MIGRATIONS &
SETTLEMENT
MIGRATION
• Circa 1600-1200 B.C. Lapita culture spread from Papua New
Guinea in Melanesia as far east as Fiji, S moa & Ton...
MIGRATIONS & SETTLEMENT
• Migration theories are
tested through:
– Science
– Linguistics
– Genealogies/oral
traditions
SCIENCE
• Radio-carbon dating of
charcoal
• Archaeological findings
– Lapita
LINGUISTICS
• The scientific study of
language and its structure,
including the study of
morphology, syntax,
phonetics, an...
GENEALOGIES &
ORAL TRADITIONS
• Menehune
• Hawai`inui
• Hawai`iloa
• Sequence of migrations from Tahiti
– Kapawa led the f...
CHANT
WAYFINDING
PELE
• Mai Kahiki Ka
Wahine `o Pele
– Chant that describes
all of the different
phenomena that Pele
comes from
– Those tha...
MAI KAHIKI
KA WAHINE `O PELE
• Mai Kahiki ka wahine
`o Pele
• Mai ka ` ina i Polapolaā
• Mai ka p nuohu `ula aū
K neā
• Ma...
MAI KAHIKI
KA WAHINE `O PELE
• Lapak i Hawai`i ka wahineū
a Pele
• K lai i ka wa`a Honuai keaā ā
• Kou wa`a e Kamohoali`i
...
MAI KAHIKI
KA WAHINE `O PELE
• Holo mai ke au
• A`ea`e Pelehonuamea
• A`ea`e ka lani, aipuni a i ka
moku
• A`ea`e kini o k...
MAI KAHIKI
KA WAHINE `O PELE
• A`ea`e ka i hoe o luna o ka
wa`a
• `O K m l ua `o Lonoū ā ā
• Noho i ka honua ` inaā
• Kau ...
If you have any
questions, please
ask them on the
Discussion Board.
Mahalo!
Migrations and settlement
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Migrations and settlement

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  • Migratory or canoe traditions tell of the departure from islands of origin and the arrival, exploration and settlement in new locales. Migratory traditions have been the subject of much attention and speculation as there are several theories regarding migration to Hawaii. While dates constantly change with new archaeological discoveries, the general sequence for the settlement of Polynesia has been relatively well established (Dates represent earliest archaeological finds; they almost certainly do not represent the earliest presence of human beings.
  • linguistics (the study of language and its changes), genealogies and oral traditions
  • Polynesians peoples are united by common language, culture and distinctive genetics Theories are tested through science (radio-carbon dating using charcoal from the earliest imu or cooking sites to determine the age of the specimen) Lapita is a term applied to an ancient Pacific Ocean archaeological culture which is believed by many archaeologists to be the common ancestor of several cultures in Polynesia, Micronesia, and some coastal areas of Melanesia. Lapita is believed to have originated on the islands of South East Asia, perhaps in the Moluccas and Indonesia as some archeology indicates. One of the earliest, securely dated sites with Lapita Pottery is dated to 1650 B.C and is on Nissan in the Bismark Archipelago. The earliest detectable migrations of the Lapita are on the islands of the Bismark Archipelago in Near Oceania which were settled c. 1500 B.C.Moving rapidly in small groups, the Lapita people penetrated Remote Oceania, then traveled to Fiji and West Polynesia from Melanesia between 1200 and 1,000 B.C. Their ocean voyaging traversed remarkable mileage. In no more than 10 generations, they reached Tonga and Samoa by 1,000 B.C. In the end, the most eastern site for Lapita archaeological remains recovered so far has been through work on the archaeology in Sam More archaeological evidence is needed from Hawai'i, Hiva and other islands of Polynesia before any definitive statements can be made about the relationship among the island groups during the period of the early settlement of Hawai'i.
