Introduction: Greet Hofstede’s culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values Comparative Human ...
Introduction of Greet Hofstede  Contents Example & Discussion Consulting and business practices The many dimensions of cul...
Introduction of Greet Hofstede  Geert Hofstede ( October 1928 ) 1928 Born in Haarlem, the Netherlands as Gerard Hendrik Ho...
Introduction of Greet Hofstede  Geert Hofstede ( October 1928 ) 1965-71 Founded and managed the Personnel Research Departm...
Introduction of Greet Hofstede  Geert Hofstede ( October 1928 ) 1983-86 Dean, Semafor Senior Management Program, Arnhem, t...
Introduction Here comes your footer     Page  Enter your subtitle here 1980 Before After Multi-disciplined Education Work...
Hofstede’s consequences: The impact of his work on consulting and business practices.
Pratical applications <ul><li>Practitioners may be prone involves predicting individual cultural preferences by inference ...
Pratical applications <ul><li>Austria </li></ul>Here comes your footer     Page  Visible Dimension Farmers’ woodpiles Sam...
Pratical applications <ul><li>Germany </li></ul>Here comes your footer     Page  Stereotype Strong Leader  VS. Low Power ...
Pratical applications <ul><li>New Employee Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Workplaces </li></ul><ul><li>Reloca...
Pratical applications Here comes your footer     Page  Leadership Training & Development <ul><li>Models of Leadership </l...
Pratical applications <ul><li>Managing Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging Joint Ventures <...
Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Individual style? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on h...
Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Power Distance/Hierarchical style? </li></ul><...
Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference Certainty/Structure Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li...
Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference Risk Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>•  Reward crea...
Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference Task Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>•  Stress and ...
Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Relationship Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>• ...
The many dimensions of culture
The many dimensions of culture Here comes your footer     Page  The Cultural and Individual Levels of Analysis Ex:  a per...
The many dimensions of culture Here comes your footer     Page  Implication for working in Another Culture Individualism-...
When it comes to current issue…
What Hofstede's values suggest for recovery?! Here comes your footer     Page
Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer     Page  Enter your subtitle here Japan is a high-power d...
Individualism (IDV) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer     Page  <ul><li>. </li></ul>Enter your subtitle here <ul...
Uncertainty avoidance (UA) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer     Page  Enter your subtitle here Cultures high in...
Masculinity (MAS) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer     Page  Enter your subtitle here &quot;Masculinity&quot; r...
Long-term orientation (LTO) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer     Page  Enter your subtitle here Long-term orien...
Be brave&optimistic! Here comes your footer     Page
Discussion Here comes your footer     Page  <ul><li>If you are the HR manager in Japan, what are the problems you may enc...
Here comes your footer     Page  Thanks for paying attention!
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  • International differences in work-related values

    1. 1. Introduction: Greet Hofstede’s culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values Comparative Human Resource Management Professor Jaw-Bih Shaw Sylvia Huang 2011/03/18
    2. 2. Introduction of Greet Hofstede Contents Example & Discussion Consulting and business practices The many dimensions of culture
    3. 3. Introduction of Greet Hofstede Geert Hofstede ( October 1928 ) 1928 Born in Haarlem, the Netherlands as Gerard Hendrik Hofstede 1945-47 Technical College (HTS); one year of internships, including a voyage to Indonesia as an assistant ship's engineer 1947-53 Delft Technical University. Diploma (M.Sc.) Mechanical Engineering 1955 Worked incognito as a factory hand in Amsterdam 1955-65 Professional and managerial jobs in 3 Dutch industrial companies 1964-67 Part-time doctoral study at Groningen University. Doctor of Social Science (Ph.D.; cum laude). Thesis: &quot;The Game of Budget Control&quot;
    4. 4. Introduction of Greet Hofstede Geert Hofstede ( October 1928 ) 1965-71 Founded and managed the Personnel Research Department of IBM Europe 1971-73 Visiting lecturer of Organizational Behavior, IMD, Lausanne, Switzerland 1973-79 Professor of Management, EIASM (European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management), Brussels, Belgium 1973-79 Visiting Professor of Management, INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France 1980-93 Co-founder and first Director, IRIC (Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation), the Netherlands 1980-83 Director of Human Resources, Fasson Europe, Leiden, the Netherlands
    5. 5. Introduction of Greet Hofstede Geert Hofstede ( October 1928 ) 1983-86 Dean, Semafor Senior Management Program, Arnhem, the Netherlands 1985-93 Professor of Organizational Anthropology and International Management, Maastricht University, the Netherlands 1993 Professor Emeritus 1992-2000 Honorary Professor, University of Hong Kong 1993-2004 Senior Fellow, IRIC 1995-2010 Extramural Fellow, CentER for Economic Research, University of Tilburg
    6. 6. Introduction Here comes your footer  Page Enter your subtitle here 1980 Before After Multi-disciplined Education Work Experience polyglot history Medicine Social anthropology Political science Law Social geography Journalism Public Administration Information Technology Accounting Quality Control
    7. 7. Hofstede’s consequences: The impact of his work on consulting and business practices.
