Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology


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By: Cg. Dk. Malia (SMSO, tutong, Brunei)

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Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology

  1. 1. Hydrology & fluvial geomorphology <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Flow in drainage basin </li></ul><ul><li>Storm Hydrograph </li></ul><ul><li>Water balance </li></ul><ul><li>Human actions </li></ul><ul><li>Flood </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Look at the diagram : </li></ul><ul><li>List down input & output </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the storage & </li></ul><ul><li>flow. </li></ul><ul><li>3. How does water from </li></ul><ul><li>surface storage reaches </li></ul><ul><li>groundwater storage? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Name the flow marked A </li></ul><ul><li>and B. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Define terms shown in </li></ul><ul><li>diagrams. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Describe the differences between the discharges of rivers X and Y in response to the rainfall hydrographs over 24 hours of the two rivers. Catchments of rivers X & Y Using both diagram explain why the discharge of the two rivers are different Explain how each of these influence storm hydrograph: Drainage basin shape, geology, rainfall intensity, drainage density
  4. 4. Flow of water in a cross section of soil and bedrock <ul><li>Name the flows shown </li></ul><ul><li>as A, B & C. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Describe what is meant by </li></ul><ul><li>percolation. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Describe and explain the </li></ul><ul><li>occurrence of the flows A, </li></ul><ul><li>B and C. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Water balance <ul><li>Briefly define </li></ul><ul><li>the term water balance. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Describe one reason </li></ul><ul><li>why water balance may </li></ul><ul><li>vary over time. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Label A, B, C & D. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rivers <ul><li>River processes: erosion, transport & deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Describe flows: helicoidal, laminar & turbulence flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Landforms </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation & river flows. </li></ul>
  7. 7. River erosion <ul><li>1. Briefly describe the processes by which rivers can erode their channels. [8] </li></ul><ul><li>2. Describe the general effects of erosion on the shape of the river channel. [3] </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Name four methods by which rivers transport their load </li></ul><ul><li>and briefly describe these methods. </li></ul>2. Briefly describe laminar, turbulent flow and helicoidal flow and draw them.
  9. 9. Hjustrom curve. <ul><li>1. Name the type of sediment that requires the lowest velocity to be eroded . [1] </li></ul><ul><li>2. Name the type of sediment that is likely to be transported at all velocities. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>3. Describe and explain the relationship between </li></ul><ul><li>water velocity and the erosion of clay </li></ul><ul><li>and sand particles. [4] </li></ul><ul><li>4. Explain the variation in water velocity that is </li></ul><ul><li>required to transport and to deposit </li></ul><ul><li>sediments of different particle diameter. [4] </li></ul>
  10. 10. River deposition <ul><li>Describe what is river deposition and what </li></ul><ul><li>are the condition needed for it to occur. </li></ul>
  11. 11. landforms <ul><li>1. Draw a labelled diagram to show each of the following landforms & explain how they are formed: </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering </li></ul><ul><li>Flood plain and levees. </li></ul><ul><li>Delta </li></ul><ul><li>(d) ox-bow lake </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Water fall </li></ul><ul><li>(f) Braided channel. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Flood <ul><li>Explain how river floods might be predicted. Giving examples, describe the methods which may be used to reduce the effects of flooding. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main features of river flood plains and explain why flood plains may present problems for human settlements. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human activities on flow <ul><li>Suggest how human activities might affect flows within a river channel. </li></ul><ul><li>How can changes in land use affect flows and stores in a drainage basin? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the abstraction (removal) and the storage of water by humans affect flows </li></ul><ul><li>and stores within a drainage basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how urbanisation can affect river </li></ul><ul><li>channel flows. </li></ul>