Physical Activity and
Leisure Management Ltd
POOL PLANT OPERATIONS
INFORMATION UPDATE SEMINAR
(on-line option)
Physical Activity and
Leisure Management Ltd
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
MODULE 4:
Current trends in Water Treatment
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
This module re-enforces the
recommended pH values, as well as
Free Chlorine levels for the...
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
• Revision of the Essentials
• Protecting Swimmers from Themselves
• Harmful Organisms fou...
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
• New Guidelines on pH Correction
• The effect of pH on Chlorine Chemistry
• Free Chlorine...
Let’s start by considering
how much have we forgotten?
 The names of chemicals that we use?
 Why we have target readings...
PROTECTING SWIMMERS FROM THEMSELVES
The lack of high personal hygiene standards
means that:-
• Pollution levels are high
•...
PROTECTING SWIMMERS FROM THEMSELVES
• But if we can’t do anything to change this, then
we must be aware of the consequence...
Some of the other harmful organisms that can be
found in swimming pools, include:-
Pseudomonas Aeruginosas
This is a para...
10
Legionella Virus
This is a virus that is transmitted in water
vapour, and sprays.
The effect is to the respiratory syst...
PREVENTATIVE MEASURES
 Stored water to be kept at 60 C, or
above.
 Regular flushing of domestic hot water
systems, and a...
1212
SURFACE BIOFILMS !!!!!
• The build up of greases and surface film on
vinyls, plastics, rubber, etc
• Warmed water enc...
13
THE BALANCE TANK
 In deck-level
pools, the water
flows into a
Balance Tank,
before it flows into
the rest of the
syste...
14
PH CORRECTION: NEW GUIDELINES
 For disinfectants to work properly, the pH value of the
pool water is critical. It is r...
15
THE EFFECT OF PH ON CHLORINE CHEMISTRY
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
FREE CHLORINE LEVEL
 To achieve the best possible water quality, it is
recommended that the free chlorine residual should...
COMBINED CHLORINE
 The combined chlorine residual should be as low as
possible, less than the free chlorine level, ideall...
Most common/popular treatments
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
Disinfectants Stabilisers
 Sodium Hypochlorite
 Calcium H...
Which are acids, and which are Alkalis?
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
Disinfectants Stabilisers
 Sodium Hypochlorite
(A...
How does it all work, then?
 When Chlorine (hypochlorites) are mixed with
water, they form HYPOCHLOROUS ACID
(Hypobromous...
How does it all work, then?
 When Chlorine (hypochlorites) are mixed with
water, they form HYPOCHLOROUS ACID
(Hypobromous...
QUESTION:
WHY IS THERE ALWAYS A “COMBINED
CHLORINE” READING FIRST THING IN THE
MORNING, IF THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT,
CIRCULA...
24
ORGANIC CHLORAMINES
 As well as reacting with ammonia, chlorine
reacts with organic, nitrogen compounds that
mainly co...
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
That is the end of Module 4
What you need to do now:
1. Return to the course page
2. Downl...
Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
End of Module 4 Presentation
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Current Trends in Water Treatment

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Current Trends in Water Treatment

  1. 1. Physical Activity and Leisure Management Ltd POOL PLANT OPERATIONS INFORMATION UPDATE SEMINAR (on-line option)
  2. 2. Physical Activity and Leisure Management Ltd Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 MODULE 4: Current trends in Water Treatment
  3. 3. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 This module re-enforces the recommended pH values, as well as Free Chlorine levels for the various disinfectants that we use. The reasons for these values are explained. The chemical process of disinfection is also covered, here, together with the more commonly used chemicals, and our innovative ‘traffic light water test guidelines!’ In this Module we will be focusing on:
  4. 4. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 • Revision of the Essentials • Protecting Swimmers from Themselves • Harmful Organisms found in Swimming Pools • Preventative Measures • Surface Biofilms • The Balance Tank
  5. 5. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 • New Guidelines on pH Correction • The effect of pH on Chlorine Chemistry • Free Chlorine levels and Combined Chlorine Levels • Popular Treatments • How does it all Work? • Organic Chloramines
  6. 6. Let’s start by considering how much have we forgotten?  The names of chemicals that we use?  Why we have target readings?  COSHH documents?  When we should test, and why?  Backwash? What happens? Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  7. 7. PROTECTING SWIMMERS FROM THEMSELVES The lack of high personal hygiene standards means that:- • Pollution levels are high • Risks are greater • The use of man-made chemicals are high • Costs are unnecessarily high Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  8. 8. PROTECTING SWIMMERS FROM THEMSELVES • But if we can’t do anything to change this, then we must be aware of the consequences. • Poor standards of pre-swim hygiene, means that we use more man-made chemicals. • The pool can become a ‘chemical soup’, if we’re not careful! • WE SHOULD BE REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF MAN-MADE CHEMICALS THAT WE MAKE PEOPLE SWIM IN ! Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  9. 9. Some of the other harmful organisms that can be found in swimming pools, include:- Pseudomonas Aeruginosas This is a parasitic virus that can be passed from human to human, in water. Its symptoms range from a mild ear ache or infection, respiratory difficulties, or to a very distressing rash that can affect any part of the body. It is easily destroyed by good disinfection, and so its presence indicates „poor‟ disinfection. It is also one of the prescribed tests of a microbiological analysis. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  10. 10. 