    8. 8. Pratical applications <ul><li>Practitioners may be prone involves predicting individual cultural preferences by inference Hofstede’s country scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The lowest Hofstede Dimension for the Arab World is the Individualism (IDV) ranking at 38, compared to a world average ranking of 64. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Common Error The Value of Quantitative Research <ul><li>The dimensions should be used to help learners understand their own cultural tendencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of different preferences can be explored in specific workplace and organizational components. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Pratical applications <ul><li>Austria </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Visible Dimension Farmers’ woodpiles Same clear male voice announcing in subway No barriers to entrance to the stations Choosing their own conductors of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
    10. 10. Pratical applications <ul><li>Germany </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Stereotype Strong Leader VS. Low Power Distance
    11. 11. Pratical applications <ul><li>New Employee Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Workplaces </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation Training </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Nuanced Global Business Practices </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Orientation & Training
    12. 12. Pratical applications Here comes your footer  Page Leadership Training & Development <ul><li>Models of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Management Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating Across Geographic and Institutional Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Global Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Global Competencies. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Pratical applications <ul><li>Managing Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging Joint Ventures </li></ul><ul><li>Vetting Employee Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Specific Business </li></ul><ul><li>Globalizing Functions </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of culture on Change Strategy </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Business Practices
    14. 14. Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Individual style? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how the change is good for them (appeal to their self-interest) </li></ul><ul><li>Allow individuals to formulate and ask questions </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page The impact of culture on Change Strategy <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Group style? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how the change is good for the group (appeal to their common-interest) </li></ul><ul><li>Allow groups to formulate and ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the group to consult with each other and spend time working out their responses, questions and concerns </li></ul>
    15. 15. Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Power Distance/Hierarchical style? </li></ul><ul><li>Use senior staff to make announcements/ to communicate change </li></ul><ul><li>Use legitimate power to exercise authority </li></ul><ul><li>Tell subordinates what to do differently(do not leave it to them to figure out ”how” to do things differently) </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page The impact of culture on Change Strategy <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Low Power Distance/Participative style? </li></ul><ul><li>Use influencing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Include them in a discussion; explain your (or company’s) position </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for questions and challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a forum where they can be involved in discussion/framing “how” things will be different(work processes during the interim ) after you provide the ”what” </li></ul>
    16. 16. Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference Certainty/Structure Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide specific rules/structures/interim structures. </li></ul><ul><li>• Recognize their need for information. Have available lots of supporting data and even theory, if appropriate. Use a logical flow to your interactions. Provide them with examples of others who have used the approach </li></ul><ul><li>successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide them with a cost analysis to help them see the cost-benefit comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>• Share what they need to know. </li></ul><ul><li>• Use channels. </li></ul><ul><li>• Focus on compliance with procedures and policies. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page The impact of culture on Change Strategy
    17. 17. Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference Risk Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>• Reward creative behavior that moves the group/division/company toward the end even if it was “outside the box.” </li></ul><ul><li>• Focus on the process of learning as the employees move toward the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>• Share information and open many communication forums. </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide them with an outline of information for them to use in decision-making. A returnon- investment scenario would go a long way to helping them make a quick decision. They may not need to know how it is going to work as long as the numbers make sense. </li></ul><ul><li>• There is less need to prove others have tried an approach and that it works, although a case study couldn’t hurt—but provide it in bullets. </li></ul><ul><li>• Start with the bottom line, then build your case around their questions. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page The impact of culture on Change Strategy
    18. 18. Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference Task Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>• Stress and reward performance and results. </li></ul><ul><li>• Expect that work takes precedence over family life. </li></ul><ul><li>• Remember their focus is “Live to work.” </li></ul><ul><li>• Show drive or ambition for completion of tasks and meeting of deadlines. </li></ul><ul><li>• Communicate and respond with a sense of urgency. </li></ul><ul><li>• Deliver what is promised, when you promise, and give 20% more than you promised. </li></ul><ul><li>• A good manager should be decisive.. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page The impact of culture on Change Strategy
    19. 19. Pratical applications <ul><li>How do you handle those with a preference for Relationship Orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>• Stress interdependence. </li></ul><ul><li>• Focus on continued service to the internal and external customer. </li></ul><ul><li>• Remember these clients are more likely to “Work to live”—stress how the changes improve quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>• Stress solidarity and service. </li></ul><ul><li>• Remember these employees have a family life—take this into account. </li></ul><ul><li>• Emphasize humility and modesty in your approach. </li></ul><ul><li>• Resolve conflicts by compromise and negotiation. </li></ul><ul><li>• A good manager should be intuitive. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page The impact of culture on Change Strategy
    20. 20. The many dimensions of culture
    21. 21. The many dimensions of culture Here comes your footer  Page The Cultural and Individual Levels of Analysis Ex: a person could be high in both collectivist and individualist tendencies What was considered universal in psychology is not valid everywhere .
