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Biodegradable films for Food Packaging

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  • 1. Presented By: Malathi A.N II Year M.Tech. PG12AEG4094 1
  • 2. Objective of seminar To understand the importance of development of biodegradable films To illustrate the biodegradable films used in food packaging To review studies related to biodegradable film Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 2
  • 3. Content Introduction Biodegradable polymer Biodegradation process Classification of biodegradable polymers Application of biopolymers in food packaging Companies involved in bioplastics for food related packaging Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable polymer Nanotechnology Nanotechnology used in food packaging Case studies Conclusion References Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 3
  • 4. INTRODUCTION Most of today’s synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemicals and are not biodegradable. Persistent polymers generate significant sources of environmental pollution, harming wildlife when they are dispersed in nature. Eg: Disposal of non-degradable plastic bags adversely affects sea-life (Averous and Pollet, 2012). Dept. of Procssing and Food Engineering 4
  • 5. OUR OCEANS ARE TURNING INTO PLASTIC...!! NO EXCUSE FOR SINGLE USE: Plastic bags are choking our oceans. An estimated 50-80 million end up in our environment each year. Once they enter our precious water they do no go away. Plastic bags remains for centuries posing threats to wildlife by entanglement, suffocation and entering the food chain. 5
  • 6. OCEAN POLLUTION It starts with us-and it ends with us Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 6
  • 7. Plastic production has increased from 0.5 to 260 million tonnes per year since 1950 40% of plastics produced every year is discarded into Landfill. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 7
  • 8. Every year, more than 500 billion plastic bags are distributed, and less than 3% bags are recycled. They are typically made of polyethylene and can take up to 1,000 years to degrade in landfills that emit harmful greenhouse gases (Heap, 2009). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. The term ‘‘biodegradable’’ materials is used to describe those materials which can be degraded by the enzymatic action of living organisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi and the ultimate end products of the degradation process, these being CO2, H2O and biomass under aerobic conditions and hydrocarbons, methane and biomass under anaerobic conditions (Kuorwel et al., 2007). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 10
  • 11. Biodegradation process Step-1 The long polymer molecules are reduced to shorter and shorter lengths and undergo oxidation (oxygen groups attach themselves to the polymer molecules). This process is triggered by heat (elevated temperatures found in landfills), UV light (a component of sunlight) and mechanical stress (e.g. wind or compaction in a landfill). Oxidation causes the molecules to become hydrophilic (waterattracting) and small enough to be ingestible by microorganisms, setting the stage for biodegradation to begin. www.epi-global.com Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 11
  • 12. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 12
  • 13. Step-2 Biodegradation occurs in the presence of moisture and micro-organisms typically found in the environment. The plastic material is completely broken down into the residual products of the biodegradation process. Step-3 As micro-organisms consume the degraded plastic, carbon dioxide, water, and biomass are produced and returned to nature by way of the biocycle. www.epi-global.com Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 13
  • 14. Source of biodegradable polymer Polysaccharides Starches Wheat Potatoes Maize Cassava Ligno-cellose product Wood Straws Others Pectins Chitosan/chitin Gums (Averous and Pollet, 2012). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 14
  • 15. Biopolymers are divided into three main categories 1. Biodegradable polymers obtained by chemical synthesis Polyglycolic acid Polylactic acid Polycaprolactone Polyvinyl alcohol (Flinger, 2003). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 15
  • 16. 2. Biodegradable polymers produced through fermentation by microorganisms Polyesteres Neutral polysaccharides 3. Biodegradable polymers from chemically modified natural product Starch Cellulose Chitin and chitosan Soy based plastic (Flinger, 2003). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 16
  • 17. Application of Biopolymers in food packaging Edible coating Paper boards Egg trays Carry bags Wrapping films Containers Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 17
  • 18. Companies involved in bioplastics for foodrelated packaging applications. Company Country Comments Bioenvelop Canada Bioenvelop moisture-barrier coating films for biodegradable food containers and utensils Earthshell crop. USA Primarily serving food-service industry with food containers and serviceware Evercorn, inc. Japan Evercorn resin used in the following food-related applications: disposable serviceware and utensils, lamination or coatings for paper/paperboard, food containers National Starch Company UK Packing (packing peanuts) applications for shipping and distribution (Lillian ,2006) 18
