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Cog lifespan 4 physical (1)

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  • Two areas that show most growth are the frontal lobe and the left temporal lobe – more planning, organising, thinking. Language skills also increase at an amazing pace during the ages of 3 – 6yrs old
  • Synapses- connective spaces between the cells Neurons- nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses
  • Synaptogenesis- formation of synaptic connections among neurons
  • Cerebral Cortex- the outer layer of the brain’s cerebrum that is involved in voluntary body movements, perception, and higher intellectual functions such as learning, thinking, and speaking
  • Hand preference is evident in 10 percent of 1-year-olds. By age 5, 90 percent of children clearly prefer one hand over the other. The dominant cerebral hemisphere is the hemisphere responsible for skilled motor action. The left hemisphere is dominant in right-handed individuals. In left-handed individuals, motor and language skills are often shared between the hemispheres. The brains of left-handers tend to be less strongly lateralized than those of right-handers. Many left-handers are ambidextrous . One genetic theory proposes that most children inherit a gene that biases them for right-handedness and left-hemispheric localization of language.
  • The two hemispheres of the cortex develop at different rates. The left hemisphere shows dramatic activity between 3 and 6 years and then levels off. Activity in the right hemisphere increases slowly throughout early and middle childhood, showing a slight spurt between ages 8 and 10. Differences in rate of development of the two hemispheres suggest that they are continuing to lateralize (specialize in functions).
  • Bayley’s scales – often used by psychologists to evaluate children
  • At 3 months of ages and older, babies display voluntary reaching as they extend their arms and make in-flight corrections, gradually improving in accuracy until they can reliably grasp their objectives.
  • Self-Help Skills During early childhood, children gradually become self-sufficient at dressing and feeding. Preschoolers get great satisfaction from managing their own bodies. Shoe tying, mastered around age 6, requires a longer attention span, memory for an intricate series of hand movements, and the dexterity to perform them.
  • Scribbles —Western children begin to draw during the second year. At first, action, rather than the scribble itself, contains the intended message. First Representational Forms —By age 3, scribbles start to become pictures. Use of lines to represent object boundaries permits children to draw their first pictures of a person by age 3 or 4. More Realistic Drawings —More conventional figures, in which the body is differentiated from the arms and legs, appear by age 6. However, drawings at this age still contain perceptual distortions, such as a missing third dimension. Greater realism occurs gradually. As young children experiment with lines and shapes, notice print in picture books, and observe people writing, they try to print letters and, later on, words. Often the first word printed is the child’s name. In addition to gains in fine motor control, advances in perception contribute to the ability to form letters and words.
  • Except for throwing, there is no evidence that preschoolers exposed to formal lessons are ahead in motor development. Preschools, child care centers, and playgrounds need to accommodate a wide range of physical abilities by offering a variety of pieces of equipment that differ in size or that can be adjusted to fit the needs of individual children. Criticism of a child’s motor performance, pushing specific motor skills, and promoting a competitive attitude may undermine young children’s motor progress.

Transcript

  • 1. Physical development (ii)
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • At birth, the brain is near adult size
      • Growth in individual brain cells
      • Growth in cerebral cortex
    • At birth the brain weighs 30% of the adult weight. By age 2yrs, it reaches 70%
  • 4.
    • 4 months: The infant's brain responds to every sound produced in all the languages of the world.
    • 8 to 9 months: Babies can form specific memories from their experiences, such as how to push a ball to make it roll.
    • 10 months: Babies can now distinguish and even produce the sounds of their own language (such as "da-da") and no longer pay attention to the sounds of language that are foreign.
    • 12 months: Babies whose parents say, for example, "Lookeee at the doggiee," will go to the appropriate picture of a dog in a picture book more often than those babies who are talked to in normal, flatter voices.
  • 5.
    • 12 to 18 months: Babies can keep in memory something that has been hidden and find it again, even if it has been completely covered up.  They can also hold memory sequences of simple activities, such as winding up a Jack-in-the-box until the figure pops up.
    • 24 months: Preschool children now have clear pictures in mind of people who are dear to them, and they get upset when separated from these people (even their peers).
    • 30 months:  Preschool children can hold in mind a whole sequence of spatial maps and know where things are in their environment.
    • 36 months:  A preschool child can now hold two different emotions in his mind at the same time, such as being sad that he spilled ice cream on his clothes but glad that he's at a birthday party.
  • 6.
