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Ahistoricoverview Ahistoricoverview Presentation Transcript

  • A historic overview of Language Teaching Approaches Angelita Quevedo
    • Pre- 20th Century Trends
    • Popular approaches in Language Teaching in 20 th Century
  • Pre-20th Century Trends:
    • Greek and Rome Period [lingua franca]
    • Renaissance
    • 1631-1658
    • 19 th Century
    • The end of 19 th Century
    • Early 20 th century
  • Greek and Rome Period:
    • Foreign Language learning [higher learning, philosophy, religion, politics and business]
    • Aural-oral techniques: informal and direct approaches
  • Renaissance
    • Formal study of grammars of Greek and Latin
      • Invention of printing press
      • Mass production of books
    • Classical grammar in school instruction
    • Latin being used in everyday purposes
  • Johann Amos Comenius [1592 - 1670]
    • Books about teaching techniques [1631-1658]
    • To teach usage not analysis of language
      • Imitation instead of rules
      • Repetition
      • Practice reading and speaking
      • Meaningful pictures
  • Beginning of 19th Century
    • Systematic study of the grammar of classical Latin and text taken over
    • Analytical Grammar-Translation approach
  • The end of 19th Century
    • Direct Method: to use rather then to analyze a language
      • France, Germany, Europe [1880 - publications]
      • Spoken form taught first
      • Solid training in phonetic
      • Pronunciation and oral skills
    • In the early 20th century, DA crossed the Atlantic …
  • Other approaches
    • Due to limitations of language teachers
    • Reading approach (1941 in U.S.)
    • world war II
      • Audiolingual Approach (U.S.)
      • Oral Situational Approach (Britain)
  • 20th Century: 9 Approaches
    • Grammar-Translation
    • Direct
    • Reading
    • Audio-lingualism (U.S.)
    • Oral-Situational (Britain)
  • 20th Century: 9 Approaches
    • Cognitive
    • Affective-Humanistic
    • Comprehension-Based
    • Communicative
  • Homework:
    • What do we mean by:
      • Approach
      • Method
      • Technique
    • Are these terms synonymous? If not, how do they differ?
  • Grammar Translation Approach
    • Instruction given in native language
    • Almost no use of target language,
    • Grammatical parsing: forms and inflection,
    • Translate sentences,
    • Early reading of classical texts,
    • Results: Not for oral communication
  • Direct Approach
    • No use of mother tongue
    • Dialogues and anecdotes in modern onversational style
    • Actions and pictures are used
    • Grammar and target culture taught inductively
    • Literary texts used for pleasure
    • Teacher must be a native speaker or have nativelike proficiency
  • Reading Approach
    • Grammar useful for reading
    • Vocabulary is controlled, then expanded
    • Translation
    • Reading comprehension emphasized
    • Teacher - does not need to have good oral proficiency in the target language.
  • Audiolingualism [1940s, 1950s, 1960s]
    • Dialogues, mimicry, memorization
    • Sequenced grammar structures
    • Sequenced skills: listening speaking, reading, writing
    • Pronunciation stressed
    • Context and materials are carefully controlled
    • Great effort to prevent learner errors
    • Teacher must be proficient in what he’s teaching
  • Situational Approach [UK]
    • Spoken language
    • All material is practiced orally
    • Target language used
    • Grammatical structures are graded from simple to complex
    • New items are presented situationally (at the bank, at the dinner table, etc,.)
  • Cognitive Approach
    • Language learning = rule acquisition
    • Individualized instruction
    • Grammar: deductively - rule first, practice later/ inductively - stated after practice or left implicit
    • Pronunciation is de-emphasized
    • Reading, writing and vocabulary instruction are important
    • Errors are inevitable
    • Teacher has good general proficiency
  • Affective Humanistic Approach
    • Respect is emphasized
    • Instruction involves much work in pairs and small group
    • Meaningful communication
    • Learning a foreign language = Self-realization experience
    • Class atmosphere, peer support and interaction
    • Teacher = counselor or facilitator. He has to be proficient in both language [target and students’]
  • Comprehension based Approach
    • Due to research in first language acquisition
    • Listening comprehension - basic skill
    • Exposed to meaningful input/ respond non-verbally
    • Learners should not speak until they feel ready
    • Rule learning may help monitor what they do
    • Error correction is not necessary
    • Authentic materials: audio and video tapes
    • Teacher is near-native
  • Communicative Approach
    • Language = system for communication
    • Goal: Communicate in target language
    • Content: semantic notions and social functions, not just linguistic structures
    • Group or pair works
    • Role play and drama
    • Authentic real-life material
    • Integrated skills from the beginning
    • Teacher’s role: facilitate communication [1]/ correct mistakes [2]. Be able to use target language fluently and appropriately.
  • Reference
    • Celce-Murcia, M. 1991. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Second Edition. Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.