4 months: The infant's brain responds to every sound produced in all the languages of the world.
8 to 9 months: Babies can form specific memories from their experiences, such as how to push a ball to make it roll.
10 months: Babies can now distinguish and even produce the sounds of their own language (such as "da-da") and no longer pay attention to the sounds of language that are foreign.
12 months: Babies whose parents say, for example, "Lookeee at the doggiee," will go to the appropriate picture of a dog in a picture book more often than those babies who are talked to in normal, flatter voices.
12 to 18 months: Babies can keep in memory something that has been hidden and find it again, even if it has been completely covered up. They can also hold memory sequences of simple activities, such as winding up a Jack-in-the-box until the figure pops up.
24 months: Preschool children now have clear pictures in mind of people who are dear to them, and they get upset when separated from these people (even their peers).
30 months: Preschool children can hold in mind a whole sequence of spatial maps and know where things are in their environment.
36 months: A preschool child can now hold two different emotions in his mind at the same time, such as being sad that he spilled ice cream on his clothes but glad that he's at a birthday party.
It is the specialization of brain functions in the left and the right cerebral hemispheres
The highest brain centre, the cerebrum, consists of two halves connected by a band of fibres called the corpus callosum.
Each of the hemispheres is covered by a cerebral cortex
Left cerebral hemisphere controls the right side of the body, it contains centres for speech, hearing, verbal memory, decision making, language processing, and expression of positive emotions
Right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body and contains centres for processing visual-spatial information, tactile sensations, expressing negative emotions and non-linguistic sounds such as music
The Motor Skills as Dynamic, Goal-Directed Systems views motor skills as active reorganizations of previously mastered capabilities that are undertaken to find more effective ways of exploring the environment or satisfying other objectives
Investigators who have charted motor development over the first 2 years of life find that motor skills evolve in a definite sequence
Infants who are quick to proceed through this motor sequence are not necessarily any brighter or otherwise advantaged, compared with those whose rates of motor development are average of slightly below average
Therefore, a child’s rate of motor development tells us very little about future developmental outcomes
These are rough ages Children who are not given the stimulation or opportunity develop slower Advise: let the child nap on the floor, do not carry child all the time, avoid using the popular yaoyao sarong
Motor skill Mean age achieved 90% infant attain Holds head upright, steady 6 weeks 3wks – 4mths Lift self by arms when prone 2 months 3wks – 4mths Rolls from side to back 2 months 3wks – 5mths Grasps cube 3mths 3 weeks 2-7 months Rolls from back to side 4 ½ months 2-7 months Sits alone 7 months 5-9 months Crawls 7 months 5-11 months Pulls to stand 8 months 5-12 months Plays pat-a-cake 9mths 3 weeks 7-15 months Stands alone 11 months 9-16 months Walks alone 11mths 3 weeks 9-17 months Builds tower out of 2 cubes 11mths 3 weeks 10-19 months Scribbles vigorously 14 months 10-21 months Walks up stairs with help 16 months 12-13 months Jumps in place 23mths 2 weeks 17-30 months Walks on tiptoe 25 months 16-30 months