    22. 22. The many dimensions of culture Here comes your footer  Page Implication for working in Another Culture Individualism- collectivism has become the most important dimension .
    23. 23. When it comes to current issue…
    24. 24. What Hofstede's values suggest for recovery?! Here comes your footer  Page
    25. 25. Power Distance (PD) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Enter your subtitle here Japan is a high-power distance country, which implies that the society endorses inequality and accepts and expects unequal distribution of power within its organizations and institutions. In contrast, the USA, is a low-power distance country. Yet, even that is relative, because other countries – particularly those in Northern Europe -- are even lower power-distance than the USA. Japan’s high-PD orientation suggests that those in power – perhaps its leading multi-nationals in concert with its government – will decide what will be rebuilt
    26. 26. Individualism (IDV) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page <ul><li>. </li></ul>Enter your subtitle here <ul><li>. </li></ul>No country ranks higher than the USA on individualism, which is an idea grounded in personal achievement. &quot;IDV&quot; also refers to individuals' inclination to look primarily after themselves and their immediate families. Japan is collectivist, which is generally considered to be the polar opposite of individualist. Collectivist societies are less concerned with themselves as individuals and more concerned about their important group allegiances, such as their extended family and their employer. Here, it will be interesting to see whether the way forward is driven by competing in-groups or a society that pursues the goals of a collective. My guess goes toward competing in-groups. In fact, this internal competition might well be a serious challenge to cultural orientations that would otherwise favor an optimal restoration.
    27. 27. Uncertainty avoidance (UA) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Enter your subtitle here Cultures high in UA are uncomfortable with unusual circumstances and lack of structure, while cultures low in UA are better able to tolerate new or ambiguous circumstances. The USA is a high-UA country, while Japan is a low-UA country. However, the two are actually not that far apart because both are closer to the UA midpoint than to either extreme. This suggests that Japan, particularly because it is a developed country with a history of extraordinary recovery, may construct an infrastructure that is even stronger and higher-tech than the one that has been crippled. But we will see…
    28. 28. Masculinity (MAS) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Enter your subtitle here &quot;Masculinity&quot; refers not only to a gendered orientation but also to a competitive one. Its opposite – femininity – refers to a more modest and caring attitude toward others. Both the USA and Japan are high-MAS, though Japan is higher MAS than the USA. In fact, Japan is the highest MAS country, according to Hofstede's research. Japan's high-MAS orientation suggests that its restoration will be enacted with assertive – possibly aggressive – intent to enhance the country's global competitiveness.
    29. 29. Long-term orientation (LTO) <ul><li>. </li></ul>Here comes your footer  Page Enter your subtitle here Long-term orientation (LTO), known originally as “Confucican Dynamism.” Hofstede added it later in collaboration with Michael Harris Bond, Ph.D., who is today leading ground-breaking work on individual-level cultural dimensions known as “social axioms.” Paraphrasing liberally, LTO encompasses the idea that a society values thrift in the short-term as an investment in future prosperity. Japan is well into high-LTO territory, suggesting that it will not rush to rebuild – but instead – will take the time to do so in the service of future generations. The USA is a short-term orientation country.
    30. 30. Be brave&optimistic! Here comes your footer  Page
    31. 31. Discussion Here comes your footer  Page <ul><li>If you are the HR manager in Japan, what are the problems you may encounter after the disaster? </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the cultural dimensions, what will you probably do to resolve these problems that could happened? </li></ul>  Country PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO China * 80 20 66 30 118 South Korea 60 18 39 85 75 Japan 54 46 95 92 80 Taiwan 58 17 45 69 87 United States 40 91 62 46 29
    32. 32. Here comes your footer  Page Thanks for paying attention!

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