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Marginal, Unattached or Free Gingiva It is the terminal edge or border of the gingiva It is the terminal edge or border of the gingivasurrounding the teeth and it is demarcated from thesurrounding the teeth and it is demarcated from the attached gingiva by the free gingival groove. attached gingiva by the free gingival groove.
Junctional Epithelium Gingival Fuid Comes from the Comes from theSurrounds the necks of Surrounds the necks of gingival connective gingival connectiveeach tooth. each tooth. tissue. tissue.Have a key role to maintain Have a key role to maintainthe periodontal health. the periodontal health. Helps to the Helps to theIt works as a pathway for It works as a pathway for mechanical cleaning of mechanical cleaning ofthe diffusion of the products the diffusion of the products the sulcus. the sulcus.from the metabolism of from the metabolism ofbacteria. bacteria. Has antimicrobial Has antimicrobial properties. properties.
Attached GingivaIt is a continuity to the marginal gingiva.Is firm, resilient and firmly bound to theunderlying periosteum of alveolar bone
Interdental Gingiva (Papilla) It occupies the gingival embrasure.Can be pyramidal or has a “col” shape
The gingiva consists of Central core of Stratified SquamousConnective Tissue Epithelium Keratinized orFibers ParakeratinizedGround SubstanceCells Non-keratinized
Functions Functions To brace the marginal gingiva firmly against the tooth. To provide the rigidity necessary to withstand the forces of mastication without being deflected away from the tooth surface. To unite the free marginal gingiva with the cementum of the root and the adjacent attached gingiva.
Correlation of Clinical and Microscopic FeaturesColour SizeCoral The bulk ofPink cellular and intercellular elements and their vascular supply
Correlation of Clinical and Microscopic FeaturesConsistency Shape ContourFirm andResilient
Texture Peel orange appearance (A. Gingiva and central portion of I. Papilla) Smooth in the borders
Periodontal Ligament. Cementum. Alveolar Bone
Periodontal Ligament Itis the connective tissue that surrounds the root and connects it to the bone.
Periodontal FibersThey are the most important component of the P. Ligamentand are arranged in 6 groups: Transseptal Alveolar Crest Horizontal Oblique Apical Interradicular
Cellular Elements1. Connective tissue cells: Fibroblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts.2. Epithelial rest cells (Malassez): Close to the cementum, more numerous at the apical area.3. Immune system cells: Neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, etc.4. Cells associated with neurovascular elements
Functions of the Periodontal Ligament Physical: Attachment of the teeth to the bone, transmission of the occlusal forces and resistance to the impact of these forces and maintenance of the gingival tissue in their proper relationship to the teeth.
Functions of the Periodontal Ligament Formative and Remodelling: Cells of the P. Ligament participate in the formation and resorption of cementum and bone. Nutritional and Sensory: By the blood vessels and sensory nerve fibers that transmit tactile, pressure and pain sensetions.
Calcified tissue that forms the outer surface of the anatomic root C E Acellular Cellular M EIt is the first to be formed, before the tooth reaches N Formed after the tooth reaches the occlusal plane. the occlusal plane. T More irregular and containsCovers the cervical third or half of the root. U cells (cementocytes). Less calcified than theIt doesnt contain cells. M a cellular type.
Alveolar Bone It is the portion of the jaws that forms and supports the tooth sockets. It’s formed when the tooth erupts to provides the osseous attachment to the tooth and disappears gradually after the tooth is lost. Cancellous Trabeculae External plate of cortical boneAlveolar bone proper