Classroom Instruction That Works Group Present


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Classroom Instruction That Works Group Present

  1. 1. "Classroom Instruction that Works" Group Presentation Authors: Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock     Presentation by:  Tammy Yarborough, Chasidy Parker, Heather Huffman, Michelle Alexander *Please print this presentation as a handout, any semantic maps or any information you need in a print context if necessary. * Friendly reminder to be environmentally contious and conserve.
  2. 2. The Central Ideas of the Book: Researchers combined including Marzano to do a meta-analysis of a combined group of students to find the effect size which determines positive or negative achievement .   
  3. 3. There were several unanswered questions: <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the strategies: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  More effective at certain grade levels than others? </li></ul><ul><li>With students from differing backgrounds than others? </li></ul><ul><li>With students of differing aptitudes than others? </li></ul><ul><li>Until we know the answers, we have to rely on strong pedagogy: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional strategies urged by the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Management techniques used by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum design by the teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More effective in some subject areas than others? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Solutions and Reactions to Text <ul><li>The solution seems to be a puzzle of the world with pieces missing. If we could answer those few questions, we might account for every student making positive gains.  We suggest to do what is best based on your circumstances and environment making the best opportunity to teach using the best practices available.   </li></ul>
  5. 5. Most Poignant Statements: <ul><ul><li>Teachers can have the most positive effects even if the school does not. ch.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  &quot;Identifying similarities and differences just might be the core of all learning.&quot; ch. 2 p. 14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  &quot; Although we sometimes refer to summarizing and note taking as study skills, they are 2 of the most powerful skills students can cultivate&quot; Ch.3 p. 48 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p.50  “If you believe that effort is the most important factor in achievement, you have a motivational tool that can apply to any situation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p. 59 (from the summary) ”Reinforcing effort can help teach students one of the most valuable lessons they can learn – the harder you try, the more successful you are.  In addition, providing recognition for attainment of specific goals not only enhances achievement, but it stimulates motivation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p. 73 “The more we use systems of representations linguistic and non-linguistic – the better we are able to think about and recall knowledge.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Cooperative learning is “ the most flexible and powerful [strategy to learning].” P.91 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cues and questions are ways classroom teachers help activate this knowledge and this is “80% of what occurs in a given day.” P.115 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Interesting Results for Science <ul><ul><li>Student-centered activities increased student achievement between male and female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking activities led to achievement in low socioeconomic groups and closed the gap between minority and majority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands on labs showed the highest achievement levels </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 9 categories of instruction that affect student achievement- Broad Overview. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1.         Identifying similarities and differences </li></ul><ul><li>2.         Summarizing and note taking </li></ul><ul><li>3.         Reinforcing effort and providing recognition </li></ul><ul><li>4.         Homework and practice </li></ul><ul><li>5.         Nonlinguistic representations </li></ul><ul><li>6.         Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>7.         Setting objectives and providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>8.         Generating and testing hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>9.         Questions, cues, and advanced organizers </li></ul>
  8. 8. I. Identifying Simialrities and Differences ch.2 <ul><li>Research suggests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Presenting students with explicit guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking students to represent similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And asking students to identify similarities and differences in a variety of ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>All enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples of Comparison Maps <ul><li>  Ven Diagram:                 Comparison Matrix:                   </li></ul><ul><li>                                                       </li></ul><ul><li>                                                                                  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  Categorical Chart: </li></ul><ul><li>                                                       Metaphors and Analogies: </li></ul><ul><li>                                                    </li></ul><ul><li>                                                                 S hown </li></ul><ul><li>                                                                                   Through </li></ul><ul><li>                                                                                   Representation </li></ul><ul><li>                                                                                    or maps </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example of a Metaphor Graphic Representation: <ul><li>Metaphore comparing “Love is a Rose” In abstract nature we could say: “Something is wonderful and you want to go near it, but if you get too close, you might get hurt.” </li></ul><ul><li>Page 23 Classroom instruction that works </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Concepts, Problems and Solutions, oh my! <ul><li>Concepts: The concepts revolved around using the graphic organizers or comparison strategies to increase knowledge and ability of students beginning with teacher directed activities that evolve into student- centered learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems : The main problem identified is comparisons are very difficult for students to make on their own, especially at the level of analogies. They often need models.  