Mechanisms and Mitigation
of Highway Landslide
Collapse in Indiana
100th Annual Road School 2014
3/12/2013
Malek Smadi, Ph...
CONTENTS
1. Geologic Conditions
2. Landslide Areas
3. Landslide Types
4. Timing of Landslides
5. Potential Slide and Steep...
Geologic Conditions in Indiana
Oldest Bedrock
Youngest Bedrock
Geologic Conditions in Indiana
Correlation of Landslide Occurrence & Geology
Groundwater and Wet Weather
Landslide Types in Indiana
 There are four general landslide-type
possibilities in Indiana:
 High bluff peeloff
 Ground...
High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 50
Ripley
County
Gabion
Wall
Failure
High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 50
&
US 241
Gabion
Wall
Failure
High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 50
&
US 241
Gabion
Wall
Failure
14 HP 89 sections - 410 ft long - space...
High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 66
Spencer
County
Re-Grading
High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 66
Spencer
County
High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 66
at
66.3RP
Re-Grading
Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana
Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 237
1.05RP
Tell City
El 544
El 436
Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 237
1.05RP
Tell City
Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 1
Old
Road
in
Cedar
Grove
We lost 3/4 of the road in this rain event.
Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 1
Old
Road
in
Cedar
Grove
Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 1
Old
Road
in
Cedar
Grove
Needs
toe protection
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
I-74 Landslide
Geofoam
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
I-74
Landslide
Geofoam
20 ft high
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
I-74
Landslide
Geofoam
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
I-74
Landslide
Geofoam
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
I-74
Landslide
Geofoam
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 37
RP 11.4
Perry
County
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 37
RP 11.4
Perry
County
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 37
RP 11.4
Perry
County
550 piers, 30 inches in diameter – 28 to 30 ft deep
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 37
RP 11.4
Perry
County
Rip-rap key was placed two feet within the competent s...
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 37
RP 11.4
Perry
County
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 37
RP 11.4
Perry
County
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 50
Slide at
SR 62
Replacing the fill
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 37
RP 11.4
Perry
County
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 46
RP 150
Dearborn
County
Drilled
Shaft Wall
In 1952 bin-wall was constructed
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 46
RP 150
Dearborn
County
Drilled
Shaft Wall
Drilled shaft with tiedback 4 ft ...
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 46
RP 150
Dearborn
County
Drilled
Shaft Wall
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 56
Switzerland
County
Vevay
Drilled Shaft
Wall
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
SR 56
Switzerland
County
Vevay
Drilled
Shaft Wall
2000 ft long wall
300 drilled s...
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 150
Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 150
Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana
Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 50
Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana
US 41
RP
57+20
Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana
Mixture being spread over
geotextile
Slide Correction on I-74, 7/10th mile ...
Case History
S.R. 237 in Perry County, IN
Indiana Road Map
Project location
General Site Plan
Aerial View of the Site
Slide Area
 S.R. 237 was originally built in 2003. This
particular slope is approximately one-half mile
long and was designed to be ...
Geotechnical Challenges
 High embankment fills
 Slopes designed as steep as 2:1, placed on
sloping natural ground
 Vari...
Slope after original construction.
First Slope Failure
 In May 2010 during heavy rain, the
slope moved.
 The road edge and guardrail
experienced vertical d...
First Slope Failure
First Slope Failure
First Slide
 Possible causes for the first slide:
 Actual slope measured steeper than 2:1 with the
height of 112 feet, c...
Boring location plan for the first slide.
First Slide
First Slide Correction in 2010
 A soil nail wall with a design-build contract
requiring a seven year warranty.
 Extend o...
First Slide Correction in 2010
Contractor’s Design
After First Correction
 In April 2012 during heavy rain, the slope in
front of the wall moved. It gradually dropped
vertically approximately 12 ...
Second Slope Failure
Roadway Existing Slope
Tie Back Wall
Second Slope Failure
Second Slope Failure
Second Slope Failure
 Possible causes for the second slide:
 Surface slide triggered by heavy rainfall.
