Cog lifespan 5 cognitive (1)


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  • The sensorimotor stage in a child is from birth to approximately two years. During this stage, a child has relatively little competence in representing the environment using images, language, or symbols. An infant has no awareness of objects or people that are not immediately present at a given moment. Piaget called this a lack of object permanence. Object permanence is the awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight. In infants, when a person hides, the infant has no knowledge that they are just out of sight. According to Piaget, this person or object that has disappeared is gone forever to the infant.
  • Actions are more intentional. Children begin exploring the environment around them and will often imitate the observed behaviour of others. The understanding of objects also begins during this time and children begin to recognise certain objects as having specific qualities.
  • extended Piaget’s theory into adult development, maintaining the view that development is an active process that involves constructing successively more adaptive levels of activity (Goldhaber, 2000). Labeled as a "neo-Piagetian theory", Goldhaber classifies Labouvie-Vief's theory under the organismic lens; while, Merriam et al (2007) label the theory as clearly contextualist because Labouvie-Vief demonstrates how contextual factors can influence cognitive development. Seemingly then, Labouvie-Vief's theory belongs under a contextualist-organismic lens.
  • Cog lifespan 5 cognitive (1)

    1. 1. Lifespan Development Cognitive development
    2. 2. <ul><li>Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who devised ingenious procedures for examining the cognitive development of young children </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget studied when and how children gained insights into the world </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget focused on how people think instead of what they think </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cognitive change <ul><li>Schemes – psychological structure of making sense of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation – process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation: using current schemes to interpret external world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation: create or modify schemes to handle the environment that is not completely captured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisation – internal process of rearranging and linking schemes to create strongly interconnected cognitive system </li></ul>
    4. 4. Central concepts <ul><li>A schema is an organized way of interacting with the environment and experiencing the world </li></ul><ul><li>Schemata guide thoughts based on prior experiences </li></ul>
    5. 5. Central concepts <ul><li>Schemas can change through adaptation, assimilation, and accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation is when a child discovers that actions bring results, and those results affect future behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Schemata are organized into more complex mental representations </li></ul>
    6. 6. Central concepts <ul><li>In assimilation, new ideas and experiences are incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>In accommodation, previously developed mental structures and behaviours (schemata) are modified to adapt them to new experiences </li></ul>
    7. 8. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development a = accommodation/assimilation; f = flaw Sensorimotor 0 – 2 years Imitation, permanence (a) Preoperational 2 – 7 years Egocentrism (f), centration (f), irreversibility (f) Concrete Op 7 – 11 years Decentration (a), conservation (a) Formal Op 11+ Abstract reasoning
    8. 9. <ul><li>Piaget proposed four invariant stages of development </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns are dependent, reflexive organisms </li></ul><ul><li>At 2 to 3 months, infants develop memory for past events </li></ul><ul><li>The sensorimotor stage extends from birth to age 2 </li></ul>
    9. 10. I: Sensorimotor Stage <ul><li>The first stage, comprising six sub-stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexive schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary circular reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary circular reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of secondary circular reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary circular reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental representations </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. i) Reflexive schemes <ul><li>Birth – 1 month </li></ul><ul><li>Infant activity are largely reflexive </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of environment is based on reflex action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startle </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. ii) Primary circular reactions <ul><li>1 – 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating sensation and new schemas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation of pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional repetition of the action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordination of sensation and two types of schemes: habits (reflex) and primary circular reactions (reproduction of an event that initially occurred by chance) </li></ul><ul><li>Main focus is on infant's body. </li></ul>
    12. 13. iii) Secondary circular reactions <ul><li>4 – 8 months </li></ul><ul><li>Infant becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Infants are more object-oriented, moving beyond self-preoccupation; repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results </li></ul>
    13. 14. iv) Coordination of secondary circular reactions <ul><li>8 – 12 month </li></ul><ul><li>Combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration and imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of objects – children begin to recognise certain objects as having specific qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of vision and touch – hand-eye coordination; </li></ul><ul><li>Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences.  Actions take on an &quot;intentional&quot; character </li></ul>
    14. 15. v) Tertiary circular reactions <ul><li>12 – 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>Trial-and-error experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects; they experiment with new behaviour. </li></ul>
    15. 16. vi) Mental representations <ul><li>18 – 24 months </li></ul><ul><li>Early Representational Thought through Mental Combination  </li></ul><ul><li>Develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of an internal representational system.  Symbolising the problem-solving sequence before actually responding.  Deferred imitation.  </li></ul>
    16. 17. Cognitive achievements <ul><li>Object permanence </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionality of actions </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of properties of objects </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul>Attainment of these four cognitive skills will mark the end of the sensorimotor stage, whereby the child will then move into the next stage
    17. 18. Object permanence <ul><li>Ability of the brain to retain and utilise visual images. </li></ul><ul><li>Object permanence is the understanding that objects exist even when out of sight, w hereby the child recognises that although the person or object is not within sight, it still exists </li></ul><ul><li>Often handled approximately eight (8) months </li></ul><ul><li>In the second half of the sensorimotor stage, children begin to use language to represent the world </li></ul>
    18. 19. The preoperational child <ul><li>The preoperational stage lasts from about age 2 to age 6 or 7 </li></ul><ul><li>In this stage, children represent reality through symbolic thought </li></ul>
    19. 20. Limitations of preoperational thought <ul><li>Egocentricism: failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from own view </li></ul><ul><li>Centration: focusing on only one attribute </li></ul><ul><li>Animistic thinking: belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation: certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes </li></ul>The turning point!
