Assets recognition

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  • 1. RecognitionThe cost of an item of property, plant and 7 equipment shall be recognised as an:asset if, and only if a) it is probable that future economic) benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; andb) the cost of the item can be measured ). reliably
  • 2. Scope:This Standard does not apply to 3a) property, plant and equipment classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held; for Sale and Discontinued Operationsb) biological assets related to agricultural activity )see IAS )); 41 Agriculturec) the recognition and measurement of exploration and ) evaluation assets )see IFRS 6 Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources); ord) mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural ). gas and similar non-regenerative resources
  • 3. Initial costs11 Items of property, plant and equipment may be acquired for safety or environmental reasons. The acquisition of such property, plant and equipment, although not directly increasing the future economic benefits of any particular existing item of property, plant and equipment, may be necessary for an entity to obtain the future economic benefits from its other assets.
  • 4. Subsequent costs12 an entity does not recognise in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the costs of the day-to-day servicing of the item.13. Parts of some items of property, plant and equipment may require replacement at regular intervals. For example, a furnace may require relining after a specified number of hours of use, or aircraft interiors such as seats and galleys may require replacement several times during the life of the airframe.
  • 5. Elements of costThe cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:)a) its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.)b) any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.)c) the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which an entity incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.
  • 6. Continue… Elements of costExamples of directly attributable costs are:)a) costs of employee benefits )as defined in IAS 19 Employee Benefits) arising directly from the construction or acquisition of the item of property, plant and equipment;)b) costs of site preparation;)c) initial delivery and handling costs;)d) installation and assembly costs;)e) costs of testing whether the asset is functioning properly, after deducting the net proceeds from selling any items produced while bringing the asset to that location and condition )such as samples produced when testing equipment); and)f) professional fees.
  • 7. Continue… Elements of cost19 Examples of costs that are not costs of an item of property, plant and equipment are:)a) costs of opening a new facility;)b) costs of introducing a new product or service )including costs of advertising and promotional activities);)c) costs of conducting business in a new location or with a new class of customer )including costs of staff training); and)d) administration and other general overhead costs.
  • 8. Definition & initial recognition Examples1 An entity owns a building that it rents out to independent third parties under operating leases in return for rental payments.The building is classified as an item of investment property by the entity )lessor). It is a property held to earn rentals.
  • 9. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples2 An entity owns a building that it rents out to independent third parties under operating leases in return for rental payments. The entity provides cleaning, security and maintenance services for the lessees of the building.If the services provided by the entity are insignificant to the arrangement as a whole, then the property is investment property. In most cases cleaning, security and maintenance services will be insignificant and hence the building would be classified as investment property.When the services provided are significant the property should be classified as property, plant and equipment. For example, if an entity owns and manages a hotel, services provided to guests are significant to the arrangement as a whole.
  • 10. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples3 An entity owns a building that it rents out to an independent third party )the lessee) under an operating lease in return for fixed rental payments. The lessee operates a hotel from the building including a range of services commonly provided by boutique hotels. The entity does not provide any services to hotel guests and its rental income is unaffected by the number of guests that occupy the hotel )ie the entity is a passive investor).The building is an investment property of the entity. The entity is not engaged in the business of operating a hotel business )ie the entity is a passive investor).
  • 11. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples4 An entity )parent) owns a building that it rents out to its subsidiary under an operating lease in return for rental payment. The subsidiary uses the building as a retail outlet for its products.In the consolidated financial statements of the parent the building is not classified as an item of investment property. The consolidated financial statements present the parent and its subsidiary as a single entity. The consolidated entity uses the building for the supply of goods. Therefore the building is accounted for by the consolidated group as an item of property, plant and equipment )see paragraph 17.2).In the separate financial statements of the parent )if prepared, see paragraph 9.24) the building is classified as investment property. It is a property held to earn rentals. In the individual financial statements of the subsidiary the arrangement is accounted for as an operating lease in accordance with Section 20 Leases )ie Section 16 is not relevant to the subsidiary’s accounting for this item).
  • 12. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples5 An entity acquired a tract of land as a long-term investment because it expects its value to increase over time. No rentals are expected to be generated from the land in the foreseeable future.The land is classified as investment property. It is property held for capital appreciation. The land is not held for sale in the ordinary course of business.
  • 13. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples.An entity holds land for an undetermined future use 6The IFRS for SMEs does not specify how to classify land thatis held for an undetermined purpose. In developing itsaccounting policy for land acquired for an undeterminedpurpose an entity may )but is not required to) look to therequirements of full IFRSs )see paragraph 10.6). IAS 40 )asissued at 9 July 2009) specifies that land acquired for anundetermined purpose is classified as investment property)see IAS 40 paragraph 8)b)) because a subsequent decisionto use such land as inventory or for development as owner-occupied property would be an investment decision )see the)Basis for Conclusionson IAS 40 paragraph B67)b))ii
  • 14. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples7 An entity owns a building that it rents out to an independent third party under a finance lease in return for rental payments.The building is not classified as an investment property by the entity )lessor). The entity has a receivable in respect of the finance lease. The entity would have derecognised the property at the commencement of the lease term )see Section 20).
