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Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
Class01.04
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Class01.04

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  • 1. Approaches and Methods in ESL/ EFL Instruction
  • 2. Points to consider: <ul><li>Nature of Language Teaching Approaches/ Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Major trends in 20th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Trends in the 21st Century </li></ul>
  • 3. Nature of language teaching approaches <ul><li>Approaches / Methods differ in the way they see L2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical / Similar / Different from L1 learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently - provide a native-language learning-like environment and have learning in communicative contexts as main emphasis = communicative competence and performance </li></ul>
  • 4. Major trends in 20th Century <ul><li>Grammar translation method </li></ul><ul><li>The Direct Method </li></ul><ul><li>The Audio-Lingual Method </li></ul><ul><li>The Natural Approach </li></ul>
  • 5. Alternative approaches <ul><li>Total Physical Response </li></ul><ul><li>The Silent Way </li></ul><ul><li>The Community Language Learning </li></ul>
  • 6. Community language learning [CLL] <ul><li>Created specially for adult learners who fear to appear foolish when learning a 2nd language </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher = a language counselor. He must understand the student and lead him/her to overcome his/her fears. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Charles A. Curran [70s] </li></ul><ul><li>It develops a sense of community within the classroom </li></ul>
  • 7. CLL - characteristics <ul><li>Tape-recording student conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection on experience </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective listening </li></ul><ul><li>The human computer - the T is controlled by the students and is required to repeat the words and phrases the students want as many times as they ask. </li></ul><ul><li>Small group tasks. </li></ul>
  • 8. More information on CLL <ul><li>http://members.fortunecity.com/nadabs/communitylearn.html </li></ul>
  • 9. 21 century trends <ul><li>Communicative Language Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Based Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Task-Based Instruction </li></ul>
  • 10. References <ul><li>Richards, J & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching . Cambridge Language Teaching Library. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul>

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