  • 19. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable polymer Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Zein  Good film forming properties Good tensile and moisture barrier properties Chitosan Antimicrobial and High water antifungal activity sensitivity Good mechanical properties Low oxygen and carbon dioxide permeability Brittle Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering Reference Pol et al., (2002). Cho et al., (2010). Peelman et al., (2013). 19
  • 20. Cont…… Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Reference Whey protein isolate Desirable film low tensile forming properties streangth Good oxygen high water barrier vapor permeability Gluten Low cost High sensitivity Peelman et Good oxygen to moisture and al., (2013). barrier brittle Good filmforming properties Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering Kadham et al., (2013). 20
  • 21. Cont…… Raw material Advantages Disadvantages Reference Soy protein isolate Excellent film Poor forming ability mechanical Low cost properties Barrier High water properties sensitivity against oxygen permeation Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering Pol et al., (2002). Cao et al., (2007) Cho et al., (2010). 21
  • 22. The use of biodegradable films for food packaging has been strongly limited because of the poor barrier properties and weak mechanical properties shown by natural polymers. The application of nano-composites promises to expand the use of edible and biodegradable films that reduce the packaging waste associated with processed foods this supports the preservation of fresh foods by extending their shelf life (Sorrentino et al., 2007). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 22
  • 23. Nanotechnology is generally defined as the creation and utilization of structures with at least one dimension in the nanometer length scale (10-9m). These structures are called nanocomposites Nanocomposites could exhibit modifications in the properties of the materials (Peelman et al., 2013). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 23
  • 24. To achieve modifications, a good interaction between the polymer matrix and the nanofiller is desired. Incorporation of nanoparticles is an excellent way to improve the performance of biobased films. (Peelman et al., 2013). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 24
  • 25. Nanomaterials used in food packaging Nanotechnology can be used in plastic food packaging to make it stronger, lighter or perform better. Antimicrobials such as nanoparticles of silver or titanium dioxide can be used in packaging to prevent spoilage of foods. Derek Lam, (2010). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 25
  • 26. Cont…… Introduction of nanoparticles into packaging to block oxygen, carbon dioxide and moisture from reaching the food, and also aids in preventing spoilage. Derek Lam, (2010). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 26
  • 27. Use of biodegradable film for cut beef steaks packaging Mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable soy protein isolate-based film coated with polylactic acid Preparation and characterization of whey protein isolate film reinforced with porous silica coated titaniam nanoparticles Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 27
  • 28. Case study i Title: Use of biodegradable film for cut beef steaks packaging Author: M. Cannarsia,, A. Baiano, R. Marino, M. Sinigaglia and M.A. Del Nobile Journal: Meat Science 70 (2005) 259-265 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 28
  • 29. Objectives: 1. To check the possibility of replacing PVC film with biodegradable polymers in order to preserve the characteristic meat colour as well as control the microbial contamination. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 29
  • 30. Meat was obtained from ten organically farmed Podolian young bulls. Animals were slaughtered at 16–18 months of age. Mean slaughter weight was 476 kg 22.23 kg Dressed carcasses were split into two sides and chilled for 48 h at 1–3ºC, after that each side was divided in hind and fore quarter and each quarter was jointed into different anatomical regions. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 30
  • 31. The semimembranosus muscle (meat) was chosen as representing muscles of greatest mass and economic value. All the removed sections were vacuum-packaged and aged at 4ºC until 18 days post-mortem Meat (semimembranosus muscle) was removed from the ten carcasses 18 days post-mortem and steaks (1cm thick, 100 g weight) were cut. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 31
  • 32. Samples were individually placed on polystyrene trays and hermetically packaged with the following three films: Biodegradable polymeric film Biodegradable polyesters Polyvinyl chloride film(PVC) Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 32
  • 33. Water permeability: Infrared sensor technique Microbial analysis: TMVP(Total Mesophilic Viable Count) TPVC(Total Psychrotrophic Viable Count) Lactic acid bacteria Pseudomonas spp. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 33
  • 34. Mathematical model: Gompertz equation Where, A is the maximum microbial growth attained at the stationary phase µ max is the maximum growth rate ʎ is the lag time cfu max is the cell load allowed for consumer acceptability S.L is the shelf life (the time required to reach cfu max t is time Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 34