  • 15. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples8 An entity acquired a tract of land to divide it into smaller plots to be sold in the ordinary course of business at an expected forty per cent profit margin. No rentals are expected to be generated from the land.The land is not classified as investment property. It is classified as inventory. It is held for sale in the ordinary course of business )see paragraph 13.1).
  • 16. Continue Definition & initial recognition …examples9 An entity owns a building from which it operates a hotel )ie it rents out hotel rooms to independent third parties under an operating lease in return for rental payments). The entity provides hotel guest with a range of services commonly provided by boutique hotels. Some of the services are included in the room daily rate )eg breakfast and television); other services are charged for separately )eg other meals, room bar, gymnasium facilities and guided tours of the surrounding area).The building is not an investment property. The entity is actively engaged in operating a hotel business in the building. The entity must classify the building as property, plant and equipment—its cash inflows )rental income and income from the other services provided) are dependent on the manner in which it operates the hotel business.
  • 17. mixed use property…examples10 An entity owns a building that it rents out to independent third parties under operating leases in return for rental payments. However, the entity’s building administration and maintenance staff occupy offices in the building that measure less than 1 per cent of the floor area of the building.The building is classified as an investment property by the entity )lessor). It is a property held to earn rentals. The portion of the building occupied by the owner )owner- occupation) is insignificant and can therefore be ignored. 13
  • 18. mixed use property…examplesAn entity owns a building that it rents out to independent third parties underoperating leases in return for rental payments. The entity’s buildingadministration and maintenance staff are located in the building in offices thatoccupy 25 per cent of its floor area.The entity )owner) occupies a significant part )25 per cent of the floor area) of the building.If the portions )ie the portion held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both and the portion held for use in the production or supply of goods or services) could be soldseparately )or leased out separately under a finance lease), the entity should account forthe portions separately )ie separate the investment property portion from the property,plant and equipment portion).However, if the fair value of the investment property component cannot be measuredreliably without undue cost or effort on an ongoing basis, the entire property should beaccounted for as property, plant and equipment, using the cost-depreciation-impairmentmodel in Section 17. 14
  • 19. Measurement at initial recognition…examplesOn 1 January 20X1 an entity purchased an office block )building) for CU1,000,000)1).The purchase price was funded by a loan of CU1,010,000 )including CU10,000 loanraising fees). The loan is secured against the building. Non-refundable propertytransfer taxes and direct legal costs of respectively CU50,000 and CU10,000 wereincurred in acquiring the building.In 20X1 the entity redeveloped the building into upmarket residential apartmentsfor rent under operating leases to independent third parties. Expenditures onredevelopment were:• CU100,000 planning permission• CU1,500,000 construction costs )including 60,000 refundable purchase taxes).The redevelopment was completed and the apartments ready for rental on1 October 20X1.The local government charged the entity property service taxes of CU1,000 permonth on the building.What is the cost of the building at initial recognition? 16
  • 20. Measurement after recognitionInvestment property whose fair value can be measured reliably without undue cost or effort shall be measured at fair value at each reporting date with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss. If a property interest held under a lease is classified as investment property, the item accounted for at fair value is that interest and not the underlying property. Paragraphs 11.27–11.32 provide guidance on determining fair value. An entity shall account for all other investment property as property, plant and equipment using the cost depreciation- impairment model in Section 17.
  • 21. Measurement after recognition examplesAn entity cannot measure reliably the fair value of any of its investment properties without undue cost or effort on an ongoing basis. After initial recognition, it measures investment property at cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.The entity’s accounting policy is in compliance with the IFRS for SMEs. It accounts for all of its investment property as property, plant and equipment in accordance with Section 17 using a cost-depreciation-impairment model )see paragraph 17.15). It also follows the disclosure requirements in that section. 18
  • 22. Measurement after recognition examplesAn entity can measure reliably the fair value of any of its investment properties on an ongoing basis. The entity measures all its investment properties, after initial recognition, at fair value.The entity’s accounting policy is in compliance with the IFRS for SMEs. It measures all ofits investment property at fair value at each reporting date with changes in fair valuerecognised in profit or loss. 19
  • 23. Measurement after recognition exampleAn entity has many investment properties. Its accounting policy is to measureinvestment property whose fair value can be determined reliably without unduecost or effort on an ongoing basis at fair value after initial recognition. All otherinvestment properties are, after initial recognition, measured at cost lessaccumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment, if any.Except for a remote building, management can determine the fair value of itsinvestment properties reliably without undue cost or effort on an ongoing basis.Management cannot estimate reliably the fair value of the remote building.The entity’s accounting policy is in compliance with the IFRS for SMEs—if an entity canmeasure the fair value of an item of investment property reliably without undue cost oreffort on an ongoing basis, it must use the fair value model. Otherwise, it must use thecost model.The remote building is accounted using the cost-depreciation-impairment model, inaccordance with Section 17. The residual value of the remote building is assumed to benil )given that fair value cannot be determined reliably) and the entity uses thecost-depreciation-impairment model until the remote building is disposed of or its fairvalue can be measured reliably on an ongoing basis.)2) 20
  • 24. Measurement after recognition exampleOn 1 January 20X1 an entity acquired an investment property )building) forCU1,000,000. The entity cannot measure the fair value of investment propertyreliably without undue cost or effort on an ongoing basis. Management estimates the useful life of the building as 20 years measured from thedate of acquisition. The residual value of the building is presumed to be nil )given that the fair value cannot be determined reliably). Management believes that the straight-line depreciation method reflects the patternin which it expects to consume the building’s future economic benefits.The value of the land on which the building is situated is immaterial.)3)What is the carrying amount of the building on 31 December 20X1?Because management cannot estimate the fair value of the property without undue cost or effort on an ongoing basis the investment property is measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment, if any. 22
  • 25. TransferIf a reliable measure of fair value is no longer available without undue cost or effort for an item of investment property measured using the fair value model, the entity shall thereafter account for that item as property, plant and equipment in accordance with Section 17 until a reliable measure of fair value becomes available. The carrying amount of the investment property on that date becomes its cost under Section 17. Paragraph 16.10)e))iii) requires disclosure of this change. It is a change of circumstances and not a change in accounting policy.
