Metadata standards


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Group 2's presentation on Metadata Standards for LIS 688

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Metadata standards

  1. 1. Metadata StandardsA Literature Review<br />May 1, 2011<br />Sonia Archer-Capuzzo<br />Melissa Kammerer<br />Leatha Miles-Edmonson<br />
  2. 2. Metadata Standards<br />An overview<br />
  3. 3. What is a metadata standard?<br />A metadata standard is a “named metadata element set and/or schema that has been approved by a national or international standard body, a community, or a professional association” (Zeng & Qin, 2008, 322). <br />Metadata standards provide a way to organize information, make it available for access, and share it with users and other electronic information repositories.<br />
  4. 4. Sources providing basic information on metadata in general<br />National Information Standards Organization (NISO). (2004). Understanding metadata. Bethesda, MD: NISO Press. Retrieved from <br /> Describes what metadata is, why it is necessary, what it does<br /> Describes what standards are, and provides explanations of several standards, including Encoded Archival Description (EAD)<br />
  5. 5. Sources providing basic information on metadata in general<br />Ahronheim, J.R. (September, 1998). Descriptive metadata: Emerging standards. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 24 (5), 395. Retrieved from EBSCOHost, University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG). <br />As with NISO:<br /> Describes what metadata is, why it is necessary, what it does<br /> Describes what standards are, and provides explanations of several standards, including Encoded Archival Description (EAD)<br />
  6. 6. Sources providing basic information on metadata in general<br />Hillmann, D.I., Marker, R., & Brady, C. (May, 2008). Metadata standards and applications. Serials Librarian, 54 (1), 7-21. Retrieved from EBSCOHost, UNCG.<br /> Most recent of the publications thus far. <br /> Breaks standards into five descriptive categories:<br />Descriptive metadata- title, author, subject, etc.<br />Administrative metadata- who created the metadata, when created, etc.<br />Access/use metadata- rights & restrictions for use of information<br />Preservation metadata- ensures access over time<br />Structural- relates digital files to one another<br />
  7. 7. Sources providing information specific to metadata standards<br />Metadata standards. (September/October, 2002). Library Technology Reports, 38 (5), 19. Retrieved from EBSCOHost, UNCG.<br /> Sets forth 6 areas of standard description:<br />General metadata- title, author, etc.- like Hillmann et al.’s, descriptive metadata<br />Transportation models- for interoperability, transfer, and transportation of information among standards<br />Education metadata- assist educators, educational vendors, and learners in manipulating and using electronic tools<br />Media-specific metadata- addresses issues unique to specific media<br />Preservation metadata- manage and preserve digital materials- like Hillmann et al.’s preservation metadata<br />Rights metadata- deal with copyright issues in the digital arena- like Hillmann et al.’s access/use metadata<br />
  8. 8. Sources providing information specific to metadata standards<br />Gilliand, A.J. (2008). Setting the stage. Introduction to metadata: Online edition, version 3.0. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust. Retrieved from<br /> Sets forth a set of 4 categories of metadata standards<br />Data structure standards- the categories of data that make up a record, organized with element sets, schemas<br />Data value standards- “terms, names, and other values that are used to populate data structure standards or metadata element sets,” provided by controlled vocabularies, controlled lists, etc. <br />Data content standards- “guidelines for the format and syntax of the data values used to populate metadata elements,” like cataloging rules and codes<br />Data format/technical interchange standards- machine-readable versions of data structure standards<br />
  9. 9. Sources providing information specific to metadata standards<br />Elings, M.W. & Waibel, G. (2007). Metadata for all: Descriptive standards and metadata sharing across libraries, archives and museums. First Monday, 12 (3). Retrieved from <br /> Explains metadata standards using the metaphor of a case of bottles<br /> Data fields and structures- elements, “organized into a record by a data structure.” Metaphor: bottles waiting to be filled.<br />Data content and data values- rules for filling in data, like controlled vocabularies. Metaphor: they determine what goes into each bottle.<br />Data format- “the particular encoding of information contained within a file.” Metaphor: the crate in which the bottle are stored and shipped.<br />Data exchange- “the particular protocol used to share a collection of records.” Metaphor: a person delivering the crate of bottles.<br />
