><ul><li>The standing goals of the group to which the child or adult bel...
<ul><li>Objectively oriented morality .  </li></ul><ul><li>Universal principles that are objective in the sense that they ...
<ul><li>ID is ruled by the pleasure principle </li></ul><ul><li>Ego governed by reality principle </li></ul><ul><li>Supere...
<ul><li>Aimed at encouraging the child to be aware of how their misbehaviour affects others </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging ...
<ul><li>Individual differences – child’s temperament and readiness to feel empathy affects moral development </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>That morality is taught through reinforcement and modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement in the form of praise ...
<ul><li>Warmth of model </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to people </li></ul><ul><li>Competence  </li></ul><ul><li>Powerfu...
<ul><li>Punishment is seldom an effective way to reduce aggression because </li></ul><ul><li>Applying punishment models ag...
<ul><li>Development of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Children are born aggressive – they cry, kick, show frustration to get...
<ul><li>Instrumental aggression: where children will push, shout at, or attack others who are in the way as they are going...
<ul><li>Physical aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly or indirectly hurting another through physical means – kick, pu...
<ul><li>Middle childhood – children learn to be more discerning.  </li></ul><ul><li>Change perception from good-bad to sha...
<ul><li>The need to share is obvious – children as young as 4yrs have been heard to verbalise about their reasons for shar...
<ul><li>By school age, children learn to have a flexible approach to morality </li></ul><ul><li>Consider social and pro-so...
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Cog lifespan 7 moral (1)

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Cog lifespan 7 moral (1)

  1. 1. Moral Development
  2. 2. <ul><li>From childhood on, individuals develop morality, a system of learned attitudes about social practices, institutions, and individual behaviour used to evaluate situations as right or wrong </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Tom is a fourteen-year-old boy who wanted to go to camp very much. His father promised him he could go if he saved up the money for it himself. So Tom worked hard at his paper route and saved up the forty dollars it cost to go to camp, and a little more besides. But just before camp was going to start, his father changed his mind. Some of his friends decided to go on a special fishing trip, and Tom's father was short of the money it would cost. So he told Tom to give him the money he had saved from the paper route. Tom didn't want to give up going to camp, so he thinks of refusing to give his father the money. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. Should Tom refuse to give his father the money? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does the father have the right to tell Tom to give him the money? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Does giving the money have anything to do with being a good son? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Is the fact that Tom earned the money himself important in this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>5. The father promised Tom he could go to camp if he earned the money. Is the fact that the father promised the most important thing in the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>6. In general, why should a promise kept? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Is it important to keep a promise to someone you don't know well and probably won't see again? </li></ul><ul><li>8. What do you think is the most important thing a father should be concerned about in his relationship to his son? </li></ul><ul><li>9. In general, what should be the authority of a father over his son? </li></ul><ul><li>10. What do you think is the most important thing a son should be concerned about in his relationship to his father? </li></ul><ul><li>11. In thinking back over the dilemma, what would you say is the most responsible thing for Tom to do in this situation? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Judy was a twelve-year-old girl. Her mother promised her that she could go to a special rock concert coming to their town if she saved up from baby-sitting and lunch money to buy a ticket to the concert. She managed to save up the fifteen dollars the ticket cost plus another five dollars. But then her mother changed her mind and told Judy that she had to spend the money on new clothes for school. Judy was disappointed and decided to go to the concert anyway. She bought a ticket and told her mother that she had only been able to save five dollars. That Saturday she went to the performance and told her mother that she was spending the day with a friend. A week passed without her mother finding out. Judy then told her older sister, Louise, that she had gone to the performance and had lied to her mother about it. Louise wonders whether to tell their mother what Judy did. </li></ul>Dilemma II
  6. 6. <ul><li>Should Louise, the older sister, tell their mother that Judy lied about the money or should she keep quiet? </li></ul><ul><li>In wondering whether to tell, Louise thinks of the fact that Judy is her sister. Should that make a difference in Louise's decision? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Does telling have anything to do with being a good daughter? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Is the fact that Judy earned the money herself important in this situation? </li></ul><ul><li>5. The mother promised Judy she could go to the concert if she earned the money. Is the fact that the mother promised the most important thing in the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Why in general should a promise be kept? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Is it important to keep a promise to someone you don't know well and probably won't see again? </li></ul><ul><li>8. What do you think is the most important thing a mother should be concerned about in her relationship to her daughter? </li></ul><ul><li>9. In general, what should be the authority of a mother over her daughter? </li></ul><ul><li>10. What do you think is the most important thing a daughter should be concerned about in her relationship to her mother? </li></ul><ul><li>11. In thinking back over the dilemma, what would you say is the most responsible thing for Louise to do in this situation? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Kohlberg divides development into three “levels” </li></ul><ul><li>The central concept is justice, mortality as a balance of individual rights and responsibilities </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Level 1 is preconventional morality in which decisions about right and wrong are based on avoiding punishment and obtaining benefits </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Stage 1.  Reward and punishment stage.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good or bad depends on the physical consequences:  Does the action lead to punishment or reward?  This stage is based simply on one's own pain and pleasure, and doesn't take others into account. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2.  Exchange stage .  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased recognition that others have their own interests and should be taken into account.  Those interests are still understood in a very concrete fashion, and the child deals with others in terms of simple exchange or reciprocity.  Children in this stage are very concerned with what's &quot;fair&quot; (one of their favourite words), but are not concerned with real justice. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Level 2 is conventional morality in which societal rules are internalised and children conform to avoid the disapproval of others </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Stage 3.  Good boy/good girl stage.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to live up to the expectations of others, and to seek their approval.  Now they become interested motives or intentions, and concepts such as loyalty, trust, and gratitude are understood.  Children in this stage often adhere to a concrete version of the Golden Rule, although it is limited to the people they actually deal with on a day-to-day basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 4.  Law-and-order stage.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children now take the point of view that includes the social system as a whole.  The rules of the society are the bases for right and wrong, and doing one's duty and showing respect for authority are important. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Level 3 is postconventional morality in which a person moves beyond fixed rules and laws, and judgments are based on one’s perception of societal needs </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Stage 5.  