  • Polynesian languages show a considerable degree of similarity. Scholars believe that early settlers of Hawai'i came predominantly from Hiva (Marquesas). The argument for a Hivan homeland is based in part on linguistic and biological evidence: "Indeed, the close relationship between the Hawaiian and Marquesan languages as well as between the physical populations constitutes strong and mutually corroborative evidence that the early Hawaiians came from the Marquesas Vocabulary comparisons seem to indicate that the dialect of the Southern Marquesan Islands (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Fatu Hiva), is the closest relative of Hawaiian language One scholar (Kenneth Emory) has noted that some words in the Hawaiian language (such as the names of some days in the lunar month) are shared uniquely with the Tahitian language, suggesting settlers to Hawai'i came from Tahiti as well as the Marquesas. The ancestors of the Polynesians relocated ancient place names as they migrated from island to island.
  • One first arrival tradition/theory refer to an earlier Hawaiian population known as the menehune. This is a term also known in Tuamotu, Tahiti & the Rarotonga. Another tradition tells of a canoe named Hawai`inui from Kahiki that carried the first settlers. Another tells us that Hawai`iloa was the first settler Other arrival traditions trace a sequence of migrations from Tahiti.
  • This tradition tells us that the navigator Mo`ikeha named the Big Island Hawai`i through this chant.
  • Wākea and Hoʻohōkūkalani are our atmospheric energies that encompass the sky and the stars We know early Polynesian voyagers were master navigators. They used our ancestors to guide them through the ocean; these ancestors are the stars, the sun, moon, clouds, ocean, winds, and birds. The ocean was not seen as an entity that separated people but rather one that connected people. Navigators traveled to small, inhabited islands using only their own senses and knowledge passed by oral tradition from navigator to apprentice. In order to locate directions at various times of day and year, navigators in Eastern Polynesia memorized important facts: the motion of specific stars and where they would rise on the horizon of the ocean; weather; times of travel; wildlife species (which congregate at particular positions); directions of swells on the ocean and how the crew would feel their motions; colors of the sea and sky, and how clouds would cluster at the locations of some islands. These wayfinding techniques, along with outrigger canoe construction methods were kept as guild secrets. Generally each island and/or island group maintained a guild of navigators who had very high status. Unfortunately, knowledge of the traditional Polynesian methods of navigation were largely lost after contact with and colonization by Europeans. Recent recreations of Polynesian voyaging have used methods based largely on Micronesian methods and the teachings of a Micronesian navigator, affectionately known as Papa Mau.
  • This is a map of the settlement pattern of the Pacific. Starting from 4000 BC from Southeast Asia and into the Pacific by way of Papua and then out towards the Caroline Islands between 1200-1000 BC and to Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, and the Cook Islands in a span of 200 years before common era and then spreading from the Marquesas, Tuamotus, and Tahiti to Hawaiʻi around 600 AD, Rapa Nui not too long after and finally the last to be settled was Aotearoa (New Zealand) between 1250-1300 AD. After reading this week’s article you should look back at this map and compare the information from Kirch and the information we see here.
  • The story of Pele is one of a woman who travels to Hawai`I from Kahiki in search of a new home. Other chants tell of the creation of the islands
  • Establishes that Pele comes from Kahiki Tells you that the clan left in the evening as the red rainbow mentioned in the chant is an ocean rainbow (only red) that occurs in the evening It also tells us the cloud forms of Kāne (high blazing clouds, flashing clouds)
  • Gives us the name of Kamohoali`I’s canoe (Honuaiākea) Canoe was navigated by Kamohoali`I Gives us the canoe for the gods- Kānekālaihonua
  • There was a multitude of royals and deities Malau = 4,000 Tells us Pele’s position in the canoe (stern) = steersperson Royals came on Honuaiākea; deities came on Kānekālaihonua
  • Pele was first to bring wooden images or ki`I that were portable “placed high upon the land” Prior to this, no ki`I to take with you when you travel
  • Keep in mind that when understanding a culture, looking at their creation stories will give you clues as to how they view life and how they connect to their environment. The kanaka maoli and other indigenous people were able to make sense of their universe by knowing how it was created. They understood the intimate relationship they had with the environment, and because of this, they were able to not only survive, but thrive.
