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During the last decade child mortality has reduced significantly in a number of African countries, largely due to the scale up of appropriate management of diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria, three leading causes of death among young children. As a way of increasing access to treatment for sick children, several African countries are investing in community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated community case management (ICCM). This paper summarises the process adopted by one Malaria Consortium project, inSCALE, for identifying the barriers to CHW motivation and performance in Uganda and Mozambique. It documents innovative solutions to these challenges that are potentially acceptable and feasible, including the rationale for the design of the two interventions developed.