  • 26. Depreciation56 The future economic benefits embodied in an asset are consumed by an entity principally through its use. However, other factors, such as technical or commercial obsolescence and wear and tear while an asset remains idle, often result in the diminution of the economic benefits that might have been obtained from the asset. Consequently, all the following factors are considered in determining the useful life of an asset:)a) expected usage of the asset. Usage is assessed by reference to the asset’s expected capacity or physical output.)b) expected physical wear and tear, which depends on operational factors such as the number of shifts for which the asset is to be used and the repair and maintenance programme, and the care and maintenance of the asset whileidle.)c) technical or commercial obsolescence arising from changes or improvements in production, or from a change in the market demand for the product or service output of the asset.)d) legal or similar limits on the use of the asset, such as the expiry dates of related leases.
  • 27. DisclosuresAn entity shall disclose the following for all investment property accounted for at fair valuethrough profit or loss )paragraph 16.7):)a) the methods and significant assumptions applied in determining the fair value ofinvestment property.)b) the extent to which the fair value of investment property )as measured or disclosedin the financial statements) is based on a valuation by an independent valuer whoholds a recognised and relevant professional qualification and has recentexperience in the location and class of the investment property being valued.If there has been no such valuation, that fact shall be disclosed.)c) the existence and amounts of restrictions on the realisability of investment propertyor the remittance of income and proceeds of disposal.)d) contractual obligations to purchase, construct or develop investment property or forrepairs, maintenance or enhancements.
  • 28. Disclosures)e) a reconciliation between the carrying amounts of investment property at thebeginning and end of the period, showing separately:)i) additions, disclosing separately those additions resulting from acquisitionsthrough business combinations.)ii) net gains or losses from fair value adjustments.)iii) transfers to property, plant and equipment when a reliable measure of fair valueis no longer available without undue cost or effort )see paragraph 16.8).)iv) transfers to and from inventories and owner-occupied property.)v) other changes.This reconciliation need not be presented for prior periods
  • 29. Revaluation model31 After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment whose fair value can be measured reliably shall be carried at a revalued amount, being its fairvalue at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and subsequent accumulated impairment losses. Revaluations shall be made with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the end of the reporting period.
  • 30. Revaluation model32 The fair value of land and buildings is usually determined from market-based evidence by appraisal that is normally undertaken by professionally qualified valuers. The fair value of items of plant and equipment is usually their market value determined by appraisal.
  • 31. Revaluation model33 If there is no market-based evidence of fair value because of the specialised nature of the item of property, plant and equipment and the item is rarely sold, except as part of a continuing business, an entity may need to estimate fair value using an income or a depreciated replacement cost approach.
  • 32. Revaluation model35 When an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued, any accumulated depreciation at the date of the revaluation is treated in one of the following ways:)a) restated proportionately with the change in the gross carrying amount ofthe asset so that the carrying amount of the asset after revaluation equalsits revalued amount. This method is often used when an asset is revaluedby means of applying an index to determine its depreciated replacementcost.)b) eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the netamount restated to the revalued amount of the asset. This method is oftenused for buildings.
  • 33. Revaluation model39 If an asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase shall be recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus. However, the increase shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognised in profit or loss.
  • 34. Revaluation model40 If an asset’s carrying amount is decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, the decrease shall be recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset. The decrease recognised in other comprehensive income reduces the amount accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus.
  • 35. DISCLOSURE77 If items of property, plant and equipment are stated at revalued amounts, the following shall be disclosed:)a) the effective date of the revaluation;)b) whether an independent valuer was involved;)c) the methods and significant assumptions applied in estimating the items’ fair values;)d) the extent to which the items’ fair values were determined directly by reference to observable prices in an active market or recent market transactions on arm’s length terms or were estimated using other valuation techniques;)e) for each revalued class of property, plant and equipment, the carrying amount that would have been recognised had the assets been carried under the cost model; and)f) the revaluation surplus, indicating the change for the period and anyrestrictions on the distribution of the balance to shareholders.Note: this material has prepared based on IASC Foundation Publications Department