  • 35. Results Table1: Water permeability data at 10ºC Film Thickness(µm) Pw(g cm cm-2 s1 atm-1) Polymeric film 64 1.53 10-8 4.84 10-10 Polyesters 51 4.30 10-9 3.29 10-10 PVC 12 3.75 10-9 1.30 10-10 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 35
  • 36. Table2: Shelf life of beef sample stored at 4 C Table3: Shelf life of beef sample stored at 15 C Type of film Shelf life(days) Type of film Shelf life(days) PVC 2.41 0.12 PVC 1.88 0.01 Polymeric film 2.13 0.11 Polymeric film 1.25 0.01 Polyesters 2.16 0.11 Polyesters 1.35 0.01 Gompertz equation: Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 36
  • 37. Table 4: Trends of a Microbial load, expressed as log(cfu), of beef meat samples during a storage at 4ºC for 6 days Microbial group Initial microbial load (log CFU/g) Type of film PVC Polymeric film Polyesters Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) TMVC 5.277 0.002 10.184 0.066 10.459 0.120 10.158 0.004 TPVC 5.035 0.020 10.511 0.089 10.373 0.035 10.081 0.028 Lactic acid bacteria 5.519 0.031 9.888 Pseudomonas spp. 5.779 0.089 10.440 0.052 0.067 9.143 10.572 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 0.004 0.038 9.210 10.203 0.004 0.002 37
  • 38. Table 5: Trends of a Microbial load, expressed as log(cfu), of beef meat samples during a storage at 15ºC for 6 days Microbial group Initial microbial load (log CFU/g) Type of film PVC Polymeric film Polyesters Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) Final microbial load (log CFU/g) TMVC 5.277 0.002 9.736 0.017 9.092 0.118 9.735 0.039 TPVC 5.035 0.020 9.223 0.092 8.856 0.051 9.339 0.272 Lactic acid bacteria 5.822 0.115 8.888 0.044 8.589 0.063 9.077 0.018 Pseudomonas spp. 4.976 0.033 9.963 0.047 9.129 0.046 9.958 0.041 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 38
  • 39. Conclusion The investigated biodegradable films could be advantageously used to replace PVC films in packaging fresh processed meat, reducing in this way the environmental impact of polymeric films Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 39
  • 40. Case study ii Title: Mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable soy protein isolate-based film coated with polylactic acid Author: Rhim, W. J., Lee, H. J. and Perry K.W Journal: LWT 40(2007) 232-238 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 40
  • 41. Objectives: 1. To improve mechanical and barrier properties of soy protein isolate based film coated them with PLA 2. To determine some properties including tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 41
  • 42. 5g SPI + 100ml distilled water + 2.5g glycerin pH=10 0.1 with 1M sodium hydroxide solution 90ºC for 20min Cast into a leveled teflon Dried at ambient condition(≈23 C) for about 24h Peeled from plates PLA solution: 5g PLA + 100ml chloroform SPI films were dipped into the PLA solution (2min) Drained of excess solution and allow to dry at ambient condition Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 42
  • 43. 5g PLA + 100ml chloroform Casting into teflon-coated glass plate Dried at ambient condition Peeled from plates Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 43
  • 44. Results Table 1: Soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with Polylactic acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations Film Thickness(µm) DM(%) SPI 78.8 2.2 75.5 1.2 91.3 0.4 SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent) 76.9 3.7 78.7 2.0 92.8 0.3 SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent) 76.4 4.3 78.8 1.4 92.5 0.2 SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent) 84.5 1.6 79.5 0.3 93.3 0.3 SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent) 86.2 2.8 81.9 0.7 94.1 0.1 SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent) 87.5 2.7 86.9 0.l PLA 87.3 0.1 95.1 0.1 89.5 2.7 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering T(%) 94.3 0.3 44
  • 45. Table 2: Tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (E) of soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with polylactic acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations Film TS(Mpa) E(%) SPI 2.8 0.3 165.7 15.0 SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent) 8.5 1.1 82.6 5.1 SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent) 10.9 1.0 176.0 9.7 SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent) 11.5 0.5 218.3 30.7 SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent) 14.2 1.6 349.9 16.3 SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent) 17.4 2.1 207.6 34.6 PLA 17.2 0.5 203.4 20.8 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 45
  • 46. Table 3: Water vapor permeability (WVP) of soy protein isolate (SPI) films coated with polylactic acid (PLA) solution of varying concentrations Film WVP( 10-14 kgm/m2 s Pa) SPI 268.30 21.50 SPI/(1g PLA/100ml solvent) 12.20 1.25 SPI/(2g PLA/100ml solvent) 7.60 0.1 SPI/(3g PLA/100ml solvent) 5.68 0.11 SPI/(4g PLA/100ml solvent) 4.74 0.25 SPI/(5g PLA/100ml solvent) 4.44 0.17 PLA 4.66 0.15 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 46
  • 47. Conclusion Mechanical and water barrier properties of PLA-coated SPI films were greatly improved The PLA-coated SPI films are suitable for applications in packaging of foods Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 47