10 Legionella Virus This is a virus that is transmitted in water vapour, and sprays. The effect is to the respiratory system, and can prove to be fatal in certain circumstances. The virus itself, enjoys conditions between 20 C and 60 C , in stored water areas. These include circulation dead- legs, standing water, etc. such as showers; spas; air-conditioning units; etc. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  11. 11. PREVENTATIVE MEASURES  Stored water to be kept at 60 C, or above.  Regular flushing of domestic hot water systems, and air-conditioning units (twice per annum).  Daily running of showers and wash-basin taps prior to opening, especially in facilities that are seldom used. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  12. 12. 1212 SURFACE BIOFILMS !!!!! • The build up of greases and surface film on vinyls, plastics, rubber, etc • Warmed water encourages bacteriological growth. • Surface biofilms are the combination of both! • Biofilms need to be cleaned off. • How will you clean and disinfect inflatables; floats; pool covers; hose- pipes; etc., etc Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  13. 13. 13 THE BALANCE TANK  In deck-level pools, the water flows into a Balance Tank, before it flows into the rest of the system.  It is there to ‘balance’ the level of water in the pool! This is a ‘bio-film’ which forms on surfaces, and can house bacteria! CLEANING !! Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  14. 14. 14 PH CORRECTION: NEW GUIDELINES  For disinfectants to work properly, the pH value of the pool water is critical. It is recommended that the pH value should be maintained between 7.2 – 7.6 (7.0 to 7.6 in Spa Pools) as disinfection will be more effective (as may be coagulation) Target pH should be set at 7.2-7.4 as this allows the disinfectant to work more effectively.  Dosing with an acid stabiliser is normally required with alkaline disinfectants to maintain the correct pH value. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  15. 15. 15 THE EFFECT OF PH ON CHLORINE CHEMISTRY Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  16. 16. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  17. 17. FREE CHLORINE LEVEL  To achieve the best possible water quality, it is recommended that the free chlorine residual should be at the lowest level that gives satisfactory microbiological quality.  This should be possible at less than 1mg/l to an absolute minimum of 0.5mg/l with a pH of 7.2 to 7.4, provided everything about the design and operation of the pool is in line with the recommendations in this manual and the Pool Water Guide.  But, your target levels must have come from a Risk Assessment. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  18. 18. COMBINED CHLORINE  The combined chlorine residual should be as low as possible, less than the free chlorine level, ideally half or less.  Pools that do not operate to an optimum design may need to have higher residuals  Pools that occasionally have large influxes of extra bathers, or have bathers with specific needs, may have to meet this extra demand with higher levels of disinfection. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  19. 19. Most common/popular treatments Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 Disinfectants Stabilisers  Sodium Hypochlorite  Calcium Hypochlorite  BCDMH (Bromine)  Chlorine Gas  Chlorinated IsoCyanurates  Sodium Bisulphate  Hydrochloric Acid  Carbon Dioxide  Sodium Carbonate
  20. 20. Which are acids, and which are Alkalis? Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 Disinfectants Stabilisers  Sodium Hypochlorite (Alkali - Liquid)  Calcium Hypochlorite (Alkali - Liquid)  BCDMH (Bromine) (Acidic - Solid)  Chlorine Gas (Acidic - Gas)  Chlorinated IsoCyanurates (Acidic - Solid)  Sodium Bisulphate (Acidic - Solid)  Hydrochloric Acid (Acidic - Liquid)  Carbon Dioxide (Acidic - Gas)  Sodium Carbonate (Alkali - Solid)
  21. 21. How does it all work, then?  When Chlorine (hypochlorites) are mixed with water, they form HYPOCHLOROUS ACID (Hypobromous Acid if you use BCDMH)  The Hypochlorous Acid reacts with Ammonia (pollution), to form MONO-CHLORAMINES. These are not harmful, but don’t neutralise bacteria either.  Further addition of Hypochlorous Acid to the mono-chloramines produces DI- CHLORAMINES.  It is the Di-Chloramines which we also refer to as COMBINED CHLORINE, because it is this element that reacts with the pollution. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  22. 22. How does it all work, then?  When Chlorine (hypochlorites) are mixed with water, they form HYPOCHLOROUS ACID (Hypobromous Acid if you use BCDMH)  The Hypochlorous Acid reacts with Ammonia (pollution), to form MONO-CHLORAMINES. These are not harmful, but don’t neutralise bacteria either.  Further addition of Hypochlorous Acid to the mono-chloramines produces DI-CHLORAMINES.  It is the Di-Chloramines which we also refer to as COMBINED CHLORINE, because it is this element that reacts with the pollution. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  23. 23. QUESTION: WHY IS THERE ALWAYS A “COMBINED CHLORINE” READING FIRST THING IN THE MORNING, IF THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT, CIRCULATION AND FILTRATION SYSTEMS HAVE BEEN OPERATING PROPERLY ALL NIGHT? ANSWER: Because there is something called “ORGANIC CHLORAMINES” in pool water nearly all the time. 23 Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  24. 24. 24 ORGANIC CHLORAMINES  As well as reacting with ammonia, chlorine reacts with organic, nitrogen compounds that mainly come from proteins in bather pollution.  The resulting chlorinated organic amines (PROTEINS) are not removed by filtration or by chlorination, and are shown as part of the combined chlorine readings.  Only dilution will significantly reduce the level unless ultra violet irradiation, or ozone and carbon filtration is used to treat the pool water. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013
  25. 25. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 That is the end of Module 4 What you need to do now: 1. Return to the course page 2. Download the module update notes and save them on your computer 3. Read through the notes 4. Print out the notes and insert them in your manual
  26. 26. Carlton Associates Ltd (c) 2013 End of Module 4 Presentation
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