General introduction to the process of human development throughout the lifespan, this module will emphasise the theories on normal developmental processes, with attention given to various developmental tasks (perceptual, cognitive, personality, and social development) through life. Social research methods appropriate to the areas are introduced.
Assessment: mixture of coursework (50%) and examination (50%)
1-Tutorial Participation (10%): 2- Quizzes or Short Assignments (10%) 3- Continuing Assessment, Mid Semester Test (30%) Extra Credit 4- Written Examination (50%) No CA Component Worth (%) Due Date 1 Tutorial Participation 10 On-going 2 Quizzes 10 On-going 3 Mid Semester Test 30 01 Mar 2011, 7pm 4 Written Examination 50 TOTAL 100
1 Berk, L. E. (2007). Development through the life span (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
2- Companion Website: http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_berk_lifespan_4/ http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_berk_lifespan_4/52/13493/3454335.cw/index.html 3-Online Resources: National Library Board Singapore – ebrary (Online Library) http://www.nlb.gov.sg/ American Psychological Association http://www.apa.org/ Amazon.com Other additional reference materials will be suggested in each lecture .
Schedule Week Topic Chapter 1 Introduction to Lifespan Development 1 2 Foundation of Development 2 & 3 3 Infancy & Toddlerhood; The First Two Years 4 & 5 & 6 4 Early Childhood; Two to Six Years 7 & 8 5 Middle Childhood; Six to Eleven Years 9 & 10 6 Adolescence 11 & 12 7 Early Adulthood 13 & 14 8 Middle Adulthood 15 & 16 9 Late Adulthood 17 & 18 10 Death, Dying and Bereavement 19
Orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behaviours
Provide frameworks for observations of people
Verification of theory provides sound basis for practical action
Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Stability and Change Continuity-Discontinuity Extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture Degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change Extent development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
Perspective that considers that there are stages when new skills will emerge, and that there is gain and deficits that will set in. there are many possible courses, and as development is influenced by multiple interacting forces, there are many possible pathways. The intricate blend of hereditary and environmental factors, hence both early and late experiences are important to development.
Chronological age —number of years elapsed since person’s birth
Biological age —age in terms of biological health
Psychological age —individual’s adaptive capacities
Social age —social roles and expectations related to person’s age
Period Range Brief Description Prenatal < birth One-cell to many cells within womb Infancy & toddlerhood < 2yrs Dramatic changes in body and brain Early Childhood 2-6yrs Refinement of skills Middle childhood 6-11yrs School years, abilities and peers Adolescence 11-18yrs Puberty, autonomy Early adulthood 18-40yrs Most leave home, complete education, start new units Middle adulthood 40-65yrs Height of careers, Sandwich generation Late adulthood >65yrs Retirement preparation, reflective
Focus on complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of surrounding environment
Five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
Environment is dynamic, not a static force that affects people in a uniform way
Family Park, gardens Childcare MICROSYSTEM EXOSYSTEM MACROSYSTEM ME
Comparison of approaches THEORY Cont/discont One/many Nature/Nurture Psychoanalytic Discontinuous One course Both Behaviourism Continuous Many courses Nurture Cognitive Discontinuous One course Both Information proc Continuous One course Both Evolutionary Both One course Both Sociocultural Both Many courses Both EcoSystems Not specified Many courses Both
A sequential study. This study begins in 1970 with a group of 30-year-olds studied longitudinally every 10 years thereafter. In 1980, a second longitudinal study is launched, in 1990 a third, and so on. Notice that at a point in time such as 2000 (blue shading) age groups can be compared in a cross sectional study. Notice too that 30-year-olds from different cohorts can be compared (orange shading).