Social contract stage </li></ul><ul><li>Being aware of the degree to which much of so-called morality is relative to the individual and to the social group they belong to, and that only a very few fundamental values are universal.  Morality is a matter of entering into a rational contract with one's fellow human beings to be kind to each other, respect authority, and follow laws to the extent that they respect and promote those universal values.  Social contract morality often involves a utilitarian approach, where the relative value of an act is determined by &quot;the greatest good for the greatest number.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 6.  Universal principles stage .  </li></ul><ul><li>At this point, the person makes a personal commitment to universal principles of equal rights and respect, and social contract takes a clear back-seat:  If there is a conflict between a social law or custom and universal principles, the universal principles take precedence. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Piaget found young children’s ideas about morality to be rigid and rule-bound </li></ul><ul><li>The first stage, premoral judgement , lasts from birth until about five years of age. In this stage, children simply do not understand the concept of rules and have no idea of morality, internal or external. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The second stage, called moral realism , lasts from the approximate ages of five to nine. </li></ul><ul><li>Children in this stage understand the concept of rules, but they are seen as external and immutable. </li></ul><ul><li>Children obey rules largely because they are there. Since a rule tells you what you're not supposed to do, moral realist children evaluate wrongdoing in terms of its consequences, not the intentions of the wrongdoer. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The third and final stage is called moral relativity . This stage begins at about seven years of age, so it overlaps at first with moral realism. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who have reached this stage recognise that rules are not fixed, but can be changed by mutual consent, and they start to develop their own internal morality which is no longer the same as external rules. </li></ul><ul><li>A major development is that actions are now evaluated more in terms of their intentions, which most people would see as a more sophisticated view of morality. Piaget also thought it was during this stage that children develop a firm concept of the necessity that punishment specifically fits the crime. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Self-oriented morality   </li></ul><ul><li>Only interested in self-gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Others are only considered in the level of how they can help attain what the child wants, or hinder the child </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Authority-oriented morality .  </li></ul><ul><li>Blind acceptance of the decrees of authority figures, from parents up to heads of state and religion, as defining good and bad. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Peer-oriented morality .  </li></ul><ul><li>Morality of conformity, where right and wrong is determined not by authority but by one's peers.  </li></ul><ul><li>In western society, this kind of morality is frequently found among adolescents, as well as many adults. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Collective-oriented morality .  </li></ul><ul><li>The standing goals of the group to which the child or adult belongs over-ride individual interests.  </li></ul><ul><li>Duty to one's group or society is paramount. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Objectively oriented morality . </li></ul><ul><li>Universal principles that are objective in the sense that they do not depend on the whims of individuals or social groups, but have a reality all their own. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>ID is ruled by the pleasure principle </li></ul><ul><li>Ego governed by reality principle </li></ul><ul><li>Superego controlled by the morality principle </li></ul><ul><li>Moral development is complete by 5 or 6yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Children want to avoid feelings of guilt, the painful harmful emotion </li></ul>Freud’s view is now regarded as out-dated
  23. 23. <ul><li>Aimed at encouraging the child to be aware of how their misbehaviour affects others </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging the child to “own” the consequences of their misbehaviour can encourage the child to refrain from future wrong-doing </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on impact can encourage empathy (emphasis on punishment could make the child overly anxious and fearful) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Individual differences – child’s temperament and readiness to feel empathy affects moral development </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy based guilt has been observed to influence moral development without use of coercion </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>That morality is taught through reinforcement and modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement in the form of praise and positive responses to actions tend to encourage the child to repeat the actions </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling is necessary in some cases to encourage the expression of behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Models are most influential during preschool years; caring adults during the formative years will have internalised pro-social rules and follow them regardless presence of model </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Warmth of model </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to people </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful models </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency between assertions and behaviour </li></ul>Models who possess these characteristics serve as positive role models for children, their presence will encourage the child to emit socially acceptable behaviour
  27. 27. <ul><li>Punishment is seldom an effective way to reduce aggression because </li></ul><ul><li>Applying punishment models aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Children will feel self pity and not the sympathetic orientation to others </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Small frequent doses lead to larger abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying the tradition of punishment… </li></ul>Alternative is to use Time Out Procedure
  28. 28. <ul><li>Development of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Children are born aggressive – they cry, kick, show frustration to get attention and have their needs met </li></ul><ul><li>Basic emotion: anger modified becomes aggression </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Instrumental aggression: where children will push, shout at, or attack others who are in the way as they are going in a particular direction </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile aggression: aggression that is aimed to hurt another person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Physical aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly or indirectly hurting another through physical means – kick, punch, pinch, destroy property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly harming through threats of physical aggression, name calling or hostile teasing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relational aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly or indirectly damaging peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, friendship manipulation </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Middle childhood – children learn to be more discerning. </li></ul><ul><li>Change perception from good-bad to shades of grey </li></ul><ul><li>Distributive justice = belief about how to divide material goods fairly </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The need to share is obvious – children as young as 4yrs have been heard to verbalise about their reasons for sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict equality (5-6yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit (6-7yrs): recognise that those who had done more get more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity and benevolence (around 8yrs): giving special consideration to who needs it </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>By school age, children learn to have a flexible approach to morality </li></ul><ul><li>Consider social and pro-social intentions before they act </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of engaging in an action is considered, intentions and contexts of actions affect moral implications </li></ul>
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