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Class01.04

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  • 1. Approaches and Methods in ESL/ EFL Instruction
  • 2. Points to consider:
    • Nature of Language Teaching Approaches/ Methods
    • Major trends in 20th Century
    • Alternative approaches
    • Trends in the 21st Century
  • 3. Nature of language teaching approaches
    • Approaches / Methods differ in the way they see L2
      • Identical / Similar / Different from L1 learning
    • Currently - provide a native-language learning-like environment and have learning in communicative contexts as main emphasis = communicative competence and performance
  • 4. Major trends in 20th Century
    • Grammar translation method
    • The Direct Method
    • The Audio-Lingual Method
    • The Natural Approach
  • 5. Alternative approaches
    • Total Physical Response
    • The Silent Way
    • The Community Language Learning
  • 6. Community language learning [CLL]
    • Created specially for adult learners who fear to appear foolish when learning a 2nd language
    • Teacher = a language counselor. He must understand the student and lead him/her to overcome his/her fears.
    • Based on Charles A. Curran [70s]
    • It develops a sense of community within the classroom
  • 7. CLL - characteristics
    • Tape-recording student conversation
    • Transcription
    • Reflection on experience
    • Reflective listening
    • The human computer - the T is controlled by the students and is required to repeat the words and phrases the students want as many times as they ask.
    • Small group tasks.
  • 8. More information on CLL
    • http://members.fortunecity.com/nadabs/communitylearn.html
  • 9. 21 century trends
    • Communicative Language Teaching
    • Cooperative Language Learning
    • Content-Based Instruction
    • Task-Based Instruction
  • 10. References
    • Richards, J & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching . Cambridge Language Teaching Library. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.