    20. 21. Piaget’s Mountains Study <ul><li>To investigate egocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>Three 3-D mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Ask child to indicate which view he thought E saw from E position </li></ul>Plaster model make-up E C Younger child answer Older child answer
    21. 22. The preoperational child <ul><li>Centration is the tendency for preoperational children to become focused on one salient dimension at the expense of others </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. show them five black and three white marbles and ask them “Are there more marbles or more black marbles?” they will respond “More black ones!” – evidencing they centred on colour </li></ul>
    22. 23. The preoperational child <ul><li>Animistic Thinking is the attribution of intentions to objects or events </li></ul>e.g. “the chair was afraid of me so it moved away”
    23. 24. Preoperational stage <ul><li>Dramatic increase in use of symbols, representations </li></ul><ul><li>Children had many internal experiences which were labelled with words by the child </li></ul><ul><li>By observing children’s make believe play, able to get an idea of child’s inner world </li></ul>
    24. 25. Make believe play in preschool years <ul><li>Detaches from real life conditions associated with it </li></ul><ul><li>Play becomes less self centred </li></ul><ul><li>Play includes more complex combinations of schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Sociodramatic play indicates awareness that make believe play is representational activity </li></ul>
    25. 26. Symbol-real world relations <ul><li>Preschoolers realise that each symbol corresponds with a specific state of affairs in daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>When does this happen? </li></ul><ul><li>2½ - 3year olds before children start to realise that a symbolic object is both an object and a symbol (dual representation) </li></ul>
    26. 27. Limitations <ul><li>Centration: focusing on only one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features </li></ul><ul><li>Irreversibility: inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem then reverse direction, returning to starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking hierarchical classification: difficulty to organise objects into classes and subclasses based on similarities and differences </li></ul>Mastering these three is the point at which the child will learn to conserve
    27. 28. The concrete operational child <ul><li>The concrete operational stage lasts from the age of about 6 / 7 to 11 / 12 </li></ul><ul><li>In this stage, the child develops the ability to understand constant factors in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>The concrete operational child understands rules and the reasons for them </li></ul>
    28. 29. The concrete operational child <ul><li>A hallmark of the concrete stage is understanding conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation is recognising that objects can be transformed visually or physically, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume </li></ul>
    29. 30. Figure 11.7 Development of Conservation
    30. 31. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>The formal operational stage begins at about age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>In this stage, the individual can think hypothetically, consider future possibilities, and use deductive logic </li></ul><ul><li>An adolescent can engage in abstract thought in the formal operational stage </li></ul>
    31. 32. Characteristics of formal operational stage <ul><li>Hypothetico-deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Propositional thought </li></ul>
    32. 33. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning <ul><li>The hypothesis is the starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Deduce logically </li></ul><ul><li>Make testable inferences, systematically isolating and combining variables to see which are confirmed for the real world </li></ul>
    33. 34. Propositional thought <ul><li>Ability to evaluate the logic of prepositions without referring to real-world circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects the ability to hold the thought in the head – required a symbolic system for representation, to aid the logical manipulation of thought and concept </li></ul>
    34. 35. Follow-up research <ul><li>Are children/adolescents really capable of hypothetico-deductive reasoning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shades of it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as capable as adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability improves with age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HDR contradicts with real-world facts </li></ul><ul><li>Even some adults fail to be capable in formal operations </li></ul>
    35. 36. Beyond Piaget: Educational principles derived <ul><li>Understanding of Piaget’s theory allows educational plans take into account the child’s stage of readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of individual differences </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Vygotsky’s sociocultural approach
    37. 38. Central concept <ul><li>Development applies mainly to mental development, such as thought, language and reasoning process </li></ul><ul><li>These abilities were understood to develop through social interactions with others (especially parents) and therefore represented the shared knowledge of the culture </li></ul>
    38. 39. Role of culture in mental processes <ul><li>Intellectual abilities is specific to the culture in which the child was reared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children acquire much of their thinking (knowledge) from it.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children acquire the processes or means of their thinking (tools of intellectual adaptation) from the surrounding culture.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture provides the children with the means to think, what to think and how to think. </li></ul>
    39. 40. Learning and cognitive thought <ul><li>Is a dialectical process where the child learns through shared problem solving experiences with someone else (parents, teacher, siblings or peer) </li></ul><ul><li>Language dialogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shares and stimulates thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is primary tool of intellectual transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development consists of gradual internalization, primarily through language, to form cultural adaptation </li></ul>
    40. 41. Zone if Proximal Development <ul><li>Potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between what a given child can achieve alone, their potential development as determined by independent problem solving, and what they can achieve through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers </li></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>The full development during the ZPD depends upon full social interaction and the more the child takes advantages of an adult’s assistance, the broader is its ‘Zone of Proximal Development’. </li></ul>