Also the interest level of students today in activities such as this that are paper and pencil related.     </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions : Model…model! Also, move to technology so collaborative skills could be utilized lessoning the need for direct instruction and placing  higher interest in the hands of the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>The book being dated 2001 did not have many of the tools available when the book was written. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Summarizing and Note Taking Concepts... <ul><li>  </li></ul>Summarizing by deleting trivial and redundant information and substituting subordinate terms for lists were important aspects of note taking. Strategies for summarizing include: narrative frame, topic-restriction-Illustration frame, definition frame, argumentation frame, problem/solution frame and the conversation frame. Combination note taking that incorporates note taking outlines and bubble maps with a summary at the bottom evoked synthesizing skills from students. see for examples of each:  
  13. 13.                  Problem ....Solution <ul><li>Problem : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Strategies for note taking need to be shared. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers spend less time on these needed skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology has developed many online tools, but at growing rate of tech.- learners are unaware they are there.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Students are using online research and need online notetaking strategies to collaborate and use multimedia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Solution : Be proactive in sharing and providing in-service on tools and skills that are best practice according to research and evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>                            Demonstrating  connection between effort and achievement improves achievement even more than teaching skills in time management and comprehension p.51  Give students ex. of ordinary people who achieved extraordinary things. Research found if a person is paid for doing something they should be                  Intrinsically motivated to do, motivation to perform the activity                 deminishes.     Rewards have a negative effect on motivation- “When intrinsic motivation is operationalized as task behavior during  a free time measure” p.55   Rewards are most effective when contingent on the attainment of a standard of performance- ex. Meeting a certain goal not for just performing a task      Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards- verbal praise personal to the student is an extrinsic motivator that alters attitude and behaviors even when given and later removed  praise or recognition are highest forms of reward “Pause, Prompt, Praise ”The harder you try- the more successful you can be can be the message sent when rewards of any type are contingent upon standards and stimulates motivation </li></ul>Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition  
  15. 15. Our Conclusion to Research Findings: <ul><li>Since there is no right answer when it comes to education (otherwise everyone would be motivated and solid learners who would all pass the EOC and EOG), consider what is practical and applicable to your learning environment and what is best for individuals in your class who need recognition and reinforcement to meet their full potential. Foremost, keep in the recesses of your mind that extrinsic rewards do not have to be monetary to be effective. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Homework <ul><ul><li>  G radual increase in homework can lead to 24 percentile points in gained achievement if more homework is given in high school than the elementary  and middle school levels. Grade point averages increase by a half a point for every 30 minutes of homework added per night in high school . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental involvement should be minimal and can have negative effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of homework should be identified and commented on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastery of a skill requires a fair amount of focused practice in fact 24 times before they reach 80% competency . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The shaping period occurs somewhere after the 8th practice and requires slow, deliberate practice such as is evident in Japanese culture. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Homework Problems and Solutions... <ul><ul><li>Problems: to practice something 24 times in order to just reach 80% would require an extreme focus on specifics in the present curriculum in order to see students achieve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions: Spiraling is the solution we as a group could conceive since we are bound by the curriculum; however, greater focus could be made in particular goals that will enable students to master other skills later on. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Non-Linguistic Representations.... <ul><ul><li>Non-linguistic representation supporting a dual-code theory of information storage- linguistic and imagery mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching to these modes revolves around using a variety of activities to produce non-linguistic representation such as generating mental pictures, drawing pictures and pictographs and engaging in kinesthetic activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic representation should elaborate on knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers are highly noted as they give symbolic representation of symbols and arrows to show relationship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of organizers: descriptive patterns, time sequence patterns, process/cause effect patterns, episode patterns, concept patterns and generalization/principle pattern organizers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click here to see each kind of map </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Non-Linguistic Concepts, Problems, Solutions <ul><li>Concepts : The concepts correlate with ideas in Brophy’s  book Motivating Students to Learn such as those mentioned on page 196 including computerized learning activities that would draw on mental images, ease the cognitive process and provide assistive tools such as movies, images, semantic mapping tools and podcasts that could aid and promote higher learning and allow learners to elaborate on knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems : “The primary way we present knowledge in school is linguistic.” 