  10. 10. Encoded Archival Description (EAD)<br />A specific application of a metadata standard<br />
  11. 11. Basics of Encoded Archival Description(EAD)<br />EAD is a metadata standard designed to meet the specific needs of the archival community.<br />It is an XML based Document Type Definition.<br />It is a hierarchical standard comprised of nested elements.<br />It provides an electronic equivalent to archival finding aids (Metadata Standards, 2002, p 22)<br />
  12. 12. Benefits of EAD <br />It removes the need for paper supplements to electronic catalog entries by allowing multi-level descriptions.<br />It is closely related to MARC, and can easily be cross-walked to most other major metadata standards.<br />It has helped create a standard for archival descriptions which has improved sharing of resources and data between archives.<br />
  13. 13. Sources Providing Information on EAD <br />Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress. “Encoded Archival Description Version 2002 Official Site.” Library of Congress. Retrieved from<br />This office maintains the EAD standard along with the Society of American Archivists.<br />Current source of information on the EAD standard <br />Access to the EAD Tag Library and a list of conversion tools to help with the encoding of finding aids<br />
  14. 14. Sources Providing Information on EAD <br />Thurman, A.C. (2005). Metadata standards for archival control: An introduction to EAD and EAC. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 40 (3), 183-212. Retrieved from EBSCOHost, UNCG.<br /><ul><li>Provides a history of the development of EAD as well the metadata needs of the archival community.
  15. 15. Gives a detailed hierarchy and description of the EAD elements and sub-elements and suggestions for their use.</li></li></ul><li>Sources Providing Information on EAD <br />Smith, I. L. (2008). Preparing Locally Encoded Electronic Finding Aid Inventories for Union Environments: A Publishing Model for Encoded Archival Description. Information Technology & Libraries, 27(2), 26-30. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.<br />A detailed account of the process of creating finding aids in EAD and converting existing finding aids<br />Focuses on Florida State University’s archives<br />Describes their publishing model for EAD finding aids<br />
  16. 16. Sources Providing Information on EAD <br />Sweet, M. (2001). The internationalisation of EAD (Encoded Archival Description). Journal of the Society of Archivists, 22 (1), 33-38. doi:10.1080/00379810120037487<br />Details the rapid increase in the use of EAD among the international community.<br />Describes the benefits of EAD including providing a low-cost option for smaller institutions and enabling sharing of information and data between institutions in different countries.<br />Explains specific challenges in the implementation of EAD including:<br />Difficulties in translating EAD into other languages<br />Problems combining EAD with the series centered description method common in Australian archives<br />Issues of compatibility with national standards and customization of the DTD<br />
  17. 17. Information on Cross-walking EAD<br />Crosswalking EAD: Collaboration in archival description. (2005). Information Technology & Libraries, 24 (3), 99-106. Retrieved from EBSCOHost, UNCG<br /><ul><li>A good resource for those looking to cross-walking to or from the EAD standards, especially when combing information in more than one archive or collection.
  18. 18. Discusses the process of cross-walking finding aids between metadata standards and the collaboration necessary to implement EAD</li></li></ul><li>Upcoming Changes to the EAD Standard<br />EAD is currently in the process of being updated by the Technical Subcommittee on EAD of the Society of American Archivists.<br />This is the planned timeline for revisions to the EAD Standard<br />October 2010: Call for comments<br />February 28, 2011: Deadline for comments<br />August 2011: Discussion forum at SAA Annual Meeting<br />Spring 2012: Working meeting of TS-EAD (subject to funding)<br />December 2012: Release of draft schema for testing and comment<br />August 2013: Publish revised version (Technical Subcommittee on EAD, 2011)<br />Current information on the revision process can be found by visit the Technical Subcommittee on EAD’s page on the Society for American Archivists’ website.<br />