Pay particular attention to the fact that many things in Hawaiian society, culture, language are dichotomies, opposites, diametric opposites
The most widely known kapu is the one that required men and women to eat separately, or `ai kapu. `Ai kapu were the laws that regulated food distribution, preparation and consumption `Ai kapu forbade men and women from eating together and also prohibited women from eating most of the foods offered as ritual sacrifices to the gods (for example, it was kapu for women to eat pork or bananas.) Men and women had separate eating houses but common sleeping house; women were forbidden from entering heiau temples or the men's house. Certain foods represented aspects of male gods, thus certain foods become sacred when specific meaning is attached to them. For example, pork was a symbol for the god Lono, coconut and the ulua fish were symbolic of Kū, and niuhi (white shark) was symbolic of Kāne. Because these and other foods symbolized the male gods, women were not only prohibited from eating these foods but were also prohibited from eating with men.
Kamehameha I passed in 1819. His son Liholiho (Kamehameha II) has succeeded him. Ka`ahumanu, high chiefess and a widow of Kamehameha is kuhina nui (executive “prime minister) They cast off the old gods and shattered the old system of religious social kapu Some welcomed the relief from laws they viewed as irrelevant while others feared the inevitable wrath of their ancestral spirits Though the influential ali`i had publicly broken with old gods and old beliefs, not everybody had accepted this severance
Not all were happy with `ai noa. Among the disgruntled ali`i was Kekuaokalani, a prominent young chief of Hawai`i island and the son of Kamehameha’s younger brother. Shaped in the mold of his uncle Kamehameha and steadfast to the ways of old, it was not surprising that Kamehameha decided to assign custody of his war god, Kūkā`ilimoku to Kekuaokalani than to his own son, Liholiho. Kekuaokalani refused the diplomatic efforts of Keiopuolani and Hoapili who offered to respect Kekuaokalani’s obsesrvance of the kapu as long as he returned to their community and accepted their leadership Kekuaokalani chose to fight instead, traveling on foot from Ka`awaloa at Kealakekua Bay to Kuamo`o Bay in Keauhou to fight those loyal to Liholiho led by Kalanimoku At Kuamoʻo in an area also known as Lekeleke, the two sides fought their battle, both parties using Western firearms. Though both sides had muskets, Kalanimoku had a small cannon mounted on a double canoe and cannons mounted on a small sailing vessel, in addition to 16 other cannons. Kekuaokalani and his wife Manono who fought beside him both died. More than 300 Hawaiians are buried at Lekeleke Burial Grounds as a result of the Kuamo`o Battle of 1819 Those who escaped the battle at Kuamo`o were later pardoned by Liholiho This was the last concerted effort to save the traditional Hawaiian religion
A smaller uprising in Hāmākua met the same fate, and by and large the kanaka maoli accepted the new order and resigned themselves to their fate There is evidence that some kahuna refused to heed to Liholiho’s command to destroy the heiau and some even found ways to preserve the ki`i akua or temple images.
In ancient Hale O Keawe served as a royal mausoleum, housing the remains of deified high chiefs. Genealogies and traditional accounts indicate that Hale o Keawe was likely built either by or for Keawe-i-kekahi-ali'i-o-ka-moku around A.D. 1700. The earliest western accounts indicate that in the 1820's the structure was largely intact with thatched hale, wooden palisade, and multiple ki'i. This indicates that even after end of the kapu system and the general destruction of heiau throughout the islands, Hale o Keawe survived largely unscathed, and continued to function as a royal mausoleum.
With departed gods and eating kapu went a prime function of the men – the ritual feeding of family gods kept in the hale mua (men’s eating house). Within the hale mua, there also went the practice of kā i mua, which placed the education of boys in male hands. In Hawaii, the Mua is the first formal educational institution that a young Hawaiian male is enrolled in. This sacred ritual is known as Ka I Mua, "Thrust into the This ritual was conducted when the community's elders deemed that the young male was mature enough to begin his education in acceptable & expected social, private and spiritual conduct. The young male was guided by his elders through a rigid mentoring system regarding the standards of performance that is expected of him and was held accountable for his actions or inactions. With the abolishment of `ai kapu, man’s role in the `ohana was weakened.
With the overthrow of gods and kapu, many kanaka maoli ceased open rituals, but continued to worship privately. For those who did, the coming years were full of conflict and confusion. With the arrival of Christianity in 1820, the missionaries preached that no other gods shall be worshipped, including the family `aumākua. The family `aumākua were an integral part of the ho`oponopono, so that too was not practiced openly. As such, it was either practiced in secret, forgotten or remembered with distortion.
Overall, `ai noa dramatized the end of Hawai`iʻs entire system of religion, laws the entire social structure built on and reinforced by a belief in the old gods. It caused seeds of confusion, doubt, and loss of a sense of personal identification with the culture to be planted
Ai kapu ai noa
`AI KAPU `AI NOA
`AI KAPU• Kapu – Taboo, prohibition; special privilege or exemption from ordinary taboo; sacredness; prohibited, forbidden; sacred, holy, consecrated; no trespassing, keep out.• `Ai kapu – To eat under taboo; to observe eating taboos.
`AI NOA• Noa – Freed of taboo, released from restrictions, profane; freedom.• `Ai noa – To eat freely, without observance of taboos.
`AI NOA• 1819 – Kamehameha I died – End of `ai kapu by Liholiho (Kamehameha II) & Ka`ahumanu
BATTLE OF KUAMO`O• Kekuaokalani led traditionalists to oppose Liholiho’s supporters led by Kalanimoku• Battle of Kuamo`o at Keauhou in 1819• Lekeleke Burial Grounds