  • 48. Case study iii Title: Prepartion and characterization of whey protein isolate films reinforced with porous silica coated titania nanoparticales Author: Kadam, M. D., Thunga, M., Wang, S., Kessler, R. M., Grewell, D., Lamsal, B. and Yu, C. Journal: Journal of food engineering 117(2013) 133-140 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 48
  • 49. Objectives: 1. To develop film embedded with TiO2 nanoparticles by utilizing sonication to achieve uniform distribution of nanoparticles inside the WPI 2. To characterize the effects of different levels of sonication used Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 49
  • 50. 5% wt of WPI and glycerol dissolved in distilled water pH=8.0 with 2M sodium hydroxide 90 2ºC for 30min Subjected to ultra sonication level of 0%, 10%, 50% and 100% sonication (0, 16, 80 and 160µm) 10, 15 and 20g were cast into a sterile polystyrene petri dishes Dried at 35 1ºC for 24h Peeled from plates Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 50
  • 51. Table 1: Thicknesses of whey protein isolate film with and without) nanoparticles Film Film forming solution(g) Average thickness (mm) WPI 10 0.1456 15 0.2276 20 0.3084 10 0.1593 15 0.2329 20 0.3189 WPI-NP Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 51
  • 52. 1. Effect of sonication level on water contact angle of pure WPI film and WPI films contacting nanoparticles 74° 16° 0µm Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 160µm 52
  • 53. 2. Effect of sonication level and with or without nanoparticles on Young’s modulus 35mpa 19mpa Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 53
  • 54. 3. Effect of sonication level and with or without nanoparticles on tensile stress of WPI films. 1.03 1.18 Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 54
  • 55. 4. Effect of sonication level and with or without nanoparticles on tensile strain of WPI films. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 55
  • 56. Conclusion Incorporation of nanoparticles helps to improve their mechanical properties Embedded nanoparticles contributed effectively to increase the thickness of films The presence of nanoparticles in the film was shown to improve certain mechanical properties, but it also caused nearly a 50% reduction in elongation. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 56
  • 57. The WPI films embedded with nanoparticles have great potential for application in food packaging for extending the shelf life, improving quality, and enhancing the safety of food packaged with them. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 57
  • 58. Conclusion The use biodegradable polymer reduces the environmental impact of non-degradable plastic Incorporation of nanoparticles is an excellent way to improve the performance of biobased films. The application of nano-composites promises to expand the use of edible and biodegradable films that reduce the packaging waste associated with processed foods that supports the preservation of fresh foods by extending their shelf life. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 58
  • 59. References  Averous, L., and Pollet, E. 2012. Biodegradable polymer. Environmental silicate nano-biocpmposites.  Cao, N., Yuhua, F. and Junhuin, H. preparation and physical properties of soy protein isolate and gelatin composite films. Food hydroclloids. 21. 1153-1162  Cho, Y.S., Lee, Y. S. and Rhee, C. 2010, Edible oxygen barrier bilayerfilm pouches from corn zein and soy protein isolate for olive oil packaging, LWT – Food Sci. and Technol., 43: 1234-1239.  Flieger, M., Kantorova, M., Prell, A., Rezanka, T. and vortuba. 2003. biodegradable plastics from renewable sources. Folia microbiol. 48(1), 27-44  Heap, B. 2009. Preface. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences . 364: 1971-1971. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 59
  • 60.  Kadam, M. D., Thunga, M., Wang, S., Kessler, R. M., Grewell, D., Lamsal, B. and Yu, C. 2013, Preparation and characterization of whey protein isolate films reinforced with porous silica coated titaniam nanoparticles, J. of Food Engng., 117 (1): 133-140.  Kuorwel, K. K., Cran, J.M., Sonneveld, K., MiltZ, J. and Bigger, W.S. 2011, Antimicrobial Activity of Biodegrdable polysaccharide and Protein- Based Films Containing Active Agents. Journal of Food Science, 76, 90-106.  Liu, L. 2006. Bioplastics in Food Packaging: Innovative Technologies for Biodegradable Packaging  Lam, D. 2010. packaging application using Nannotechnology. San jose state university. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 60
  • 61.  Peelman, N., Ragaert, P,. Meulenaer, D. B., Adons, D., Peeters, R., Cardon, L., Impe, V. F., and Devlieghere, F. 2013. Application of bioplastic for food packaging. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 1-14.  Pol, H., Dwason, P., Action, J. and Ogale, A. 2002. soy protein isolate/corn-zein laminated films: transported and mechanical properties. Food engineering and physical properties. 67(1).  Rhim, W. J., Lee, H. J. and Perry K.W. 2007. Swiss society of food science and technology. 40: 232-238.  Sorrentino, A., Gorrasi, G. and Vittoria, V. 2007, Potential perspectives of bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications, Trends in Food Sci. and Technol., 18 (2): 8495. Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering 61
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