KUMULIPO• The lineage of Papahānaumoku (also known as Papa or Haumea) and Wākea are mentioned in the Kumulipo, the epic chant of creation according to the Hawaiian people.• According to the Kumulipo, Papahānaumoku (Earth Mother) was born in darkness and Wākea (Sky Father) was created in the light. Their union, symbolizing male light’s penetration into female’s darkness, brought forth the birth of the Hawaiian islands and the Hawaiian people.
PAPA• Dr. Taupōuri Tangarō defines Papa as “the earth, the crust upon which floats the oceans, her ambiotic fluid; the crust that feeds the growth of coral, the placenta of ocean life. Whereas Wākea anchors us to the universe, Papahānaumoku anchors us to a geography, our sacred land base.”
WĀKEA Tangarō defines Wākea as “the male parent of Premordial origins, this informs us that Hawaiʻi’s traditional consciousness is not only land-based, but celestial, not only anchored in living land but in the sky, as well.” The Hawaiian Dictionary defines Wākea as the mythical ancestor of all Hawaiians.
HĀLOA• The myth of Hāloa is located in the Kumulipo and has been passed down generation to generations• The word Hāloa itself means long breath and infers to the strength and endurance of the Hawaiian people. Without breath we have no life; without without we have no voice.
MYTH OF HĀLOA• Papa and Wākea had a daughter named Hoʻohōkūkalani. Wākea and Hoʻohōkūkalani together conceived a child. Their union resulted in two births.
MYTH OF HĀLOA• The first birth was an unformed fetus (keiki ʻaluʻalu), who was born prematurely. He was named Hāloanakalaukapalili, meaning the quivering long stalk. Hāloanakalaukapalili was buried at the eastern corner of the house and from his burial grew the first kalo (taro) plant.
KA HIKINA: The east• The sun rises in the east and brings forth new life.• The east signifies birth, life, and growth.• Tangarō states that “the birth of the sun in the east is the birth of consciousness, it relates to this sacred space.”
MYTH OF HĀLOA• The second birth was a child named Hāloa in honor of his elder brother. Hāloa was born strong and healthy and is believed to be the first kanaka maoli, or Hawaiian man.
KULEANA• Thus, Haloanakalaukapalili, the kalo, is considered to be the older sibling and the kanaka Hawai`i (Hawaiian people) the younger sibling.• It is said that if you take care of your older siblings and your mother, they will nurture and take care of you.• This is the relationship that the Hawaiians have to kalo.
KALO• The kalo (taro) plant plays a vital part in the genealogy of the Hawaiian people as their most important crop and main sustenance. It is man’s responsibility to take care of the ʻāina (land) so that the ʻāina will feed the people.
`OHANA• It is also important to note that the term ʻohana (family) comes from the kalo plant itself. The corm of the kalo is called the ʻohā. The ʻohā is the main part of the plant that is used to feed one’s ʻohana. As the young shoot grows from the corm, people grow from the family.
SHOWING RESPECT• In Hawaiian tradition, it is considered disrespectful to fight in front of an elder. One should not raise the voice, speak angrily or make rude comments or gestures.• As such, when the poi bowl was open, there must be no quarreling or arguing for it was a sign of disrespect to Hāloa because Haloa (Taro) is the elder brother of humans.