73 </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions : “The more we use systems of representations linguistic and non-linguistic – the better we are able to think about and recall knowledge.”73 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>5 Flexible and powerful strategies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive interdependence (sink or swim together), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face promotive interaction (helping each other learn-applauding successes), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and group accountability (everone contributes to the group), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal and small group skills (communication, trust, leadership, decision making and conflict resolution), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group processing (reflecting on how well the team is functioning and how to function even better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It is suggested that teachers guide cooperative learning by organizing groups by various means, keeping groups small and apply collaborative learning consistently without overusing it using informal, formal and base grouping when necessary . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Generalizations and Grouping <ul><li>Generalizations to guide the use of cooperative learning:  </li></ul><ul><li>1.Organizing groups based on ability should be done sparingly, medium level students benefit the most, but heterogeneous grouping is the better grouping overall </li></ul><ul><li>2. Keep collaborative groups small in size –up to 4 members </li></ul><ul><li>3. apply consistently but do not overuse cooperative grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping: </li></ul><ul><li>Group by interests, randomly, learning styles meshed, experiences, color of clothes, etc…. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal- pair, share, turn to your neighbor (short term minutes or up to a period0 </li></ul><ul><li>Formal- length of a few days to even weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Base grouping-long-term (semester or year) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  22. 22. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback <ul><li>In goal setting or establishing a direction for learning, teachers should narrow what students focus on, not be overly specific and students should be encouraged to personalize goals.  Criterion for goal setting should be based on: performance (says what a learner should do), condition under which the performance should occur and criterion for how well the learner must perform. When providing feedback, it should be corrective in nature with explanation presented in a timely manner and specific to criterion (ex. Rubrics) produces the greatest effect size in research studies. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Problems and Solutions... <ul><li>Problems: Setting objectives and providing feedback are flexible and powerful, but often underused. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: We need to believe students can set some of their own goals and take more ownership in providing some of their own feedback and they will find a greater interest in their studies. We also need to encourage teachers to utilize criterion referenced feedback like rubrics rather than relying on easily made (easily graded) multiple choice tests and handing them out with simply a grade and possibly the correct response since research concludes negative results for this. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Generating and Testing Hypothesis <ul><li>Generate and test hypothesis by employing 6 types of tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System analysis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical investigation (of something that has no agreement), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental inquiry and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Templates for explanations, sentence stems, audiotapes, rubrics and events for students to explain hypothesis to the community are all ways students can learn through explanation of hypothesis. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Problems and Solutions... <ul><li>Problems: Making a hypothesis is often thought of as a science skill </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: systems are evident in many disciplines and these methods can be used to test hypothesis applies to a variety of tasks </li></ul>
  26. 26. Questions and Advance Organizers <ul><li>Summarizer: Activating prior knowledge and background knowledge can influence what we perceive.  Teachers can use cues and questions to : </li></ul><ul><li> “ Focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual” p.115 </li></ul><ul><li>   Ask higher level questions that produce deeper learning </li></ul><ul><li>   Allow wait time </li></ul><ul><li>   Ask questions even before learning experience occurs </li></ul><ul><li>A series of questions about things, people, events, actions, states of being and analytical questioning were posed as example question stems. The use of advanced organizers for information that is not well organized were also suggested. Some types of organizers include narrative, skimming (as a form of organizing), and graphic advanced organizers. </li></ul><ul><li>Key characters: Brewer and Treyens (1981) influences of prior knowledge, Tobin (1987)wait time, David Ausubel (1968), advanced organizers </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  27. 27. Concept, Problem and Solution <ul><li>Concept: Activating prior knowledge with cues, questions and advanced organizers even prior to learning experiences will help students experience knowledge in a new way. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: Teachers tend to focus on what is unusual instead of what is important and miss the mark when it comes to focusing on the curriculum goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: Focus on the learning goals when questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  28. 28. Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Teaching specific types of knowledge with specific strategies and by specific division of categories can help learners. Division of categories include: </li></ul><ul><li>          V ocabulary terms : tied to intelligence, one’s ability to comprehend and one’s level of income- necessary to see them more than once in context, instruction enhances learning, image association leads to learning vocabulary, direct vocabulary instruction works (especially on words critical to new content). Ability, grade level and text density all play a part in vocabulary development. </li></ul><ul><li>          P hrases: Steps : present student with brief explanation of term,  a non-linguistic representation, ask for personal descriptions of the term or phrase, then students create their own non-linguistic representation, ask students to review for accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>          D etails:  (facts, time sequence, cause/effect and episodes)- systematic, frequent multiple exposure to details.  