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PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students
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PhDLinux: A Linux Crash Course for PhD Students

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A linux crash course for PhD Students, covering the basics of Linux and providing the knowledge needed to start with a distro installation.

A linux crash course for PhD Students, covering the basics of Linux and providing the knowledge needed to start with a distro installation.

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  • 1. PhDLinux: a Linux crash course for PhD Students Davide Eynard David Laniado eynard@elet.polimi.it david.laniado@elet.polimi.it
  • 2. 2 Table of contents  Introduction  Which distro?  Linux basics  Our first installation  And now?  Conclusions Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 3. 3 Richard Stallman and the Free Software 1983: GNU project (GNU's Not Unix) 1985: Free Software Foundation Free as in freedom as in “free speech”, not “free beer” 0. Freedom to run the program for any purpose. 1. Freedom to study and modify the program. 2. Freedom to copy the program so you can help your neighbor. 3. Freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. 1989: General Public License (GPL) copyleft -> to protect sw freedom Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 4. 4 Linus Torvalds and the Linux kernel 1991: “Just for fun”, Linus Torvalds, a finnish young student, decides to develop the linux kernel Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. Linus shares his code on the internet: hundreds of users-developers begin to collaborate 1992: Linux under the GNU GPL licence 1994: release 1.0, 500.000 users Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 5. 5 The Cathedral and the Bazaar • “experts” • “users-developers” • hierarchy • decentralization • isolation • collaboration • sharing • natural selection of ideas Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 6. 6 Linux distros Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 7. 7 Some Linux basics There are some concepts you should be aware of, even before your very first installation:  filesystem and devices  the shell  apps and packages Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 8. 8 Filesystem and devices  Devices: everything's a file • Hard disks: hda, hdb, sda1, ... • Network cards: eth0, wlan1, ... • Other devices: usbdev, stdin, null, ...  Filesystem structure  Linux as a multiuser system: permissions and sudo Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 9. 9 The Linux shell  the login  help! • man • try to write ”commandname ­­help”  main file commands • ls, cd, cp, mv, rm, mkdir, rmdir, touch  view/edit • cat, more, less, vi, grep  processes • top, ps, kill  archive • tar, gzip, bzip Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 10. 10 Applications and packages  applications are packaged, and (almost) every distro has its own package format • ours is .deb  different tools are used to manage packages • shell is power, learn apt-get, dselect or aptitude  apt-get • apt-cache search name • apt-get install name • apt-get remove name • apt-get update • apt-get dist-upgrade Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 11. 11 Ubuntu installation Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 12. 12 ... and now? Once the system is installed, you can:  see what's inside it  configure your apps  install new software Need help?  Ubuntu Guide  Ubuntu Forums  Windows replacements Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 13. 13 Software configuration – old skool Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 14. 14 Software configuration – new skool Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 15. 15 Software installation  Add/Remove apps  Synaptics Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 16. 16 Synaptics: add repositories  choose “partner” repository  add: deb http://packages.medibuntu.org/ hardy free non-free  see also: http://www.medibuntu.org/ Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 17. 17 Software installation  Internet software • Thunderbird, Opera, Azureus, Amule • GFTP, XChat, Skype  Write papers • LaTeX and Kyle  Scientific software • Abaqus, Labview, Matlab, MSC Patran for Linux • Scilab, GNUplot  Development • Eclipse  ... add your software here • Still need windows apps? Try Wine! Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 18. 18 Matlab installation or: here's how things work here ;-)  get ISO at http://cdserver.cia.polimi.it/iso/matlab/unix  the file is a multipart RAR archive: uncompress it with unrar x Matlab_2007b_linux_mac_solaris_nov2007_3001.rar.part1.exe  once you have the ISO, you can burn it or mount it on your current filesystem mkdir tmp sudo mount -o loop Matlab_2007b_linux_mac_solaris_nov2007_3001.iso tmp/  for the license file, remember to use the very last version! (it has been sent to us by email recently) Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 19. 19 So, now? Gaining a full knowledge of Linux in a couple of hours is pretty difficult. We hope that now, at least:  you have an idea about what Linux is  you have some curiosity towards it  you are able to get started with an easy distro  you know there's other people here at DEI using it ... why don't we network and share info and help about Linux? Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI
  • 20. 20 Conclusions Questions? ;­) Davide Eynard – David Laniado DEI

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