The English language will be defined into treecategories:1) The origins and history of English.2) Comparison between, Modern English to Old English and other languages.3) Reasons for language change, (internal and external ).
1.The origins and history of English.
CeltsThe Celtic language were spokenall over Europe, and there weremany tribes.One of this tribes may have beengiven a name such as «painted»from which the names Britain andBritish.In Britain, this language survive in: Wales Scotland Ireland.(But they are not consider English, because ofits influence). .Later they and their languagedisplaced and dissapeared.
The Roman empire ruled until 476, and because of the political power , Latin was spoken in parts of Britain and the European continent. Celtic Germanic.Words like: wall, kitchen, wine, were borrowedfrom Latin into Germanic.The Latin influence continues throughmedieval and renaissance times.
When does Englishbecome official? The arrival of the Germanic tribes into the British Isles in 449 .
The word English derived from one of thetribes:The germanic dialect is now a languagespoken by Over a billion people in manyparts of the world.
The English language even though it is aGermanic language, it has adopted theinfluence of other language from:a) Latinb) French.It is estimated that half of the vocabulary ofEnglish comes from this two dialects. Frenchand Latin loanwords are also used in English toadd formality to language.The most frequent words: The, a(n), did, it andof are native, also the plural –s and thirdperson singular –s.
The English language is theresult of loanwords, as thecollection of words thatwere selected to appear inthe dictionary.The Oxford Dictionary is thebest resource on the Englishlanguage and its history.Nowdays many librarieshave access to the OEDonline.However, we still need rulesto put the words togetherinto sentences, words,sounds, meaning and theappropiate use.
2.Modern English compare to Old English.The English language will be examined throughthree differents levels: Sound Word Sentence
Differences:Sound: Pronunciation «Sc» and - Modern English has 13 «g». Or 14 different vowels. - English has 25 consonants.Word: Lack of grammatical The most unusual English words, such as of, consonant is the one spelled the and we. As «th».Sentence: The sentences contains English syllable structure is five words. complex, there are cluster, like «Strikes», in which they become adapted across world’s language. The most common syllable pattern is CV even in English.
To indicate Who does What to Whom (where , when, how and why that occur).*Language differ in how they mark thesefunctions: - by endings (verbs ,nouns etc). - Word order and grammatical words.
The major change :Old English: It has a number ofendings, they are mainly on thenouns.The Endings express what wordorder and prepositions do inModern English.A change from: Synthetic to Analytic.
3.External and Internal change. External : Political Geography Social changes. Internal: Linguistics changes.
Internal Changes:Internal change occur when :• Speakers stop using inflections• Also occur when the category of a word is reanalyzed.However, there are factors thatinhibit internal change, namelyPrescriptive rules.These rules are explicity taughtin school, for example, the useof the proper case endings,and the third person –s arereinforced in schools.
External changes:• Incorporation of new words into English, like French words, (hot-dog, e-mail, computer).This lead to changes in theactual grammar or soundsystem .• Also external changes have certain expression s that become markers of identity.
A bit of HistoryDuring the history of In the last 2000 years. Thethe English language English language suffered the influencesthere are also from Latin and the Celticevidence of external language, throughchanges. Roman civilizations. They provided many geographical names: Kent – Avon – Dover and Loch.
Later on.. Germanic Invasion.(6th Scandinavian century). (8th and 10th centuries).The conversion to Scandinavian may be the mostChristianity introduced important of the external influences on English grammarLatin words . and vocabulary. A. The dissapearance of Old English caused influence on the grammar. B. Scandinavian words become «everyday» words.
FinallyIn 1066 during the Battle of Hastings, William ofNormandy arrived and defeated Harold.As a conclusion, French became the language ofthe nobility and the court and much newvocabulary was introduced.a) Politicalb) Cultural.