To study of major factor behind drain into moreattractive temporary jobs from permanent job.To study temporary employee’s satisfaction level.
Permanent job used to be consider as a lottery.People used to do hard work to be permanentin company , to get security for their future.Parents used to look for a government jobemployee or a private permanent employee tomarry their daughter.
The development suggests that for the firsttime, Indian workforce is putting opportunityahead of security .The carrots –better careerprofile ,money and organisation brand. A shift such as this can give the employeeexposure to new growth areas ,experience ofworking on cutting edge technology and anopportunity to get as a permanent employeeeventually.
Temporary ReliefGrowing Dash OfNumbers Youth No Insecurities
• Indians putting ahead for job security for Temporary better career profile ,money &organisation Relief brand. • Younger employees have a higher risk appetite Dash Of Youth in terms of job movement. • Temporary staffing in the industry in IndiaGrowing Numbers less than 15 years old , but has more than 600,000 on its role J Jobs security seems to be a minsomer too as no employee No Insecurities ,whether on temporary or permanent assignment ,can be indiscriminately fired from the job.
Indians are not going for temporary relief of permanent job.They consider permanent relief by building their CV ,theyconsider permanent relief by making their profile hypnotic. They consider themselves in permanent relief by getting aexperience by diversity.Upneja,26,is a financial analyst at Microsofts corporate officein Gurgaon. Four months ago, she quit her permanent job at amanufacturing company to move into this temp job that is abetter opportunity in terms of career profile, money andbrand.Upneja says she has three years of experience andperhaps it will take her another three years to reach somekind of a leadership role. It hardly matters to me whether it isa temp or permanent job. My objective is two-fold a goodprofile and building my CV
A permanent job holds the promise of security, but employeesare rising above that as they now believe they haveemployment security. They are confident that after an exitthey can get the next job easily. Young employees have ahigher risk appetite in terms of job movement. What exactlydo employees lose when they leave permanent jobs Nothingmuch. The difference is that in a permanent job you areengaged in an activity that is continuous in nature. The dues atemp and a permanent employee are eligible for are the samebe it minimum wages or coverage under social security.
Growing NumbersSays E Balaji, MD and CEO of Mafoi Randstad a staffing and search firm"This is a also reflection of the temporary industry maturing. About 12-13 years ago ,no one would want to work in a temporary role. Theypreferred to be without a job.”temporary workers are a diverse group who work in a wide range ofoccupations and sectorsTemporary employment has grown in a number of OECD countriesduring the past two decades and this growth has raised concerns thattemporary jobs may be crowding out more stable forms of employment,becoming an additional source of insecurity for workers and increasinglabour market dualism between workers finding stable career jobs andthose failing to do so The temporary staffing industry in India is less than 15 years old, buthas more than 600,000 on its role currently
Job security seems to be a misnomer too.Irrespective of whether an employee is on atemporary or permanent assignment , he/shecannot indiscriminately fired from their job."One can be let to go based on the terms agreedin contract or appointment letter by providingadequate notice, "As a result ,employees aremore concerned about career progression andacquiring relevant experience on their CVs thanhankering after job security.
Hypotheses• H1: Temporary workers are more likely to have psychological contracts with mutual low obligations, or with employee over obligation, than permanent workers, whereas they are less likely to have psychological contracts with mutual high obligations, or with employee under obligation.• H2: Employees perceiving mutual high obligations report higher organizational commitment (H2a), job satisfaction (H2b), and life satisfaction (H2c) than employees perceiving mutual low obligations, employee over obligation, or employee under obligation.• H3: Employees perceiving mutual high obligations report less psychological contract violation than employees perceiving mutual low obligations or employees perceiving imbalanced psychological contracts (employee over obligation and employee under obligation).
H1: Differences betweenemployees on temporary vs. permanent contract
H2/H3: PC-Typology and outcomes (ANCOVA) Commitment Job satisfaction Life Satisfaction Violation 18
Duration oftemporary jobs and contracts Human capital accumulation and training
Duration of temporary Human capital jobs and contracts accumulation and training• shorter jobs will imply • Training is costly to greater insecurity provide and firms whenever searching for training workers who will a new job involves some soon leave the firm risk. cannot expect to capture• employment conditions most of the benefits may differ quite from that training. considerably for temporary jobs of different durations
Relative job satisfaction of temporary workers, 1997Ratio of average satisfaction levels of temporary to permanent workers(a value above 100 corresponds to greater job satisfaction for temporary workers)Country Overall Satisfaction with Satisfaction with Satisfaction with satisfaction pay job security working conditionsAustria 96.3 94.9 84.5 99.2Belgium 100.6 96 74.6 105.1Denmark 98.5 92 72.6 96.3Finland 101.1 92.4 66.3 101.9France 95.5 92.8 61.3 102.3Germanye 95.1 97.3 82.7 99Greece 76.7 78.9 57.1 80.7Ireland 94.4 90.6 64.9 101.4Italy 84.2 84.9 62.1 93.8Luxembourg 94.8 96.3 77.9 105.1Portugal 91.3 92.6 71.5 98.6Spain 90.6 89.9 63.6 96.2Netherlands 98.9 94.7 73.5 107.1United Kingdom 95.9 89.2 74.3 ---ECHP AVG 93.9 91.6 70.5 99. Da ta not a va i l a bl e .a ) Da ta re fe r to the va ri a bl e PK001: s a ti s fa cti on wi th work or ma i n a cti vi ty.b) Da ta re fe r to the va ri a bl e PE031: “How s a ti s fi e d a re you wi th your pre s e nt job i n te rms of e a rni ngs ?”c) Da ta re fe r to the va ri a bl e PE032: “How s a ti s fi e d a re you wi th your pre s e nt job i n te rms of job s e curi ty?”d) Da ta re fe r to the va ri a bl e PE036: “How s a ti s fi e d a re you wi th your pre s e nt job i n te rms of worki ngcondi ti ons "?e ) Da ta re fe r to 1996.f) Unwe i ghte d a ve ra ge of countri e s s hown.Source : Se cre ta ri a t ca l cul a ti ons us i ng da ta from the Europe a n Communi ty Hous e hol d Pa ne l , wa ve 4.
• Temporary jobs may involve less commitment to the employer and, hence, better opportunities to combine work with other activities (e.g. education and care giving). Other individuals may value temporary jobs as a means of entering the labour market, securing an immediate source of income while gaining work experience that can help them to move up the job ladder. Similarly, by acting as a buffer, temporary jobs may allow employers to adjust their operations more effectively to changes in competitive conditions, including business-cycle fluctuations in demand.• Employers may also use temporary jobs as a least-cost way of screening potential candidates for permanent jobs in their firms.• Employers are looking for better profile rather than for a permanent job.
AcknowledgementsI sincerely thank all the Faculty at CMS , Jamia MilliaIslamia for providing us an opportunity to gain anenriching experience through the valuable concept ofPresentation. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. P.K.Gupta for his constant guidance and supportthroughout the period of my study.I also thank all the faculty members and my seniors forproviding continuous encouragement and usefulsuggestions throughout the study.
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