Verbal (telling or reading), visual (non-linguistic) or dramatic (acting out has strongest effect) strategy instruction produces differing effects on students and recollection of details </li></ul><ul><li>          Organizing ideas : Help develop a broad knowledge base. Discussion, student articulations, arguments and application of organization with feedback yield the highest learning. </li></ul><ul><li>          Skills: Mental skills are algorithms (mental skills with specific outcome or step processes-see chapter 5) or tactics (general rules not steps- identifying, determining relationships, etc…) and are sometimes combined. Discovery method is difficult to use with skills. Discovery learning works best if examples are organized into categories that represent the different skills. Students should practice the parts of a process within an overall process and emphasize the metacognitive control of process. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Concepts,Problems and Solutions... <ul><li>  Concepts : Matching specific types of strategies to specific types of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Problems : Teachers are enumerated with so many learning tools that rather than focusing on what is best for a learning situation, they feel they must use them all and this is frustrating to students who need more in-depth learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: Focus on specific tools and strategies that provide the depth needed to make generalizations and to allow a  teacher time to distinguish which mental skills are practical, which vocabulary is specific to the context of the learning, how it should be organized  and which method and set of skills are required to meet the outcome expected. In addition, how to include discovery learning within the context of skills learning is important to a generation of discovery learners. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Key characters: Tyler author of Educational Strategies 1950’s (Matching specific types of strategies to specific types of knowledge),  Nagy and Anderson- vocabulary research, Jenkins, Stein, Wysocki (1984) Nagi and Herman (1987) Stanborn and de Glopper (1984) Vocabulary development, Guzzetti and other (1993) organizing details, Fennema and Carpenter (1989) skills </li></ul>
  30. 31. Using the 9 Categories in Instruction <ul><li>. Ideas are given for beginning, middle and end of a unit. An example of a unit is given on the topic of weather using this model and strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts: the 9 learning goals are outlined. Begin a unit with setting clear goals, monitor progress- introduce new knowledge. Practice, review and apply knowledge during a lesson. At the end, give formative feedback and self-assessment strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: 1.Vocabulary teaching and development raise scores dramatically, but are often underused. 2. Teachers often feel pressured y time and do not feel there is time in the schedule to allow students to write out their goals. They also may be concerned that the unit is not designed to fulfill the goals students write that may be far off from the original content goals they are required to teach. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  31. 32. Solutions... <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions:   </li></ul><ul><li>1.It is proven that the word must be seen at least 6 times in context and has better results when there is direct instruction leading into the unit. Vocabulary development is also best with images combined with words. Utilizing technologies and books with illustrations would help greatly. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Less required curriculum and or making time for what allows the student to connect with the content. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  32. 33. To Sum It All Up: Sufficient modeling and practice, feedback, differing implementations, commemoration and a desire and commitment to change are key to successful teaching and interactions with students that will promote lifelong learning habits. Click picture to begin movie media  
  33. 34.   Author Credibility Robert J. Marzano, PhD:  ·  Internationally known speaker, author (over 30 books and 150 articles)and trainer in education ·  Topics include, but are not limited to: instruction, assessment, writing and implementing standards, cognition, effective leadership, and school intervention   Information retrieved at: Dr. Debra Pickering,PHD: ·  Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction, with an emphasis in Cognitive Psychology · National and international consultant and trainer, coauthor (many articles, books and programs) Information retrieved at: Dr.Jane E. Pollock, Ph.D: · International trainer in research-based instructional strategies · Previous classroom teacher, district administrator, university professor, state department staff development coordinator, and K-12 curriculum coordinator · Research based curriculum designer, coauthor Information retrieved at:
  34. 35. Websites with Powerpoints and Classroom Tools that Connect with Course Goals <ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Marzano Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ven Diagrams and other Semantic maps: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note taking and Summarizing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineractive graphic organizer templates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literatre circle template </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick Link Semantic Tool for Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Template for combination Note Taking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Link   motivational Speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul><ul><li>Online Homework Help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  35. 36. Websites Continued.... <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Links for Non-Linguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settin Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis and Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cues   Questions and Cues   Organizing Strategies   More Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Types of Knowledge and Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Issues in Learning Addressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Further Reading and Encouraging Words... <ul><ul><li>Using technology with classroom instruction that works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  By Howard Pitler, Elizabeth R. Hubbell, Matt Kuhn, Kim Malenoski </li></ul><ul><li>“ Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School” </li></ul><ul><li>By John Medina </li></ul><ul><li>   Non-Linguistic Representation  article based on book </li></ul><ul><li>Book: Stirring the head, heart, and soul: redefining curriculum and instruction‎ </li></ul><ul><li>H. Lynn Erickson </li></ul><ul><li>  Looking in Classrooms by Thomas Good   </li></ul><ul><li>  We encourage anyone in education to read this book and follow it's practical applications along with the practices of multimedia that could be incorporated with this to enhance collaborative and comprehensive learning! It is well worth reading! </li></ul>