 Failure of outlet pipe of spring bo...
Second Slide
Boring location plan for the second slide.
 Phase-1 Design
 Drainage correction: includes spring box
repair & horizontal drains
 Phase-2 Design
 Rock backfill (c...
Correction Using Rock Backfill
Correction Using Three Tier Wall
Problems With Rock Backfill
 Slide aggravated further after letting in March
2013 due to heavy rains.
 Massive amount of...
Problems With Rock Backfill
Another Surprise:
 During exploratory excavation for the spring box
repair, coal mine shafts ...
Mine Shaft Discovery
Mine Shaft Discovery
Mine Shaft Discovery
More Investigation
 Resistivity study done to search for mines.
Map of Resistivity Lines
Resistivity Study Results
More Investigation
 Resistivity study done to search for mines.
 More borings to verify the locations of suspected
mines...
 Phase-1 Design
 Drainage correction
 Mine shaft interceptor drain
 Grout the mine shafts
 Phase-2 Design
 Drilled p...
Interceptor Drains
Design Cross Section
Drilled Shafts and Drain Layout
Drainage Correction
Grouting to Fill Mine Shafts
 The new drilled pier wall was originally proposed
to be 15 feet from the existing wall.
 The construction of new drille...
 Move the proposed drilled pier wall 40 ft away
from existing soldier pile wall (25 ft further) to
provide safe excavatio...
Questions ?
Malek Smadi, Ph.D., P.E.
Principal Engineer - GEOTILL - Fishers, IN
msmadi@geotill.com - www.geotill.com
Joey ...
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Mechanisms and mitigation of highway landslide collapse in indiana by by Malek Smadi of GEOTILL

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Landslides in Indiana are caused by a combination of steep slopes (topography), glacial and post-glacial soils (stratigraphy), weathered shale, and a pronounced wet rainy season (typically March through May). It requires the interaction some of the four to create landsliding in Indiana.
In evaluating the landslides compiled for the presentation, four generalized types of landslides are discussed. 1)High bluff peeloff 2)Groundwater Blowout 3)Deep-seated and 4)Shallow colluvial (includes landslides that involve fill material). Ingeneral, there are various combinations of these generalized landslide types, as one type of mechanism may lead to another. The presentation includes some case histories that describe approaches for repairing slopes with these types of landslides, improving the stability of slopes that could be affected by landslides, and reducing the hazard from debris flows to highways and properties below landslides.
There are emphasis on evaluating factors that influence soil stability, and presenting general remedial measures for the types of slope instability found in Indiana.

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Mechanisms and mitigation of highway landslide collapse in indiana by by Malek Smadi of GEOTILL

  1. 1. Mechanisms and Mitigation of Highway Landslide Collapse in Indiana 100th Annual Road School 2014 3/12/2013 Malek Smadi, Ph.D., P.E. Principal Engineer - GEOTILL - Fishers, IN msmadi@geotill.com - www.geotill.com Joey Franzino, P.E. Operations Engineer - INDOT jfranzino@indot.in.gov - www. indot.in.gov
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. Geologic Conditions 2. Landslide Areas 3. Landslide Types 4. Timing of Landslides 5. Potential Slide and Steep Slope Areas 6. Purpose of Geotechnical Evaluations 7. Improvements Related To Landslide Type a. Surface Water Improvements b. Groundwater Improvements c. Light Weight Fill d. Retaining Structures e. Soil Reinforcement f. Grading 8. Case History
  3. 3. Geologic Conditions in Indiana Oldest Bedrock Youngest Bedrock
  4. 4. Geologic Conditions in Indiana
  5. 5. Correlation of Landslide Occurrence & Geology
  6. 6. Groundwater and Wet Weather
  7. 7. Landslide Types in Indiana  There are four general landslide-type possibilities in Indiana:  High bluff peeloff  Groundwater blowout  Deep-seated  Shallow colluvial There are various combinations of these generalized landslide types, as one type of mechanism may lead to another during the sliding, or the slide may be complex, exhibiting different modes of failure in different portions of the slide.
