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4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
4. struktur sel bakteri
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4. struktur sel bakteri

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  • 1. Anthrax Bacillus anthracisCutaneousanthrax
  • 2. M A T A K U L I A H M I K R O B I O L O G IE V I R O V I A T ISTRUKTUR SEL BAKTERI
  • 3. ProkaryotesDomainsBacteria &ArchaeaSimple cells –with no nucleusor membrane-boundorganelles
  • 4. I. Bacteria Classification: Cell shapeA. Compound Light Microscope (1000X) - stainedCocci (Coccus) Bacilli (Bacillus) Spirilli (Spirillum)round or oval rod-shaped helically coiled
  • 5. B. Scanning Electrom Microscope (SEM) - colorized
  • 6. II. Classification Bacteria: Cell arrangement1. Diplococcus (diplo=pairs)Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Gram-negative,causes gonorrheaSEMStained: Compound Microscope1000X
  • 7. Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus aureus - Causes food poisoning, toxic shock syndromeand skin and wound infections such as scalded skin syndrome,scarlet fever, and impetigo.Stained: Compound Microscope1000XSEM (colorized)2. staphylococcus(staphylo- grapelike clusters)
  • 8. 3. streptococcus(strepto=chains)Streptococcus pyogenesStained: Compound Microscope1000XSEM (colorized)
  • 9. 4. Streptobacillus
  • 10. Bacteria StructureCell wall – unique, peptidoglycanPeptidoglycan - structuralpolysaccharides(sugars) cross-linked bypeptides (chains of aminoacids)
  • 11. The Gram stain procedureDeveloped in 1884 by the Danish physicianHans Christian GramAn important tool in bacterial taxonomy,distinguishing so-called Gram-positivebacteria, which remain coloured after thestaining procedure, from Gram-negativebacteria, which do not retain dye and need tobe counter-stained.Can be applied to pure cultures of bacteriaor to clinical specimensTop: Pure culture of E. coli(Gram-negative rods)Bottom: Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a smear of urethral pus(Gram-negative cocci, with pus cells)
  • 12. CrystalvioletGramsiodineDecolorise withacetoneCounterstain withe.g. methyl redGram-positivesappear purpleGram-negativesappear pinkThe Gram Stain
  • 13. Gram-positive rodsGram-negative rodsGram-positive cocciGram-negative cocci
  • 14. Gram stainDistinguishes different cell wall typesGram positive Staphylococcus aureusGram negative Escherichia coli
  • 15. 16Be able to identify all the parts ofa Gram + & - cell wall for the next exam.
  • 16. Two biochemical groups of bacteria:peptidoglycanoutermembrane
  • 17. will stain will not stainGram positive bacteria Gram negative bacteriaTwo biochemical groups of bacteria:peptidoglycanoutermembrane
  • 18. Bacteria with Chemically Unique Cell Walls Acid-Fast Cells Mycobacterium species Gram + type of cell wall Unique lipid Mycolic acid – waxy substance Does not decolorize
  • 19. Bacterial Growth Solid media or liquid media Agar plates, slopes, broth culture Atmosphere: Aerobic, anaerobic or microaerophilic Facultative or obligate anaerobes Usually at 37 degrees C Most clinically important bacteria grow overnight, orwithin a few days Mycobacteria can take months Some can not be grown
  • 20. Capsules or slime layerE.g., slime layerallows bacteria tocling to toothenamel or othersubstrates
  • 21. Pili (singular: pilus)Protein filaments that attach bacteria to other cells& substratespili
  • 22. Used for locomotionSome prokaryotes have flagella(singular: flagellum)flagella
  • 23. 50 nmBase of a bacterial flagellum……the only known wheel in nature
  • 24. Reproduction: Asexual, through binary fissionE. coliDNAcell wall
  • 25. Binary fissionDaughter cells are identical copies(1) (2) (3)(4) (5) (6)Chromosome Plasma membraneNeither mitosis nor meiosis occurs in prokaryotes
  • 26. REPRODUCTION Asexual, through binary fission No true sexual reproduction, since neithermitosis nor meiosis exist in prokaryotes Horizontal transfer of genetic material Transformation Uptake of genetic material from theenvironment Transduction Transfer of genetic material betweenprokaryotes by viruses Conjugation Direct transfer of genetic material from oneprokaryote to another
  • 27. Conjugation in E. coliSex pilusSex pilus connects cells and draws them togetherConjugation tube then forms
  • 28. Bacteria Surviving harsh conditions Endospore – forms inside a bacterium and then persiststhrough inhospitable conditionsendospore
  • 29. The oldest known fossilsFirst organismson EarthCyanobacteria> 3 billion yearsold
  • 30. Distributed globally – including manyextremophiles “Heat-loving”Archaea “Salt-loving”Archaea
  • 31.  MethanogensMethane-generating ArchaeaOccur in oxygen-free habitatsE.g., swamp mud, guts ofruminant animals Cave Bacteria Sometimes reachingacidity of pH 0.5Distributed globally – including manyextremophiles
  • 32. Ice Bacteria & ArchaeaDistributed globally – including manyextremophiles
  • 33. Prokaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophsAll organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonAutotrophs canobtain all theirC from CO2
  • 34. All organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonHeterotrophsrequire at leastone organicnutrient, e.g.,glucoseProkaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophs
  • 35. All organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonPhototrophsobtain theirenergy fromthe sunProkaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophs
  • 36. All organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonChemotrophsobtain theirenergy fromchemicalcompoundsProkaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophs
  • 37. KLASIFIKASI BAKTERI

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