Piapa

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Piapa

  1. 2. <ul><li>There are 5 vowels and 8 consonants in the pī`āpā (Hawaiian alphabet). </li></ul><ul><li>NĀ WOELA (vowels): </li></ul><ul><li>A E I O U </li></ul><ul><li>NĀ KONEKA (consonants): </li></ul><ul><li>H e K e L a M u N u P i W e ` okina </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  2. 3. ʻOKINA <ul><li>The ʻokina is a glottal stop. In other words, the ʻokina cuts or separates vowel sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>ʻ is the appropriate mark for an ʻokina (looks like an open-ended quote). ’ (an apostrophe) is not acceptable as it serves a different function. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the difference in the following pairs of words: hao ha`o koe ko`e kou ko`u mai ma`i </li></ul>
  3. 4. ʻOKINA <ul><li>Value the ʻokina like you would value any other letter of the pī`āpā </li></ul><ul><li>Note that some speakers place ʻokina where they aren’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li> kēia (this) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keʻia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kēʻia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. KAHAKŌ <ul><li>The kahakō (-) elongates the vowel over which it is placed. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the difference in the following pairs of words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no nō </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uliuli `ulī`ulī </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maka māka kala kālā </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function and intent are different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haaloa vs. Hāloa </li></ul></ul><ul><li> `oopuu vs. `ōpū </li></ul>
  5. 6. IMPORTANCE OF `OKINA & KAHAKŌ <ul><li>Omission or unnecessary inclusion of ‘okina or kahakō can drastically change the meaning of a word as in the following example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pau completed, done, finished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pa`u soot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pa`ū moist, damp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pā`ū skirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kala a type of fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kālā money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ka lā the sun </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. SPELLING WORDS OUT IN HAWAIIAN <ul><li>LANI la-a-nu-i </li></ul><ul><li>KEKOA ke-e-ke-o-a </li></ul><ul><li>`AO`AO `okina-a-o-`okina-a-o </li></ul><ul><li>LI`ILI`I la-i-`okina-i -la-i-`okina -i </li></ul><ul><li>`ĀPANA `okina-a-kō-pi-a-nu-a </li></ul><ul><li>KĪWĪ ki-i-kō-we-i-kō </li></ul>
  7. 8. FOUR SPELLING RULES <ul><li>Every word must have at least 1 vowel. </li></ul><ul><li>No consonant clusters (such as pl, mk, nw, `h). Keep in mind that this applies to the `okina also, because it is considered a consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>Words cannot end in a consonant (including the `okina). Every word must end in a vowel. </li></ul><ul><li>A kahakō can only occur over a vowel. </li></ul>

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