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    Ahistoricoverview Ahistoricoverview Presentation Transcript

    • A historic overview of Language Teaching Approaches Angelita Quevedo
      • Pre- 20th Century Trends
      • Popular approaches in Language Teaching in 20 th Century
    • Pre-20th Century Trends:
      • Greek and Rome Period [lingua franca]
      • Renaissance
      • 1631-1658
      • 19 th Century
      • The end of 19 th Century
      • Early 20 th century
    • Greek and Rome Period:
      • Foreign Language learning [higher learning, philosophy, religion, politics and business]
      • Aural-oral techniques: informal and direct approaches
    • Renaissance
      • Formal study of grammars of Greek and Latin
        • Invention of printing press
        • Mass production of books
      • Classical grammar in school instruction
      • Latin being used in everyday purposes
    • Johann Amos Comenius [1592 - 1670]
      • Books about teaching techniques [1631-1658]
      • To teach usage not analysis of language
        • Imitation instead of rules
        • Repetition
        • Practice reading and speaking
        • Meaningful pictures
    • Beginning of 19th Century
      • Systematic study of the grammar of classical Latin and text taken over
      • Analytical Grammar-Translation approach
    • The end of 19th Century
      • Direct Method: to use rather then to analyze a language
        • France, Germany, Europe [1880 - publications]
        • Spoken form taught first
        • Solid training in phonetic
        • Pronunciation and oral skills
      • In the early 20th century, DA crossed the Atlantic …
    • Other approaches
      • Due to limitations of language teachers
      • Reading approach (1941 in U.S.)
      • world war II
        • Audiolingual Approach (U.S.)
        • Oral Situational Approach (Britain)
    • 20th Century: 9 Approaches
      • Grammar-Translation
      • Direct
      • Reading
      • Audio-lingualism (U.S.)
      • Oral-Situational (Britain)
    • 20th Century: 9 Approaches
      • Cognitive
      • Affective-Humanistic
      • Comprehension-Based
      • Communicative
    • Homework:
      • What do we mean by:
        • Approach
        • Method
        • Technique
      • Are these terms synonymous? If not, how do they differ?
    • Grammar Translation Approach
      • Instruction given in native language
      • Almost no use of target language,
      • Grammatical parsing: forms and inflection,
      • Translate sentences,
      • Early reading of classical texts,
      • Results: Not for oral communication
    • Direct Approach
      • No use of mother tongue
      • Dialogues and anecdotes in modern onversational style
      • Actions and pictures are used
      • Grammar and target culture taught inductively
      • Literary texts used for pleasure
      • Teacher must be a native speaker or have nativelike proficiency
    • Reading Approach
      • Grammar useful for reading
      • Vocabulary is controlled, then expanded
      • Translation
      • Reading comprehension emphasized
      • Teacher - does not need to have good oral proficiency in the target language.
    • Audiolingualism [1940s, 1950s, 1960s]
      • Dialogues, mimicry, memorization
      • Sequenced grammar structures
      • Sequenced skills: listening speaking, reading, writing
      • Pronunciation stressed
      • Context and materials are carefully controlled
      • Great effort to prevent learner errors
      • Teacher must be proficient in what he’s teaching
    • Situational Approach [UK]
      • Spoken language
      • All material is practiced orally
      • Target language used
      • Grammatical structures are graded from simple to complex
      • New items are presented situationally (at the bank, at the dinner table, etc,.)
    • Cognitive Approach
      • Language learning = rule acquisition
      • Individualized instruction
      • Grammar: deductively - rule first, practice later/ inductively - stated after practice or left implicit
      • Pronunciation is de-emphasized
      • Reading, writing and vocabulary instruction are important
      • Errors are inevitable
      • Teacher has good general proficiency
    • Affective Humanistic Approach
      • Respect is emphasized
      • Instruction involves much work in pairs and small group
      • Meaningful communication
      • Learning a foreign language = Self-realization experience
      • Class atmosphere, peer support and interaction
      • Teacher = counselor or facilitator. He has to be proficient in both language [target and students’]
    • Comprehension based Approach
      • Due to research in first language acquisition
      • Listening comprehension - basic skill
      • Exposed to meaningful input/ respond non-verbally
      • Learners should not speak until they feel ready
      • Rule learning may help monitor what they do
      • Error correction is not necessary
      • Authentic materials: audio and video tapes
      • Teacher is near-native
    • Communicative Approach
      • Language = system for communication
      • Goal: Communicate in target language
      • Content: semantic notions and social functions, not just linguistic structures
      • Group or pair works
      • Role play and drama
      • Authentic real-life material
      • Integrated skills from the beginning
      • Teacher’s role: facilitate communication [1]/ correct mistakes [2]. Be able to use target language fluently and appropriately.
    • Reference
      • Celce-Murcia, M. 1991. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Second Edition. Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.