  8. 8. High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana
  9. 9. High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana US 50 Ripley County Gabion Wall Failure
  10. 10. High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana US 50 & US 241 Gabion Wall Failure
  11. 11. High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana US 50 & US 241 Gabion Wall Failure 14 HP 89 sections - 410 ft long - spaced 6 ft center-to-center Extend 10 ft into sound bedrock
  12. 12. High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 66 Spencer County Re-Grading
  13. 13. High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 66 Spencer County
  14. 14. High Bluff Peeloff - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 66 at 66.3RP Re-Grading
  15. 15. Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana
  16. 16. Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 237 1.05RP Tell City El 544 El 436
  17. 17. Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 237 1.05RP Tell City
  18. 18. Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 1 Old Road in Cedar Grove We lost 3/4 of the road in this rain event.
  19. 19. Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 1 Old Road in Cedar Grove
  20. 20. Groundwater Blowout - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 1 Old Road in Cedar Grove Needs toe protection
  21. 21. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana
  22. 22. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana I-74 Landslide Geofoam
  23. 23. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana I-74 Landslide Geofoam 20 ft high
  24. 24. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana I-74 Landslide Geofoam
  25. 25. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana I-74 Landslide Geofoam
  26. 26. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana I-74 Landslide Geofoam
  27. 27. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 37 RP 11.4 Perry County
  28. 28. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 37 RP 11.4 Perry County
  29. 29. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 37 RP 11.4 Perry County 550 piers, 30 inches in diameter – 28 to 30 ft deep
  30. 30. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 37 RP 11.4 Perry County Rip-rap key was placed two feet within the competent sandstone bedrock
  31. 31. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 37 RP 11.4 Perry County
  32. 32. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 37 RP 11.4 Perry County
  33. 33. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana US 50 Slide at SR 62 Replacing the fill
  34. 34. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 37 RP 11.4 Perry County
  35. 35. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 46 RP 150 Dearborn County Drilled Shaft Wall In 1952 bin-wall was constructed
  36. 36. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 46 RP 150 Dearborn County Drilled Shaft Wall Drilled shaft with tiedback 4 ft in diamter - 7 ft center to center – 40 ft deep
  37. 37. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 46 RP 150 Dearborn County Drilled Shaft Wall
  38. 38. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 56 Switzerland County Vevay Drilled Shaft Wall
  39. 39. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana SR 56 Switzerland County Vevay Drilled Shaft Wall 2000 ft long wall 300 drilled shafts with tied-back 3 ft in diameter 8 ft center to center 5 ft into the bedrock
  40. 40. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana US 150
  41. 41. Deep-Seated - Landslide Types in Indiana US 150
  42. 42. Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana
  43. 43. Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana US 50
  44. 44. Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana US 41 RP 57+20
  45. 45. Shallow Colluvial - Landslide Types in Indiana Mixture being spread over geotextile Slide Correction on I-74, 7/10th mile east of SR1 and I-74
  46. 46. Case History S.R. 237 in Perry County, IN
  47. 47. Indiana Road Map Project location
  48. 48. General Site Plan
  49. 49. Aerial View of the Site Slide Area
  50. 50.  S.R. 237 was originally built in 2003. This particular slope is approximately one-half mile long and was designed to be 2:1 and up to 112 feet high. Original Roadway Construction
  51. 51. Geotechnical Challenges  High embankment fills  Slopes designed as steep as 2:1, placed on sloping natural ground  Variations in rock surface elevations  Fills consist of soils, shale and sandstone  Environmental constraints
  52. 52. Slope after original construction.
  53. 53. First Slope Failure  In May 2010 during heavy rain, the slope moved.  The road edge and guardrail experienced vertical displacement.  Northbound driving lane closed.