    • As neurons form connections, they need stimulation to survive. Lack of stimulation could lead to synaptic pruning
    • Approximately 40% of synapses will be pruned during childhood and adolescence through lack of stimulation
  • 7.
    • Grows most quickly in comparison to others
    • Increase from 70% to 90% of adult weight between age of 2 to 5 years
    • Cerebral cortex thickens as mylination occurs – rapid growth in frontal lobe/cortex
    • Improvement in physical coordination, perception, attention, memory, language, thinking and imagination linked to mylination
  • 8. The two areas with marked growth
  • 9.
    • Neural Development and Plasticity
      • The human brain and nervous system consists of many highly specialized cells that work together to transmit electrical and chemical signals across synapses
      • All the neurons a person will ever have – some 100 to 200 billion of them – have already formed by the end of the second trimester, before the brain growth spurt has even begun
      • The major contributor of the brain growth spurt is the development of a second type of nerve cell, called glia
        • It nourishes the neurons and eventually encases them in insulting sheaths of a waxy substance called myelin
      • The brain shows plasticity up until puberty
  • 10.
    • Cell Differentiation and Synaptogenesis
      • Neurons assume specialized functions. Influenced by the sites to which they migrate
        • Cells of the visual and auditory areas
      • The process of synaptogenesis proceeds rapidly during the brain growth spurt
      • The average infant has far more neurons and neural connections than adults do
        • Neurons that successfully interconnect with other neurons crowd out those that don’t, so that half the neurons produced early in life also die early in life
        • The fact that its cells are highly responsive to the effects of experience
  • 11.
    • Brain Differentiation and Growth
      • Myelinisation is the process by which neurons are enclosed in waxy myelin sheaths that facilitate the transmission of neural impulses
      • The myelin sheath acts like an insulator to speed the transmission of neural impulses, thus allowing the brain to communicate more efficiently with different parts of the body
      • Myelinisation of the higher brain centers may increase adolescent attention span and explain why they process information faster than elementary school children
  • 12.
    • Cerebral Lateralisation
      • It is the specialization of brain functions in the left and the right cerebral hemispheres
      • The highest brain centre, the cerebrum, consists of two halves connected by a band of fibres called the corpus callosum.
        • Each of the hemispheres is covered by a cerebral cortex
        • Left cerebral hemisphere controls the right side of the body, it contains centres for speech, hearing, verbal memory, decision making, language processing, and expression of positive emotions
        • Right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body and contains centres for processing visual-spatial information, tactile sensations, expressing negative emotions and non-linguistic sounds such as music
  • 13.
    • Reflection of greater capacity of one cerebral hemisphere over the other
    • No genetic link to handedness
    • Language centres may be opposite
    • Can be trained – in fact, practice helps
  • 14.
    • At 6 months, majority of infants show clear hand preference
    • 90% of 5 year olds have dominant hand
    • Dominant cerebral hemisphere is the hemisphere responsible for skilled motor action.
    • Left hemisphere is dominant in right-handed individuals.
    • In left-handed individuals, motor and language skills are often shared between the hemispheres.
    • The brains of left-handers tend to be less strongly lateralized than those of right-handers. Many left-handers are ambidextrous .
  • 15.
    • The two hemispheres of the cortex develop at different rates.
    • The left hemisphere shows dramatic activity between 3 and 6 years and then levels off.
    • Activity in the right hemisphere increases slowly throughout early and middle childhood, showing a slight spurt between ages 8 and 10.
  • 16.
    • There is typically no new growth after adolescence
    • From the age of 20, brain cells will not reproduce
  • 17.  
  • 18.
    • Gross motor development: big actions that are associated with moving around the environment
    • Fine motor development: smaller more intentional movements such as grasping and reaching for items within the environment
  • 19.
    • Basic Trends in Locomotor Development
      • Motor development proceeds in a cephalocaudal direction
        • Activities involving the head, neck, and upper extremities precede those involving the legs and lower extremities
  • 20.
      • The Motor Skills as Dynamic, Goal-Directed Systems views motor skills as active reorganizations of previously mastered capabilities that are undertaken to find more effective ways of exploring the environment or satisfying other objectives
  • 21.
    • Mastery of motor skills involves integration and blending of various smaller skills
    • Central Nervous System development
        • Body movement capacity
        • Goal
        • Environmental support
    • Acquisition, practice, refinement
    • Motor development is NOT genetically determined
  • 22.