    42. 43. <ul><li>Language is used by children </li></ul><ul><li>additional device in solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>to overcome impulsive action </li></ul><ul><li>to plan a solution before trying it out, and </li></ul><ul><li>to control their own behaviour </li></ul>
    43. 44. Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky <ul><li>Both viewed pre-school children in problem solving situations talking to themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget labelled the self directed behaviour as egocentric and believed it only minimum relevant to children’s cognitive growth </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky referred to it as a private speech and essential to cognitive growth </li></ul>
    44. 45. Cognitive development in adulthood <ul><li>Changes in the structure of thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epistemic cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic thought, cognitive-emotional complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expertise and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Attending College </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational choice </li></ul>
    45. 46. LaBouvie-Vief: Pragmatic thought and cognitive-emotional complexity
    46. 47. Changes in structure of thought <ul><li>Pragmatic thought and Cognitive-emotional complexity: LaBouvie-Vief </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents work within a world of possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Adulthood involves a shift from hypothetical to pragmatic thought </li></ul><ul><li>Logic is a tool for solving real-world problems </li></ul>
    47. 48. <ul><li>Children face limitless opportunities, while adults move from hypothetical to pragmatic as they face real-world problems and make conscious commitments to a single path </li></ul><ul><li>Adults select one path out of many alternatives, they become more aware of the constraints of everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>The need to specialize motivates this change </li></ul>
    48. 49. <ul><li>As young adults gain reflective capacity, they are better able to integrate cognition and emotion, allowing them to make sense of discrepancies. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults become more aware of positive and negative feelings, and are better able to coordinate those feelings into a complex, organized structure </li></ul>
    49. 50. Cognitive-affective complexity <ul><li>Allows mature people to demonstrate increased awareness of the perspectives and motivations of themselves and others </li></ul><ul><li>Vital aspect of emotional intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>As young adults mature, they become aware of multiple perspectives, integrate logic with reality, and develop cognitive-emotional complexity that allows them to become increasingly specialized and context-bound in action and thought that opens higher levels of competence. </li></ul>
    50. 51. <ul><li>Individuals who demonstrate high cognitive-affect complexity tend to </li></ul><ul><li>Be more tolerant toward events and people </li></ul><ul><li>Be more open-minded toward events and people </li></ul><ul><li>Make sense of conflicting emotions, regulate emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Think rationally about real-world dilemmas </li></ul>
    51. 52. In summary <ul><li>There are no right or wrong thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative transformations in thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of multiple truths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of logic with reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive-emotional complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adult thinking must be flexible and adaptive in order to cope in a complex, specialised society </li></ul>
    52. 53. <ul><li>Experts have domain specific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Plan ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Remember and reason </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically analyse </li></ul><ul><li>Categorise elements </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualise possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Novices have superficial understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking reasoning ability </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to solve challenges by way of trial and error </li></ul>Expertise = acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field or endeavour
    53. 54. Vocation and choice <ul><li>Unavoidable decision in the stage of early adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational development in three stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy period – early and middle childhood, gaining insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tentative period – between 11 – 16, consideration of interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic period – late teens and early adulthood: exploration and crystallisation phases </li></ul></ul>
    54. 55. Factors influencing vocation choice <ul><li>Personality – complement their personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative: enjoy working with ideas -> scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social: likes interacting, human issues -> social work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic: emotional, individual expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic: real-world problems -> mechanical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional: well-structured tasks, values material and social status -> business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprising: adventurous, persuasive -> sales, supervisory, politics </li></ul></ul>
    55. 56. Factors influencing vocation choice <ul><li>Family influence </li></ul><ul><li>Parent-child vocational similarity is partly a function of similarity in personality, intellectual abilities, and educational attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High SES promote curiosity, self-direction -> high-status careers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower SES emphasise conformity & obedience </li></ul></ul>
    56. 57. Factors influencing vocation choice <ul><li>Teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closer teacher-student relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering encouragement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role models </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. Factors influencing vocation choice <ul><li>Gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally male jobs see women entering, but at slow pace </li></ul><ul><li>Women tended to seek less demanding careers because of the need to combine work and child rearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability – unresolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training – math and science majors </li></ul></ul>
    58. 59. Changes in mental ability in middle adulthood <ul><li>Decline in short term memory ability </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallised intelligence increases steadily through middle adulthood whereas fluid intelligence begins to decline in the twenties </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction time slows down </li></ul>