  54. 54. First Slope Failure
  55. 55. First Slope Failure
  56. 56. First Slide  Possible causes for the first slide:  Actual slope measured steeper than 2:1 with the height of 112 feet, combined with the type of fill used (co-mingled soil and shale) was unstable.  Possible inadequate benching.  Water pouring from slope (excessive groundwater).  Heavy rainfall in spring.
  57. 57. Boring location plan for the first slide. First Slide
  58. 58. First Slide Correction in 2010  A soil nail wall with a design-build contract requiring a seven year warranty.  Extend outlet drainage pipe to the toe of the east slope.  The contractor proposed a new H-pile encased in concrete wall with tiebacks and a shotcrete facing after the bid which was accepted by INDOT.
  59. 59. First Slide Correction in 2010 Contractor’s Design
  60. 60. After First Correction
  61. 61.  In April 2012 during heavy rain, the slope in front of the wall moved. It gradually dropped vertically approximately 12 feet due to new failure. Second Slope Failure
  62. 62. Second Slope Failure Roadway Existing Slope Tie Back Wall
  63. 63. Second Slope Failure
  64. 64. Second Slope Failure
  65. 65. Second Slope Failure
  66. 66.  Possible causes for the second slide:  Surface slide triggered by heavy rainfall.  Failure of outlet pipe of spring box which was buried underneath the roadway.  Insufficient investigation after the first slide (Borings were only 40 feet deep.) Second Slide
  67. 67. Second Slide Boring location plan for the second slide.
  68. 68.  Phase-1 Design  Drainage correction: includes spring box repair & horizontal drains  Phase-2 Design  Rock backfill (chosen)  Three tier soil nail walls Design for Second Slide
  69. 69. Correction Using Rock Backfill
  70. 70. Correction Using Three Tier Wall
  71. 71. Problems With Rock Backfill  Slide aggravated further after letting in March 2013 due to heavy rains.  Massive amount of water seeped out of the slope.  The rock backfill was not viable option anymore because it would require the 1:1 temporary slope.  Potential destabilization of existing soldier pile wall.
  72. 72. Problems With Rock Backfill Another Surprise:  During exploratory excavation for the spring box repair, coal mine shafts were uncovered.
  73. 73. Mine Shaft Discovery
  74. 74. Mine Shaft Discovery
  75. 75. Mine Shaft Discovery
  76. 76. More Investigation  Resistivity study done to search for mines.
  77. 77. Map of Resistivity Lines
  78. 78. Resistivity Study Results
  79. 79. More Investigation  Resistivity study done to search for mines.  More borings to verify the locations of suspected mines under the roadway as per geophysical study (resistivity testing).  Borings reveal several collapsed mine shafts under roadway.
  80. 80.  Phase-1 Design  Drainage correction  Mine shaft interceptor drain  Grout the mine shafts  Phase-2 Design  Drilled pier (3 ft. dia.) with tieback socket into rock Revised Solution
  81. 81. Interceptor Drains
  82. 82. Design Cross Section
  83. 83. Drilled Shafts and Drain Layout
  84. 84. Drainage Correction
  85. 85. Grouting to Fill Mine Shafts
  86. 86.  The new drilled pier wall was originally proposed to be 15 feet from the existing wall.  The construction of new drilled pier wall affecting the integrity of existing soldier pile wall. Constructability Concerns
  87. 87.  Move the proposed drilled pier wall 40 ft away from existing soldier pile wall (25 ft further) to provide safe excavation for inside lagging and backfill.  Change temporary casing to a permanent casing for drilled piers due to possible co-mingled fill material.  Provide casing for tieback un-bonded length to avoid major loss of grout due to unclassified fill material. Additional Changes to the Design
  88. 88. Questions ? Malek Smadi, Ph.D., P.E. Principal Engineer - GEOTILL - Fishers, IN msmadi@geotill.com - www.geotill.com Joey Franzino, P.E. Operations Engineer - INDOT jfranzino@indot.in.gov - www. indot.in.gov

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