Human systems process_in_living_organisms[1][1]
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Human systems process_in_living_organisms[1][1]

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  • 1. Human Systems Process in Living Organisms 7.6 The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion (C) relate forces to basic processes in living organisms including the flow of blood and the emergence of seedlings
  • 2. The Circulatory System
    • cardiovascular system - blood, heart, and blood vessels.
    • movement of materials into and out of your cells occurs by diffusion , or movement from high concentration low concentration.
    • movement also occurs by active transport
    http://www.indiana.edu/~phys215/lecture/lecnotes/lecgraphics/diffusion2.gif
  • 3. Heart
      • Atriums — upper two chambers
      • Ventricles —lower two chambers
      • one-way valve separates atrium from ventricle
      • Blood flows only from an atrium to a ventricle.
        • A wall between the two atriums and the two ventricles prevents oxygen rich blood and oxygen poor blood from mixing .
    • controls blood flow through all parts of the body
    • four chambers
  • 4. Circulatory System
    • divided into three sections
    • Coronary circulation flow of blood to & from tissues of the heart.
    • pulmonary circulation, blood flows through the heart to the lungs
      • where CO 2 and other waste materials diffuse out, oxygen diffuses in, and the blood goes back to the heart.
    • Systemic circulation moves oxygen-rich blood to all the organs and body tissues, except the heart and lungs, and returns oxygen-poor blood to the heart.
  • 5. Blood Vessels
    • carry blood to every part of your body.
      • Arteries are blood vessels that move oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body.
        • Each ventricle of the heart is connected to an artery.
        • The right ventricle connects to the pulmonary artery.
        • The left ventricle connects to the aorta .
        • your heart contracts , moving blood from your heart into your arteries.
  • 6. Veins
    • carry blood back to the heart.
    • One-way valves keep blood moving toward heart by muscle contractions
    • 2 major veins superior vena cava - returns blood from the head and neck
    • inferior vena cava - returns blood from the abdomen and lower body.
  • 7. Capillaries
    • microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries to veins.
    • Nutrients and oxygen diffuse to body cells through capillary walls .
    • Waste materials & CO 2 diffuse from body cells to capillaries.
  • 8. Blood Pressure
    • the force of the blood on the walls of blood vessels .
      • Blood pressure is highest in arteries and lowest in veins .
        • rise and fall of pressure occurs with the heartbeat .
        • Normal pulse rates are 60- 100 beats per minute for adults.
  • 9. Blood Pressure
    • Measured using two numbers:
    • first— systolic —measures pressure caused by ventricles contracting and pushing blood out of the heart
    • b. second— diastolic —measures pressure that occurs as ventricles fill with blood
    Your brain tries to keep your blood pressure constant it sends messages to your heart to raise or lower your blood pressure by speeding or slowing your heart rate.
  • 10. Cardiovascular disease
    • leading cause of death in the United States
  • 11. Cardiovascular Disease
    • Atherosclerosis - fatty deposits build up on arterial walls and clog arteries
    • atherosclerosis can occur in any artery in the body—deposits in coronary arteries are especially serious
      • If a coronary artery is blocked, a heart attack can happen.
  • 12. Cardiovascular Disease
    • hypertension— high blood pressure
      • heart must work harder to keep blood flowing.
    • One cause is atherosclerosis
  • 13. Cardiovascular Disease
    • Prevention:
    • Follow a good diet - avoid salt, sugar, cholesterol, and saturated fats .
    • Eliminate excess weight
      • - forces the heart to pump faster.
    • Exercise strengthens the heart and lungs, helps control cholesterol, and controls blood pressure .
    • Manage stress - causes the heart to pump faster.
    • Avoid smoking - increases the amount of carbon monoxide in the blood - makes the heart beat faster.
  • 14. Blood
    • Functions
      • carries oxygen from lungs to body cells, and CO 2 from cells to lungs to be exhaled.
      • carries waste products from cells to kidneys to be removed.
      • transports nutrients to cells.
      • Cells and molecules fight infections and heal wounds.
  • 15. Blood
    • Parts
      • Plasma - liquid part of blood
        • mostly water
        • Nutrients , minerals, and oxygen are dissolved in plasma.
        • carries wastes from cells
      • Red blood cells supply your body with oxygen.
        • contain hemoglobin a chemical that carries oxygen and CO 2 .
        • life span - 120 days, rapidly replaced.
      • White blood cells fight bacteria and viruses.
        • body reacts to invaders by increasing the number
        • enter infected tissues, destroy bacteria and viruses, and absorb dead cells .
        • life span - few days to many months.
      • Platelets irregularly shaped cell fragments - help clot blood.
        • release chemicals that help form filaments of fibrin
        • life span of five to nine days
  • 16. Blood Clotting
    • - platelets and clotting factors plug up a wound.
      • Platelets stick to a wound and release chemicals.
      • Clotting factors carry out chemical reactions.
      • Threadlike fibers, fibrin , form a sticky net.
      • The net traps blood cells & plasma - forms a clot .
      • Skin cells then begin the repair process.
  • 17. Blood Types
    • A, B, AB, O
    • based partly on antigens
    • chemical identification tabs in the blood
    • Type O has no antigens, and can donate blood to any type
    • Also based on antibodies
    • proteins that identify substances that do not belong in the body , such as other blood types, and destroy them
    • Type AB has no antibodies, so it can receive blood from any type.
    • Rh factor is another chemical identification tag in blood.
    • If people who lack the Rh factor (Rh-) receive Rh+ blood, they will produce antibodies against the blood.
    • Antibodies cause clots to form in the blood vessels.
  • 18. Blood Diseases
    • Anemia affects red blood cells.
    • body tissues can’t get enough oxygen and unable to carry on usual activities
    • causes include a loss of a large amounts of blood, diet lacking in iron , or heredity
  • 19. Blood Diseases
    • Leukemia—affects white blood cells
      • made in excessive numbers.
      • excess cells are immature & don’t fight infection well.
      • Immature cells fill the bone marrow -crowd out normal cells.
  • 20. Lymphatic System
    • collects tissue fluid and returns it to the blood.
    • Lymph —tissue fluid diffused into the lymphatic capillaries
    • contains water and dissolved substances
    • contains lymphocytes —type of white blood cell that help body defend itself against disease causing organisms
    • Lymph is carried through lymphatic capillaries and vessels to large veins near the heart .
    • Lymph is moved by the contraction of muscles .
    • Lymphatic vessels have valves to keep lymph from flowing backward.
  • 21. Lymphatic Organs
    • Lymph nodes
      • bean-shaped organs of varying size found throughout the body
      • filter microorganisms and foreign materials from lymphocytes
    • Tonsils protect your body from harmful microorganisms that enter through the mouth and throat.
    • Thymus, which is located behind the sternum, makes lymphocytes .
    • Spleen - located behind the stomach, filters blood by removing damaged red blood cells from the blood stream, takes up and destroys bacteria and other invaders of the body.
    • The HIV virus attacks
    • lymphocytes called the
    • helper T-cells.