  • Migrations and settlement

    1. 1. MIGRATIONS & SETTLEMENT
    2. 2. MIGRATION • Circa 1600-1200 B.C. Lapita culture spread from Papua New Guinea in Melanesia as far east as Fiji, S moa & Tongaā • Circa 300 B.C., seafarers from S moa and Tonga discoveredā and settled islands to the east (Cook Islands, Tahiti, Tuamotu, Marquesas) • Circa 300 A.D., voyagers from central or eastern Polynesia discovered and settled Rapa Nui (Easter Island) • Circa 400 A.D., voyagers from the Cook Islands, Tahiti and/or Marquesas settled Hawai`i • Circa 1000 A.D., voyagers from the Society and/or Cook Islands settled Aotearoa (New Zealand)
    3. 3. MIGRATIONS & SETTLEMENT • Migration theories are tested through: – Science – Linguistics – Genealogies/oral traditions
    4. 4. SCIENCE • Radio-carbon dating of charcoal • Archaeological findings – Lapita
    5. 5. LINGUISTICS • The scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics.
    6. 6. GENEALOGIES & ORAL TRADITIONS • Menehune • Hawai`inui • Hawai`iloa • Sequence of migrations from Tahiti – Kapawa led the first – P `ao & Makuakaumana follwedā
    7. 7. CHANT
    8. 8. WAYFINDING
    9. 9. PELE • Mai Kahiki Ka Wahine `o Pele – Chant that describes all of the different phenomena that Pele comes from – Those that traveled here with her on a wa`a (canoe)
    10. 10. MAI KAHIKI KA WAHINE `O PELE • Mai Kahiki ka wahine `o Pele • Mai ka ` ina i Polapolaā • Mai ka p nuohu `ula aū K neā • Mai ke ao lalapa i ka lani • Mai ka ` pua lapa iō Kahiki • From Kahiki came the woman Pele • From the land called Polapola • From the red rainbow of K neā • From the high blazing clouds of the sky • From the flashing cloud at Kahiki
    11. 11. MAI KAHIKI KA WAHINE `O PELE • Lapak i Hawai`i ka wahineū a Pele • K lai i ka wa`a Honuai keaā ā • Kou wa`a e Kamohoali`i • I apo`a ka moku i pa`a • Ua hoa ka wa`a o ke akua • Ka wa`a o K nek laihonuaā ā • The woman Pele is active in Hawai`i • The Honuai kea is carvedā • It is your canoe, Kamohoali`i • To obtain the chosen island • The canoe of the god was lashed • The canoe of K nek laihonuaā ā
    12. 12. MAI KAHIKI KA WAHINE `O PELE • Holo mai ke au • A`ea`e Pelehonuamea • A`ea`e ka lani, aipuni a i ka moku • A`ea`e kini o ke akua • Noho a`e `o Malau • Ua k `ia ka liu o ka wa`aā • I wai ka hope, ka liu o kaā wa`a • E n hoali`i, iā ā Pelehonuamea • Sailing upon the incoming tide • Aboard is Pelehonuamea • Aboard are the royals from the island • Aboard are the multitudes of deities • Malau sits • The canoe is emptied of water • To whom is the skill of the canoe’s stern • My chiefly companions, to Pelehonuamea
    13. 13. MAI KAHIKI KA WAHINE `O PELE • A`ea`e ka i hoe o luna o ka wa`a • `O K m l ua `o Lonoū ā ā • Noho i ka honua ` inaā • Kau aku i ka ho`olewa moku • Hi`iaka, no`eau, he akua • K a`e a noho i ka hale oū Pele • Ua hua`i Kahiki, lapa uila, e Pele • E hua`i ē • Aboard are the paddlers • K and Lonoū • To reside on the new land • They are placed high upon the land • Skillful Hi`iaka is a god herself • Rise, go and reside in the house of Pele • Kahiki bursts forth, Pele is flashing • Onward!
    14. 14. If you have any questions, please ask them on the Discussion Board. Mahalo!

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