    • The Maturation viewpoint describes motor development as the unfolding of a genetically programmed sequence of events which the nerves and muscles mature in a downward and outward direction
    • The Experiential Hypothesis believe that opportunities to practice motor skills are also very important
  • 23.
    • Investigators who have charted motor development over the first 2 years of life find that motor skills evolve in a definite sequence
    • Infants who are quick to proceed through this motor sequence are not necessarily any brighter or otherwise advantaged, compared with those whose rates of motor development are average of slightly below average
      • Therefore, a child’s rate of motor development tells us very little about future developmental outcomes
  • 24. These are rough ages Children who are not given the stimulation or opportunity develop slower Advise: let the child nap on the floor, do not carry child all the time, avoid using the popular yaoyao sarong
  • 25. Motor skill Mean age achieved 90% infant attain Holds head upright, steady 6 weeks 3wks – 4mths Lift self by arms when prone 2 months 3wks – 4mths Rolls from side to back 2 months 3wks – 5mths Grasps cube 3mths 3 weeks 2-7 months Rolls from back to side 4 ½ months 2-7 months Sits alone 7 months 5-9 months Crawls 7 months 5-11 months Pulls to stand 8 months 5-12 months Plays pat-a-cake 9mths 3 weeks 7-15 months Stands alone 11 months 9-16 months Walks alone 11mths 3 weeks 9-17 months Builds tower out of 2 cubes 11mths 3 weeks 10-19 months Scribbles vigorously 14 months 10-21 months Walks up stairs with help 16 months 12-13 months Jumps in place 23mths 2 weeks 17-30 months Walks on tiptoe 25 months 16-30 months
  • 26.
    • Fine Motor Development
      • Development of Voluntary Reaching
        • An infant’s ability to reach out and manipulate objects changes dramatically over the first year.
          • Newborns are equipped with a grasping reflex
        • By 2 months of age, infants’ reaching and grasping skills may seem to deteriorate
          • Reflexive palmer grasp disappears and pre-reaching occurs much less often
        • These apparent regressions set the stage for the appearance of voluntary reaching
      • Achieving motor skills at different stages can help foster perceptual development and self-esteem.
  • 27.
    • Fine Motor Development
      • Development of Manipulatory Skills
        • At 4 to 6 months of age the palmnar grasp emerges, which is when an infant grasps objects by pressing the fingers against the palm
        • The next major step in the growth and hand skills occurs near the end of the first year as infants use their thumbs and forefingers to lift and explore objects
          • The pincer grasp transforms the child into a skillful manipulator who may soon begin to capture crawling bugs and to turn knobs, dials, etc.
  • 28.
    • Largely dependent on environmental stimulation and opportunities available
    • Orphanage children (Iran) – delayed skills
    • Japanese, rural Indian – discourage early development because of the dangers involved
    • Kenya, Jamaica – encourage early sitting, standing
  • 29.
    • Starts as gross skills that are tuned to fine skills
    • Development of control – Proximodistal trend i.e. palmer grasp before pincer hold
    • Depends on visual acuity
  • 30.
    • Beyond Infancy: Motor Development in Childhood and Adolescence
      • Boys and girls are nearly equal in physical abilities until puberty
        • Boys continue to make gains on tests of large-muscles activities, whereas girls level off or decline
      • Biological development does not account for all the differences in large muscle performance between boys and girls
        • Nor does it explain the declining performance of many girls, who continue to grow taller and heavier between ages 12 and 17
  • 31.  
  • 32.
    • Gross motor development
    • Bodies are more streamlined thus CG shifts downwards allowing greater balance and more use of the larger muscles
    • By age 2, gait becomes smooth and rhythmic, leading to running, jumping, hopping, galloping, and skipping.
    • Individual differences more impressive than gender differences
  • 33.
    • Lag behind gross motor skills (proximodistal)
      • Become self-sufficient at dressing and feeding.
      • Great satisfaction from managing their own bodies.
      • Shoe tying
        • Mastered around age 6
        • Requires a longer attention span
        • Memory for an intricate series of hand movements
        • Dexterity
  • 34.
      • Scribble – 2 nd year
      • Related to both cognitive and fine motor development
      • Advances in perception contribute to the ability to form letters and words
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.
    • Except for throwing, no evidence that motor development can be taught.
    • Preschools, child care centers, and playgrounds need to accommodate a wide range of physical abilities
    • Criticism of a child’s motor performance, pushing specific motor skills, and promoting a competitive attitude may undermine young children’s motor progress.