Common Name: Indian Tiger
Scientific Name: Leo Tigris
The Indian Tiger has a small head in proportion to his body. He's not cold- blooded, but a warm-blooded
mammal who weighs 400-569 lbs. The measurement of the Indian Tiger, from the balancing tail, to the
strong, pointed teeth, measures around 10 ft.
At birth the Indian Tiger cub weighs between 800 - 1500 grams and measures 31 - 40 cm in length. By
the time the tiger reaches maturity it can weigh up to 250 kg and measure 3 metres from nose to tail
(females are usually slightly smaller than the male).
The Indian tiger is a reddish-brown to rust-brown colour with a white underbelly. It is known for its
distinctive black stripes. White and black tigers are caused by a recessive gene.
The Indian Tiger cub stays with its mother and siblings until about the age of two when they
move on to establish its own territory. The tiger is usually a solitary
animal except during the breeding season. During breeding season,
which most commonly takes place during the winter and spring,
last about 20 to 30 days. During this time, tigers communicate with
each other with loud and distinct calls that travel great distances.
The Bengal tiger is a meat eater with a diet that includes deer, pig, buffalo. Occasionally the
tiger will eat birds and fish.
The Indian Tiger lives in the country of India, on the continent of Asia. This Tiger is happy in his
habitat as long as he lives near tall grass, wet swamps, dim forests and prey.
Lions are the only cats that live in groups, which are called prides. Prides are family units that
may include up to three males, a dozen or so females, and their young. All of a pride's lionesses
are related, and female cubs typically stay with the group as they age. Young males eventually
leave and establish their own prides by taking over a group headed by another male.
Only male lions boast manes, the impressive fringe of long hair that encircles their heads. Males
defend the pride's territory, which may include some 100 square miles (259 square kilometers) of
grasslands, scrub, or open woodlands. These intimidating animals mark the area with urine, roar
menacingly to warn intruders, and chase off animals that encroach on their turf.
Female lions are the pride's primary hunters. They often work together to prey upon antelopes,
zebras, wildebeest, and other large animals of the open grasslands. Many of these animals are
faster than lions, so teamwork pays off.
After the hunt, the group effort often degenerates to squabbling over the sharing of the kill, with
cubs at the bottom of the pecking order. Young lions do not help to hunt until they are about a
year old. Lions will hunt alone if the opportunity presents itself, and they also steal kills from
hyenas or wild dogs.
Lions have been celebrated throughout history for their courage and strength. They once roamed
most of Africa and parts of Asia and Europe. Today they are found only in parts of sub-Saharan
Africa, except for one very small population of Asian lions that survives in India's Gir Forest.
Zebras (/ˈ brə/ ZEB-rə or /ˈ brə/ ZEE-brə) are several species of African
equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white stripes. Their stripes come in
different patterns, unique to each individual. They are generally social animals that live in small
harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives, horses and asses, zebras have never been
There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra, the Grévy's zebra and the mountain
zebra. The plains zebra and the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, but Grévy's
zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles an ass, to which it is
closely related, while the former two are more horse-like. All three belong to the genus Equus,
along with other living equids.
The unique stripes of zebras make them one of the animals most familiar to people. They
occur in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, savannas, woodlands, thorny scrublands,
mountains, and coastal hills. However, various anthropogenic factors have had a severe impact
on zebra populations, in particular hunting for skins and habitat destruction. Grévy's zebra and
the mountain zebra are endangered. While plains zebras are much more plentiful, one subspecies,
the quagga, became extinct in the late 19th century – though there is currently a plan, called the
Quagga Project, that aims to breed zebras that are phenotypically similar to the quagga in a
process called breeding back.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during
the Triassic period, approximately 230 million years ago, and were the dominant terrestrial
vertebrates for 135 million years, from the beginning of the Jurassic (about 201 million years
ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (66 million years ago), when the Cretaceous–Paleogene
extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur groups at the close of the Mesozoic Era.
The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic Period
and, consequently, they are considered a subgroup of dinosaurs by many paleontologists. Some
birds survived the extinction event that occurred 66 million years ago, and their descendants
continue the dinosaur lineage to the present day.
Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological
standpoints. Birds, at over 9,000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides
perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct
genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are
represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains. Some are
herbivorous, others carnivorous. While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups
included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate
display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, and some extinct
groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines. Evidence suggests that
egg laying and nest building are additional traits shared by all dinosaurs. While modern birds are
generally small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs were large-bodied—
the largest sauropod dinosaurs may have achieved lengths of 58 meters (190 feet) and heights of
9.25 meters (30 feet 4 inches). Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic
is a misconception based on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more likely to last until
they are fossilized. Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about
50 cm (20 in) long.
Rhinoceros /raɪ ˈ sərəs/, often abbreviated as rhino, is a group of five extant species
of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa
and three to Southern Asia.
Members of the rhinoceros family are characterized by their large size (they are some of
the largest remaining megafauna, with all of the species able to reach one tonne or more in
weight); as well as by a herbivorous diet; a thick protective skin, 1.5–5 cm thick, formed from
layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure; relatively small brains for mammals this size
(400–600 g); and a large horn. They generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment
food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter, if necessary. Unlike
other perissodactyls, the two African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths,
relying instead on their powerful premolar and molar teeth to grind up plant food.
Rhinoceros are killed by humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black
market, and which are used by some cultures for ornamental or traditional medicinal purposes.
The horns are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails.
Both African species and the Sumatran rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan
rhinoceros have a single horn.
The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large feline (family Felidae,
subfamily Felinae) inhabiting most of Africa and parts of the Middle East. It is the only extant
member of the genus Acinonyx. The cheetah can run faster than any other land animal— as fast
as 112 to 120 km/h (70 to 75 mph) in short bursts covering distances up to 500 m
(1,600 ft), and has the ability to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in three seconds. Data
from 367 runs by three female and two male adults, with an average run distance of 173 m,
showed that while hunting cheetahs can run 58 miles (93 km) per hour.
The cheetah has unusually low genetic variability. This is accompanied by a very low
sperm count, motility, and deformed flagella. Skin grafts between unrelated cheetahs illustrate
the former point, in that there is no rejection of the donor skin. It is thought that the species went
through a prolonged period of inbreeding following a genetic bottleneck during the last ice age.
This suggests that genetic monomorphism did not prevent the cheetah from flourishing across
two continents for thousands of years.
The cheetah likely evolved in Africa during the Miocene epoch (26 million to 7.5 million
years ago), before migrating to Asia. Recent research has placed the last common ancestor of all
existing populations as living in Asia 11 million years ago, which may lead to revision and
refinement of existing ideas about cheetah evolution.